Liquid fuel composition

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a liquid fuel composition which includes liquid fuel and an additive in amount of 0.005-0.03 wt %, wherein the liquid fuel additive contains a metal salt of an organic acid with 15-18 carbon atoms in amount of 10-90 wt %, wherein the metal is located in the electrochemical activity series to the right of hydrogen, 1-5 wt % aromatic amine, 3-10 wt % succinimide polymer and 1-75 wt % glycerine.

EFFECT: improved antifriction, antiscoring, antioxidation and detergent properties of the fuel and protecting friction surfaces of components of the fuel equipment from wear.

8 cl, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the chemical industry, in particular for fuel connections, designed for jet, turbine, diesel, gasoline and other combustion systems. More specifically, it relates to compositions of liquid fuel containing additives that improve their properties.

Sulfur compounds cause the emission of hazardous and toxic sulfur dioxide. The reduction of sulfur content in the fuel leads to a General reduction of emissions of sulfur oxides, which cause irritation to the respiratory system and the formation of acid rain and corrosion of metals and destruction of catalytic converters. There has also been a reduction in the number of solid particles in the exhaust gases and the formation of deposits in the fuel system.

The consequence of this is the need to reduce to a minimum sulphur content in liquid fuels. While previously a typical diesel fuel contains sulfur in a quantity of 1 wt.% or more (in terms of elemental sulfur), it is now considered necessary to reduce its content to the level of 0.01 wt.%.

To meet the requirements for fuel quality, especially in sulfur content, the Hydrotreating is conducted under more severe conditions. The result is a fuel with a much lower content of sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen is connected to the th, bi - and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and these heteroatomic compounds are present in relatively stable forms due to their hydrogenolysis. All this leads to poor lubricity fuels is an important operational characteristics. The use of fuels as a lubricating material avoids the construction of additional oil system and to provide lubrication of small parts fuel injection and control equipment, where lubricating oil to use is very difficult. The intensity of wear of rubbing parts in contact with fuel is determined by the structural and operational characteristics of the fuel systems and properties of the used fuels.

The decrease of the content in the liquid fuel of one or more components, such as sulfur, polycyclic aromatic or polar substances can cause a decrease in the ability of the fuel to lubricate the injection system in the engine to such an extent that, for example, the fuel high-pressure pump can be damaged at a relatively early stage of operation of the engine. Breakage can occur in systems of injection of fuel, such as centrifugal valves high pressure, row mnogoplunzhernyh fuel pumps and injectors. The problem of poor lubrication is capable of being the particular liquid fuels will become, perhaps even more acute in future improvements of engines to further reduce emissions), which will be presented to the lubricating ability even more stringent requirements than in the operation of modern engines.

Similarly low lubricity can cause wear problems in other mechanical devices, lubrication, which depends on the natural lubricity of the liquid fuel.

There is therefore a need in the creation of advanced additives that increase lubricity fuels, without loss of performance properties.

The prior art method of increasing the lubricity of diesel fuels with low sulfur content by incorporating vegetable oils, rapeseed methyl ester and other oxygen-containing compounds of plant origin (so-CALLED. Mitasova, E.V. Polunina, M.V. Kalinin. Modern diesel fuel and additives to them, - M Publishing house “Technika”. LLC “TUMA GROUP, 2002. - 64 S.).

A common disadvantage of these methods is the inclusion in the composition of the fuel direct or processed foods.

The closest technical solution to the claimed invention is a composition of liquid fuel containing additives that improve their masiva the total capacity. This additive contains alkyl (C3-C20) nitrate, alkyl (C1-C25) succinimide, the higher copolymer of esters of C6-C28acrylic or methacrylic acid with ethyleneamines monomer, an unsaturated fatty acid selected from the group of oleic, linoleic, linolenic, or amide of this acid in the following ratio, wt.%:

Alkyl (C3-C20)nitrate55
Alkyl (C1-C25)succinimideof 0.1 to 15.0
The copolymer of the higher esters of C6-C28acrylic or
methacrylic acid with ethyleneamines monomer60
Unsaturated fatty acid or its amide100

The composition of the liquid fuel contains the above-mentioned additive in an amount of 0.01 to 1.0 wt.% (see RF Patent №2320706, publ. 27.03.2008).

A disadvantage of the known compositions is that it does not provide the required lubricating properties and helps to improve the environment of the air basin, reducing the content in the air of harmful emissions including from work and the car transport on diesel engines.

The present invention is to eliminate the above disadvantages.

