Solid-propellant rocket engine turbopump unit

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in rocketry, turbopump units of liquid-propellant and nuclear rocket engines. Turbopump unit comprises pump 1, turbine 2 running in bearings 4 and 5, shaft 3 supporting turbine 2 wheel 6 and impeller 7, case 8, separation chamber 9 with shaft 3 seals 10 and 11, chamber 12 arranged downstream of seal 11 between separation chamber 9 and pump 1, and chamber 13 downstream of impeller 7. Seals 10 and 11 separated turbine 2 chamber from pump 1 chamber. Separation chamber 9 is connected with high-pressure chamber 13 via channel 14. Chamber 12 behind seal 11, between separation chamber 9 and pump 1, is integrated with chamber 13 downstream of impeller 7.

EFFECT: higher reliability of engine starting owing to improved cavitation properties of the pump.

6 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the region of shoulder machines, and can be used in the field of rocketry, turbopump units (TNA) liquid propellant rocket engines (LPRE) and nuclear rocket engines (YARD).

When creating TNA LPRE one of the key moments of creation of the unit is providing its launch, especially for engines operating at cryogenic liquids (propellant). To launch frequently used pre-cooling down design, which leads to loss of cryogenic propellants. This method provides reliable starting, but has some disadvantages, the main of which are: significant loss of cryogenic liquids, which cannot be compensated from an external source, for example when starting the second or third stage of the rocket or booster; complication scheme LRE and the increase of its mass due to the need for special support system tahaliyani; the complexity of the design TNA because of the need to introduce in its composition side seals; the more complicated procedure of preparation of the engine for starting. When running without the prior tahaliyani cryogenic liquid directly in contact with warm (not cooled to the temperature of the cryogenic component) design the Oia is gasified (boil and pass into the vapor state) in the flow part, which leads to cavitation breakdown of the pump by ingestion of a significant amount of gasified fluid in the inlet part of the impeller. In addition, it is possible jamming of the bearing due to the differential speed tahaliyani the inner and outer rings and rolling elements.

Known design turbopump Assembly consisting of a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals separating the cavity of the turbine from the pump cavity, the cavity behind the impeller, the cavity behind the seal, located on the side of the pump, through which the discharge aperture is connected with the input cavity of the impeller (Dmitrenko A.I. Development design turbopump assemblies rocket engine developed in kbkha // Scientific-technical jubilee collection. KB of Federal - IAP. Voronezh, 2001. - S-314 - prototype).

This design turbopump Assembly is typical for TNA rocket engine with afterburning. The disadvantage of this design is the presence of high leakage hot working fluid in the inlet part of the impeller of the pump when you run that leads to thermal cavitation breakdown on the run, affects the anticavitation quality pump will reduce the total efficiency of the turbopump Assembly.

The present and the acquisition is aimed at improving the reliability of the launch of TNA LRE, working on cryogenic components, efficiency turbopump Assembly and improving anticavitation characteristics of the pump.

The technical effect is achieved by the turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals separating the cavity of the turbine from the pump cavity, the cavity behind the seal, located between the separation cavity and the pump cavity for an impeller according to the invention the separation cavity is connected with the cavity of the high pressure channel and the cavity behind the seal, located between the separation cavity and the pump is combined with the cavity behind the impeller. Dividing the cavity may be connected with the cavity of the high pressure channel and the external supply line. A bearing located between the pump and turbine can be installed in the separation cavity. While the diameters of the seals located between the separation cavity and the pump, between the separation cavity and the turbine may be different.

In another embodiment, a technical effect is achieved by the turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted n the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, the housing and the seal that separates the cavity of the turbine from the pump cavity, the cavity before sealing the cavity behind the impeller according to the invention the cavity before sealing the joint with a cavity behind the impeller. A bearing located between the pump and turbine can be installed in the cavity before sealing.

The use of the invention provides improved reliability of the launch of the rocket engine by improving the cavitation characteristics of the pump, due to the reduction of "hot" leaks of cryogenic fluid in the inlet part of the impeller in the event of a launch without prior tahaliyani design. Improved working conditions of the bearing due to the fact that the working fluid of high pressure is intense displacement gas (boiling) liquid from the bearing cavity in the cavity of the turbine and the pump, the temperature equalization of the outer and inner rings, rolling elements is faster, which minimizes the possibility of jamming of the bearing. Increase efficiency TNA is achieved by reducing leakage of the working fluid in the inlet part of the impeller of the pump as the cavity between the primary drive of the impeller and the housing is connected to the inlet part of the impeller.

