Hydroelectric power system and turbine in pipe
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of hydroelectric generation of power. A spherical turbine 96 is made for rotation in transverse direction in a cylindrical pipe under action of a working substance flowing through the pipe in any direction. The turbine 96 is in working condition connected with a rotary machine or generator for power generation. In one example of realisation the blades 112, 114, 116, 118 of the spherical turbine 96 are arched approximately by 180 degrees in the plane, which is inclined at the angle relative to the axis of rotation of a central shaft 64. In the other example of realisation inside the cylindrical pipe there is a deflector along the upstream of the spherical turbine 96 to control the flow via the spherical turbine 96 by screening of the part of this flow.
EFFECT: blades 112, 114, 116, 118 of the spherical turbine 96 have in cross section an aerodynamic profile for optimisation of hydrodynamic flow, to minimise cavitation and to maximise axial energy conversion into rotation energy.
28 cl, 7 dwg
The SCOPE of the INVENTION
The invention relates, generally, to the field of hydroelectric power generation. More specifically, the invention relates to hydroelectric power generation by flow of the working substance through the turbine.
PREREQUISITES TO the CREATION of INVENTIONS
U.S. patents№№5,451,137; 5,642,984; 6,036,443; 6,155,892; 6,253,700 B1; and 6,293,835 B2, issued Goriov, disclose various cylindrical turbine for power systems, with the turbine blades extend in a spiral and expanded working substance through the open cylinder. These patents disclose the arrangement of such turbines in channels with rectangular and/or square cross-section or in the pipes that carry water that spins the turbines for hydroelectric power generation. Cylindrical turbine Goriov'and has a spiral twisted/twisted vanes or blades mounted on a Central shaft radial struts or spokes arbitrary or at least not this model, for example circular, cross section. U.S. patent No. 5,405,246 issued Goldberg, discloses a wind turbine with a vertical axis, having a twisted configuration of the blades, in which two rotating blades are bent and twisted along its entire length and define a body of rotation, the body of rotation op is saweet outer surface of American football...". In only the illustrated embodiment of the invention the blades Goldberg'and protrude radially from the Central rotor angles of approximately 45 degrees to the imaginary planes of the rotating poles normal to the rotor axis.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS
Figure 1 is an isometric drawing of the exploded Assembly of one embodiment of the invention, equipped with a spherical turbine.
Parts a and b are fragmentary vertical projections of the pipe containing the turbine, shown in figure 1, represents a side by side comparison of two different embodiments of a round surface, shown on them. In particular, detail a shows a flat round surface, the item shows spherical concave circular surface for mounting the nearest end of the shaft of the turbine.
Figure 2 is a front view of the assembled embodiment.
Figure 3 is an isometric drawing of the exploded Assembly of spherical turbine of figure 1.
4 is an isometric image of the mounted spherical turbine.
5 is an isometric image of the assembled spherical turbine in the second embodiment, of the invention containing a baffle upstream.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION PRACTICELINK examples of IMPLEMENTATION
Figure 1 shows the isometric drawing, p is the component Assembly of the first embodiment, invented hydroelectric power system 10 in the pipe, equipped with spherical turbine. System 10, in accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, includes a tube 12 of the T-shaped profile for the working substance (in a broad sense, implying a fluid, such as water, or gases, such as air, or a similar substance, manifesting useful flow characteristics), superstructure, or the generator Assembly 14, and a spherical turbine Assembly 96. Specialists in the art it will be clear, referring to Figure 2, that the turbine Assembly 96 mounted and driven by a flow of working substance through a pipe 12, will rotate, and the system 10 will generate hydroelectric energy, which may be collected, used or enjoyed in the grid.