The technical result is to increase anti-friction, anti-wear, antioxidant and cleansing properties of the fuel and protecting the surfaces of the friction parts of fuel equipment from wear and tear.

The technical result is ensured by the fact that the composition of the liquid fuel comprises a liquid fuel and an additive in an amount of 0.005-0.03 wt. %. When this additive to the liquid fuel includes a metal salt of an organic acid with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C18in which the metal is a metal, disposed in the electrochemical series of activity to the right of hydrogen, an aromatic amine, the polymer succinimide and glycerin, in the following ratio, wt. %:

salt of the metal organic acid
with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C1810-90
aromatic amine1-5
the polymer succinimide3-10
glycerin1-75

In accordance with particular cases of complete compositions the Oia may have the following features.

As a fuel it may contain gasoline. As a fuel it may contain diesel fuel.

As a fuel it may contain oil.

As a fuel it may contain liquefied gas.

As the polymer succinimide it may contain alkanolamine.

As the metal salt of the organic acid with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C18it preferably contains copper oleate.

As aromatic amine contains diphenylamine or its homologues.

This composition is produced as follows. Originally prepared additive.

The proposed additive is prepared by successively mixing the components at a temperature of about 50 °C and stirring.

For sample preparation the proposed additive used the following components.

Component And includes a metal salt of an organic acid with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C18in which the metal is a metal, disposed in the electrochemical series of activity to the right of hydrogen. This is because these metals have a lower recovery activity.

Component B is an aromatic amine, which is used as diphenylamine or its homologues. This component is an antioxidant.

Component In the polymer succinimide, as the which can be used industrially manufactured additives C-5A or Dipole-40, which provide a dispersant and detergent properties.

Component G - glycerine.

Table 1 shows the variety of compositions of additives.

Table 1
ComponentPart 1, wt.%Part 2, wt.%Part 3, wt.%
Copper oleate905010
Diphenylamine135
Glycerin64175
Alkenylamine3610

The obtained additive is a thick liquid dark green color, which is completely dissolved in the fuel, forming a solution in which the metal is in the form of ions passes through a filtering device that allows the use of an additive in all types of fuels.

The composition of the liquid fuel prepared as follows:

Originally prepared 10% solution of Ricadi in the fuel, moreover, the additive is introduced into the measuring vessel, heated to 50°C, the fuel is heated to 50°C, all this may be within 30-50 minutes the mixture settles at room temperature. The resulting composition is stable. In the process of storing the additive does not flake and not precipitation. After which the resulting composition is mixed with the main fuel volume in the required proportions.

Testing of the composition of liquid fuels with different content of lubricating additives showed the following.

For testing was prepared samples:

1) containing lubricating additives 0.5 cm310 l of diesel fuel;

2) containing lubricating additives 1.0 cm310 l of diesel fuel;

3) containing lubricating additives 1.5 cm310 l of diesel fuel;

4) containing lubricating additives 1.5 cm310 l of diesel fuel (additive was carried out in the cold fuel).

The results are given in table 2.

Table 2
Name of indicator, test methodSample
123 4
Lubricity: the adjusted diameter of the spot of wear at 60°C, µm426398367378
Cetane number51,451,451,251,3

At the end of the performed tests, the following conclusions were made:

- Significantly improves lubricity of low-sulfur diesel fuel, and within the investigated range of concentrations observed monotonic increasing effect;

- Lubricating additive has no significant effect on other investigated physico-chemical characteristics of the fuel, as well as on the processes of mixture formation and combustion in the cylinder of a diesel engine.

1. Composition of liquid fuels, including liquid fuels and additive in the amount of 0.005-0.03 wt.%, characterized in that the additive to the liquid fuel includes a metal salt of an organic acid with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C18in which the metal is a metal, disposed in the electrochemical series of activity to the right of hydrogen, an aromatic amine, the polymer succinimide and glycerin, in the following ratio, wt%:

salt of the metal organic acid
with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C1810-90
aromatic amine1-5
the polymer succinimide3-9
glycerin1-75

2. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the fuel includes gasoline.

3. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the fuel includes diesel fuel.

4. The composition according to claim 1, characterized in that the fuel contains oil.

5. The composition according to claim 1, wherein the fuel contains a liquefied gas.

6. Composition according to any one of claims 1 to 5, characterized in that the polymer succinimide it contains alkenylamine.

7. The composition according to claim 6, characterized in that as the metal salt of the organic acid with the number of carbon atoms of the C15-C18it preferably contains copper oleate.

8. The composition according to claim 7, characterized in that it contains the aromatic amine diphenylamine or its homologues.



 

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