The flow of the working fluid of high pressure can be carried out with the exit of the impeller of the pump, and from the output pipe n is Sosa. To minimize the impact of the turbine, especially thermal deformation caused by a temperature difference between the cavities of the pump and the turbine, the bearing can be mounted in a separate enclosure.

Turbopump Assembly LRE created using the present invention has a higher efficiency and reliability by eliminating leakage of the working fluid with high temperature in the inlet part of the impeller at startup, improve working conditions of the bearing. In addition to the turbopump units LRE invention can be used in the units of General purpose operating at cryogenic components.

Figure 1 shows a General view, figure 2, 3, 4 - ways offer turbopump unit with 1 pump; 2 - turbine; 3 - shaft; 4, 5 - bearings; 6 - turbine wheel; 7 - impeller; 8 - body; 9 - separation cavity; 10 - seal, located between the separation cavity and the turbine; 11 - seal, located between the separation cavity and the pump; 12 - cavity behind the seal from the pump; 13 - cavity behind the impeller; 14 - channel for supplying the working fluid of high pressure because the impeller; 15 - channel for supplying the working fluid to the high pressure line between the pump; 16 - the bearing housing; 17 - input cavity of the impeller; 18 - seal between the turbine and the pump; 19 - cavity before uplo the discharge side of the pump.

Turbopump Assembly (figure 1) consists of a pump 1, a turbine 2, the shaft 3. The shaft is mounted on bearings 4, 5. Shaft mounted turbine wheel 6 and the impeller 7. The cavity of the turbine is separated from the pump separation chamber 9 with seals 10 and 11. Channel 14 dividing the cavity is connected to the cavity exit of the impeller. The bearing may be connected to the line output of the pump 15 (figure 2). The cavity behind the seal from the pump 12 is combined with the cavity behind the impeller 13, to exclude the ingress of leakage from a seal in the input cavity of the impeller 17. In the variant shown in figure 3, one of the bearings is located in the separation cavity. In addition, the bearing located near the turbine can be installed in a separate enclosure, eliminating or minimizing the effect of high temperature turbines on the operation of the bearing.

In another embodiment, a turbopump Assembly (figure 4) consists of a pump 1, a turbine 2, the shaft 3. The shaft is mounted on bearings 4, 5. Shaft mounted turbine wheel 6 and the impeller 7. The cavity of the turbine is separated from the pump seal 18. The cavity before the seal 19 is combined with the cavity behind the impeller 13, to exclude the ingress of leakage from a seal in the input cavity of the impeller 17.

One of the bearings can be located in the cavity before sealing the eat 18. In addition, the bearing located near the turbine can be installed in a separate housing 16, eliminating or minimizing the effect of high temperature turbines on the operation of the bearing.

In the beginning of a turbopump Assembly made according to Fig.1-4, cryogenic working fluid enters the flow of the pump and partially gasified. The working fluid of high pressure is supplied to the bearing, excluding gas components, which through the seal received in the cavity of the turbine and the pump, and the gasified liquid is received in the cavity of the pump, misses in the inlet part of the impeller, that is, does not impair its cavitation characteristics. In case of "hot" leaks of the working fluid in the inlet part of the impeller their stream having a higher temperature getting into the main cooler flow, not enough time with him to mix, resulting in increased local temperature of the working fluid, which causes a local increase in the temperature of the saturated vapor and the early beginnings of the cavitation cavity. As in the proposed turbopump Assembly excluded from entering leaks with a high temperature in the inlet part of the impeller, the suction characteristics of the pump will improve, leading to greater overall efficiency turbopump is gregate.

1. Turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals separating the cavity of the turbine from the pump cavity, the cavity behind the seal, located between the separation cavity and the pump cavity behind the impeller, characterized in that the separation cavity is connected with the cavity of the high pressure channel and the cavity behind the seal, located between the separation cavity and the pump is combined with the cavity behind the impeller.

2. Turbopump Assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that the separation cavity is connected with the cavity of the high pressure channel and the external supply line.

3. Turbopump Assembly according to claim 1, characterized in that the separation cavity is bearing.

4. Turbopump Assembly according to claim 2, characterized in that the separation cavity is bearing.

5. Turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, the housing and the seal that separates the cavity of the turbine from the pump cavity, the cavity before sealing the cavity behind the impeller, characterized in that the cavity before sealing the joint with a cavity for crylic is rigid.

6. Turbopump Assembly according to claim 5, characterized in that in the cavity before the seal is bearing.



 

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