Method of applying electroinsulating coating on metal base

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to obtaining electroinsulating varnishes for covering metal bases, for instance, copper wires, starter slots and electric motor armatures, conductors of printed circuit boards, etc. Method of application of electroinsulating coating on metal substrate includes preparation of electrophoretic composition based on varnish PE-939 of grade B, for which purpose it is mixed with 1% ammonia solution, ethylcellosolve and dioxane, after which into prepared electrophoretic solution submerged are two electrodes at distance 10-30 mm, one of which is electrode-product and the other is auxiliary electrode; positive potential relative to second auxiliary electrode is supplied to said electrode-product, and dense homogeneous electrophoretic sediment of film-forming is electrically precipitated on product at current density 2-10 mA/cm2 for 10-20 s, after that, electrode-product is removed from varnish, placed into heat chamber, 50-60 Torr vacuum and temperature 30-40°C are created in heat chamber, and electrode-product is kept at said temperature for 20-40 s, after that said electrode-product is removed from heat chamber and placed into oven, inside which temperature 350-450°C is created, and electrode-product is kept in oven for 60-90 s, after which electrode-product is removed from oven.

EFFECT: method provides increase of quality and exploitation reliability of insulating coating: specific volume resistance, resistance to chemical reagents, elasticity, electric and mechanical strength.

 

The invention relates to polymer chemistry, in particular the production of heat-resistant insulating varnishes for coating metal substrates, such as copper wires, steel plates, anchors and stators of electric motors, conductors in printed circuit boards, etc.

A known method of applying insulation coating of lacquer on a metal basis by immersion, after which it mechanically aligned with the surface of the metallic base and the product is coated with a lacquer film is moved into the furnace [1].

The disadvantage of applying immersion is that it is applicable only for low-viscosity oil varnishes, which have a high content of film-forming and significantly changing the viscosity in the process of enameling.

The closest technical solution to the claimed is a method that consists of repeated application of the metal based film-forming substance, the alignment film varnish on the surface of the metal substrate mechanical devices after each subsequent deposited layer on the metal base, after each deposited on a metal base layer of lacquer to the metal base coated with a film-forming substance warm for his termsapache, and heat to the metal base down in the Alceste, sufficient for gelatinization of film-forming substances [2].

The disadvantage of the prototype method is that the film time analizowanie on metal base is applied in layers, and each layer level on the substrate surface by mechanical devices. After each application and leveling film her utverjdayut by exposure to thermal energy. This leads to unnecessarily high complexity and high costs of energy.

The objective of the invention is the reduction of the shortcomings associated with the reduction of energy consumption, simplify the process of application time analizowanie on metal base, improve the quality and reliability of insulation on a metal basis by a new method of its application to metal framework and new modes of treatment.

To solve the problem in the method of applying insulating coating on a metal substrate, consisting in the application of the metal based film-forming polymer and polymerization followed by heat treatment pre-prepare electrophoretic composition based varnish PE-939 brand B, for which purpose it is mixed with 1% ammonia, ethyl cellosolve and dioxane in the following respects components electrophoretic composition (ml/l):

varnish PE-939 marks B - (510÷255),

1% ammonia (1% NH4OH) - (130÷190),

the ethyl cellosolve - C4H10O2- (120÷175)

dioxane (C4H8O2) - the rest,

then in the prepared electrophoretic composition is immersed two electrodes at a distance of 10-30 mm, one of which is the electrode-product, and the other auxiliary electrode serves on the aforementioned electrode-product positive potential relative to the second auxiliary electrode and at current density of 2-10 mA/cm2within 10-20 s, electrocardiac product tight uniform electrophoretic film-forming residue, then the electrode-product is recovered from lacquer, placed in a heat chamber, creating in a heating Cabinet discharge 40-50 Torr and a temperature of 30-40°C, soak the electrode-product at this temperature 20-40 sec, then remove the above-mentioned electrode-product from the heating Cabinet and put it in the oven, inside which creates a temperature of 350-450°C and withstand the electrode-product within 60-90 s, after which the electrode-product is recovered from the furnace.

The invention consists in the following. Lac PE-939 is a solution of polyester resin, obtained by transesterification of poly (ethylene terephthalate) in a mixture of organic solvents [3], in the initial state, the electrophoretic properties does not have and it is applied on a metal podlog is in layers, with the subsequent alignment of each layer mechanical devices and heat treatment of each layer, which complicates the process and leads to high energy and labor costs.

Us to eliminate the drawbacks and the prototype method is proposed to use electrophoretic deposition of insulating films on a metal base, with a subsequent heat treatment of this film.

Electrodeposition as a method of obtaining coatings found industrial application around mid 60-ies. The rapid spread of this method is associated with a number of advantages, of which the most significant are:

a) high uniformity of coating thickness and its relative independence from the configuration and dimensions of the product;

b) higher corrosion resistance of the deposited films compared to films obtained in the traditional way;

C) high efficiency at high enough performance;

E. regulation of film thickness by changing the current density or potential;

e) the speed of growth of coatings;

g) the ability to process automation and holding it under normal conditions (room temperature and normal pressure).

Electrochemical polymeric coating is one of the lines present the time development of paint technology.

The practical application of electrochemical polymeric coatings is hindered by insufficient knowledge of the processes of formation of a film on a substrate.

The method of applying the insulating coating on a metal basis is the following. In a bath with an electrophoretic composition is immersed product that connects one pole of the DC source. Under the action of a constant electric field in a medium with a high dielectric constant is the transport of ions or ionized micelles of the foaming agent in the direction of the applied field (to the product). The deposition film-forming material begins to sharp edges and protrusions of the product, the charge density on which the most high. With increasing deposited layer is a redistribution of the field lines, and a film of uniform thickness covers all the product.

The output of the sludge depends on the duration of deposition and the amount of absorbed electricity and limited electric resistance of the resulting layer. By increasing the thickness of the coating it first increases linearly from the time of deposition, and then, upon reaching a certain critical film thickness, depending on the properties of the composition, there is a reduction of the current density and the decrease in the rate of deposition. The poet is the electrodeposition can be seen as a self-regulating process with the values of the thickness and continuity of the coating.

Polyion in the film-forming composition must carry a charge opposite in sign to the charge of the product. In accordance with this there are the electro-deposition on the anode or anodic deposition (anaphoras), and electrodeposition at the cathode, or cathode deposition (elpo).

The main advantage of electrophoretic deposition film-forming, compared with the traditional methods is the ability to overlay a uniform insulation of required thickness per cycle, including the sharp corners of products, since the thickness of the applied coating is easily regulated by changing applied to the electrodes of the voltage and time of deposition.

The main characteristics of electrophoretic systems are: scattering power, nominal output current, conductivity.

Under the scattering ability to understand the property of paint material to penetrate into hard to reach areas of the products and to form a uniform coating thickness. Scattering power depends on the mode of deposition and the composition of the material (film-forming, solvent, electrolyte, and others).

Conditional output current indicates the number of paint material is deposited on the surface of the product when applying a certain amount of electricity. This indicator is important for estimating energy consumption.

At the preliminary conductivity - value that indicates the ability of a paint and varnish material to conduct an electric current. It depends on the nature of film-forming, pH (acidity) and the temperature of the composition. Because the unified theory of electrophoresis is not, then the search for compounds with electrophoretic properties, and the development of modes of electrophoresis is carried out experimentally.

For the insulation of the wires of the electric motors insulation, corresponding to the class F (155°C) or class H (180°C), use the most common in the domestic cable industry varnish insulating PE-939 THAT 16-504.026-74 [3].

In the initial state lacquer PE-939 has no electrophoretic properties and it is applied to the surface of the moving wire successive layers, passing a wire through the site enameling and calibers, the corresponding diameter. Each layer is applied enamel film is subjected to heat, in which the film utverjdayut.

Lac PE-939 produce three grades of a, B and C, which differ in viscosity, which is determined by the amount of film-forming in it. The most viscous is lacquer PE-939 mark C.

Identification of optimal component ratio of the electrophoretic composition was carried out experimentally, using theory of experiment planning. It was found, is the process of electrodeposition time analizowanie can be implemented when the following relations components electrophoretic composition (ml/l):

Lac PE-939 marks - (510÷255),

1% ammonia (1% NH4OH) - (130÷190),

the ethyl cellosolve - C4H10About2- (120÷175)

dioxane (C4H8About2) - else.

Electrophoretic deposition film-forming occurs when all of these components. The output concentrations of the components of the electrophoretic composition for these ranges leads to a decrease of quality indicators time analizowanie (uniformity of film, electrical and mechanical strength, and others).

At the specified mixing ratio of the electrophoretic composition of the magnitude of the resulting thickness of the electrophoretic film depends on the current density electrophoresis and time of the deposition. It was found that high-quality films are obtained in the range of current density of 2 mA/cm2up to 10 mA/cm2. When the current density with a value of less than 2 mA/cm2the film becomes loose, and as analizowanie deteriorating. The increase in the current densities of 10 mA/cm2leads to increased dissolution of the material of the wire, to defect formation in the deposited film, which also degrades the quality of the insulating coating.

The timing of deposition of the film-forming depends on the current density and the desired film thickness. Consider the process of applying the enamel is solely in more detail.

The prepared composition is electrophoretic properties and can be applied on metal base method anafarta. For the realization of coating a metal base film specified varnish by electrodeposition immersed in the above composition of two electrodes, one of which is covered by the product, and another helper. The distance between the electrodes are set in the range of 10-30 mm Serves on the aforementioned electrode-product positive potential relative to the second auxiliary grounded electrode and at current density of 2-10 mA/cm2within 10-20 s, electrocardiac on the electrode-product tight uniform sludge electrophoretic film-forming substance.

The range of 10-20 times with deposition due to the most common in practice, the thickness of the insulating coating on the metal substrate, which ranges from 10 to 50 μm. The time required to obtain the coating thickness lying in the specified range must be within the range of 10-20 C. Specified by us in the present method, the range covers the most common thickness of insulating coatings on metal substrates, although it should be noted that the insulating film obtained by using the proposed method can be varied from 1 μm to 150 μm, which, naturally the military, is determined by the current density and time of deposition.

The choice of distance between the electrodes 10-30 mm due to the following circumstances. The quality of the insulating coating on a metal basis depends on a number of factors, one of which is dispersive electrophoretic composition, which is also connected with the interelectrode distance. At distances less than 10 mm scattering power decreases, which affects the uniformity of the coating. When the distance between the electrodes is more than 30 mm increases the electrical resistance of the electrophoretic composition between the electrodes, resulting in the need to increase voltage in order to get into the optimal range of current densities electrophoresis. This fact leads, in turn, to unnecessary increase in power consumption.

In order to reduce energy consumption and increase the efficiency of the method, the electrode-product after deposition is removed from the bath, placed in a heat chamber in which a vacuum of 50-60 Torr and a temperature of 30-40°C, soak the electrode-product at the specified temperature of 10-20 C. Then remove the electrode-product from the heating Cabinet and put it in the oven, inside which creates a temperature of 350-450°C, and after 60-90 with the product is recovered from the furnace. The first stage of drying the product under vacuum 50-0 Torr and a temperature of 30-40°C is needed so deposited on the metal film to remove the solvent, as if the film immediately placed in a furnace at high temperature, there will be instant boiling solvents, which will lead to numerous local discontinuities of the film, to the emergence of numerous covered and cracks.

The range of dilution in 50-60 Torr in a heating Cabinet due to the following reasons. It is known that the lower the magnitude of the dilution, the lower the boiling temperature of water and other solvents. For example, the boiling point of dioxane at normal pressure is 101°C. At a pressure of 10 Torr dioxane boils at 18°C. However, for low temperatures, boiling dioxane is required to tighten the requirements to tightness of the vacuum heating Cabinet and to the choice of a booster pump, which complicates the application of the method in practice and leads to increased cost of manufacture of the vacuum heating Cabinet. When the pressure of 50 Torr, the solvent begins to boil at a relatively low temperature is 30°C. thus there is a gradual evaporation of moisture, without education covered, bubbles and cracks in the film. Getting vacuum at 50 Torr simply is relatively cheap booster pumps and can be obtained without particularly strict requirements to ensure hermit is knosti vacuum heating Cabinet. A sufficiently low boiling point solvent at a pressure of 50 Torr, the possibility of obtaining the specified dilution cheaper booster pumps and exceptions excessive demands for tightness of the vacuum heating Cabinet indicate inappropriate use lower dilution than 50 Torr. When the pressure of 60 Torr solvents contained in the electrophoretic composition boils at a temperature of 40°C. Therefore, when creating exhaustion more than 60 Torr will need to ensure a boiling solvents in elecrodeposition film to raise the temperature of the heat, resulting in higher energy costs for heat treatment of the insulating film. After removal of the solvent from the deposited film on the electrode-the product remains dry tight uniform sediment, which you only need to bake. Therefore, after removal of the solvent from the deposited film electrode, the product is placed in an oven within which create a temperature of 350-450°C, and after 60-90 with the product is recovered from the furnace. Selects the specified temperature in the furnace due to the following reasons. At temperatures below 350°C is the lengthening of the time interval necessary to obtain high quality films. At a temperature exceeding 450°C. in the film can cause cracks and other defects that lead to red eye reduction is of its electrical and mechanical properties. In the specified temperature range 350-450°C there is an accelerated hardening deposited on the metal film of varnish, while maintaining its quality.

A specific example. Pre-prepared electrophoretic composition based varnish PE-939 marks, for which it was mixed with 1% ammonia, ethyl cellosolve and dioxane with the following proportions of the components of the electrophoretic composition (ml/l):

Lac PE-939 marks - 382,

1% ammonia (1% NH4OH) - 160,

the ethyl cellosolve - C4H10About2- 147,

dioxane (C4H8O2) - else.

The prepared composition was applied on a copper metal substrate, the method anafarta. To implement the specified method of applying a dielectric composition was immersed in the above composition of two copper electrodes installed at a distance of 15 mm from each other. The electrodes consisted of a copper plate, whose thickness was equal to 1 mm, width 20 mm and length of 40 mm in One of the electrodes (anode) was covered by the product, and the other electrode (cathode) was the auxiliary electrode. At the electrode-product (anode) gave a positive potential relative to the second auxiliary electrode (cathode) and at current density of 5 mA/cm2in 15 seconds, electrosurgery on the electrode-product of the pilot uniform sludge electrophoretic film-forming substance, that provided the thickness of the insulating coating 40 microns.

Electrode-product after deposition was removed from the electrophoretic composition and put it in a heat chamber, which was created by the negative pressure of 55 Torr and a temperature of 35°C. was Passed electrode-product at the same temperature for 40 sec. After which the electrode-product was removed from the heating Cabinet and placed in a furnace within which created a temperature of 400°C and at this temperature was carried out by heat treatment of deposited films during the 80 s, then the product-electrode was removed from the furnace. To compare the proposed method with the method of the prototype on one of the copper plates, the dimensions of which were completely identical to the sizes of the above electrodes in the present method, was applied insulating coating according to the method prototype. Lac PE-933 marks were applied by dipping, after which mechanical evenly aligned on the surface of the plate. Just was applied to 8 layers. After applying each layer, the lacquer film was subjected to heat treatment within 90 C. the Final film thickness was 40 μm. Electrically insulating coating made by the method prototype, and the film obtained by the present method were subjected to tests which revealed that the film produced by the present method, had a dielectric strength of 210 kV/mm, whereas PL is NSV prepared from the varnish of the prototype in the prototype method, - a total of 85 kV/mm, The film produced by the present method, was significantly higher than other characteristics: specific volume resistance, resistance to chemical reagents, elasticity and mechanical strength.

Thus, the inventive composition and method have the following advantages over the structure of the prototype and the method of the prototype:

- the claimed composition has electrophoretic properties and its comparison with varnish prototype, can precipitate on the metal base by electrodeposition;

- prototype method allows the application of the insulation film of the desired thickness of only mechanically by repeated layer-by-layer coating, with subsequent mechanical alignment of each layer and its heat treatment, whereas the inventive method allows to obtain a uniform film of a specified thickness without the use of mechanical leveling devices in just one pass, with a minimum expenditure of heat on her heat treatment;

- the inventive method allows to obtain more high-quality film, in particular, with the same thickness of the film prepared by the present method, specified electric strength of a film more than 2 times higher than the same thickness of a film prepared according to the method prototype;

- complexity and energy consumption for applying elektroizoljatsionnyh coatings on a metal basis by the present method is several times lower than on the prototype method, so in the above example both of the above indicator in the inventive method is 8-10 times.

Additional benefits deposition before the standard ways of applying an insulating coating on a metal base, as it follows from the literature, the following:

a) high uniformity of coating thickness and its relative independence from the configuration and dimensions of the product;

b) higher corrosion resistance of the deposited films compared to films obtained in the traditional way;

C) high efficiency at high enough performance;

E. regulation of film thickness by changing the current density or potential;

e) the speed of growth of coatings;

g) the ability to process automation and holding it under normal conditions (room temperature and normal pressure).

Sources of information

1. The production of cables and wires: a Textbook for colleges / Neelov, Ramlakan, Atherina and others; Ed. by Neelova and Ibisch. - M.: Energoizdat, 1981. - S-319.

2. Peshkov I.K. Magnet wire. M: Energoizdat, 1988, p.113 (prototype).

3. The insulating varnish PE-939 THAT 16-504.026-74.

The method of applying insulating coatings on metal podlog is, consisting in the application of the metal based film-forming polymer and its subsequent polymerization by heat treatment, wherein the pre-prepared electrophoretic composition based varnish PE-939 marks, for which it is mixed with 1% ammonia, ethyl cellosolve and dioxane in the following respects components electrophoretic composition (ml/l):
Lac PE-939 marks - 510÷255,
1% NH4OH - 130÷190,
the ethyl cellosolve - 120÷175
dioxane - rest
then in the prepared electrophoretic composition is immersed two electrodes at a distance of 10-30 mm, one of which is the electrode-product, and the other auxiliary electrode serves on the aforementioned electrode-product positive potential relative to the second auxiliary electrode and at current density of 2-10 mA/cm2within 10-20 s, electrocardiac product tight uniform electrophoretic film-forming residue, then the electrode-product is recovered from lacquer, placed in a heat chamber, creating in a heating Cabinet discharge 50-60 Torr and a temperature of 30-40°C, soak the electrode-product at this temperature 20-40 sec, then remove the above-mentioned electrode-product from the heating Cabinet and put it in the oven, inside which creates a temperature of 350-450°C and withstand the electrode-product within 60-90 s, after which the electrode-isdel the e is removed from the furnace.



 

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