The pipe 12 is, in General, cylindrical, having, in General, a circular cross-section, although within the essence and scope of the invention, the pipe may be in the cross-section slightly oval. The pipe 12 is typically part of a longer and perhaps more sophisticated means of transport of the working substance or piping system, and should appreciate the fact that the existing pipeline system can easily be modified invented by power system 10 partitioning and replacement remote section of the power system 10. Further, the pipe 12 has a circular flanges AI 12b for bolted connection to each end of pipe flow and out-flow (not shown). The tube 12 contains a small hole 12C in the first area of the side wall, and a large hole 12d in the diametrically opposite region of the pipe. As will become clear, through a small hole 12C passes the turbine shaft, while through the large hole 12d passes the turbine Assembly 96. The pipe 12 is also equipped with flanged T-shaped section of pipe (the so-called "tee"), which effectively aligns the large hole 12d at right angles to the long axis of the pipe 12.
Block cover generator 14 contains a circular arcuate surface 18, which allows you to effectively cover or block large hole 12d, when the system 10 is mounted. The arcuate surface 18 to form a continuous spherical inside wall of the pipe 12 for the flow of flow of the working substance, thereby preventing cavitation or other breaks the smooth flow of the working medium inside the pipe, which otherwise would act as a cavity in the tees section. Tracklista cylindrical spacer sleeve 20 holds the arcuate surface 18 on its place within the tees section, when the covering surface 22 containing an o-ring 22A and round surface 22b, is bolted to the flange 12. Round surface 22b has a hole 22b with the mounting block 24, which extends around it. Peripheral is a once in a turbine shaft Assembly 96 mounted in the first holder 26, which contains the block roller bearing provides smooth rotation of the turbine shaft. Between the mounting block 24 and a round surface 22b can be flat shim 22bb.
The alternatives described above round surface 22b shown in Details a and Details, which are lateral projections from partial cuts, revealing the inner part of the tees section 12E. Specialists in the art it will be clear that the absolute and relative dimensions in Detail and presents are not to scale, since they are intended only for General structural comparison.
Parallel comparison of Parts And which has a flat round surface 22b described above, and In Detail, which contains spherical concave circular surface 22b', reveals some important benefits of alternative surface 22b'. Flat round surface 22b must be made of relatively thick material, thereby making it heavy and difficult to handle. Spherical concave circular surface 22b', on the other hand, can be made of relatively thin material, thereby making it significantly easier and much more simple to handle.
This is all possible due to the curvature of alternative surface 22b'
Moreover, the Central area of the flat round surface 22b may be removed from the turbine Assembly, thereby that it is undesirable, extending the shaft of the turbine. Conversely, the Central region of the spherically concave circular surface 22b' may be closer to the turbine Assembly, thereby that it is desirable, shortening the required length or vertical part of the shaft of the turbine.
This is all possible due to the curvature of alternative surface 22b'.
From the Details In it can be understood that the concave surface 22b' is, in General, a spherical shape, with its concavity extends inward from the generator Assembly (not shown for simplicity and clarity of this image) and to the turbine Assembly 96' (shown only schematically in these detailed images in phantom lines, and showing only difference from the turbine Assembly 96 defined by the shorter shaft 64'). This concave circular surface, oriented along the flow or against the flow, can be considered and described here as an inverted arch or inverted dome). Although here shown and described spherical concave shape, specialists in the art will understand that can be used proper modifications without deviating from the essence and scope of the invention. For example, it is possible inverted arch, is which is more parabolic, than semi-circular cross-section, as well as other cross-sections with different ratios of dimensions (i.e., with different relations of depth to width, only one of which, for clarity shown with some deliberate exaggeration of depth). In addition, a dome-shaped cross-sectional surface may have a more rounded outer shoulder that could be considered as the spatial curvature. All such suitable alternative configuration is assumed to be not beyond the nature and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art it will be clear that the mounting parts in this alternative embodiment, respectively, are modified in order to fit an inverted domed round surface 22b' and its unit bolted connection through the annular seal 22A on the standard flange 12E of the pipe 12. For example, the installation unit 24' may contain the shim 22bb', which is spherically convex curved so as to align and seal with a spherical concave curvature of the inside of an inverted dome. For rotation of the generator 32 it is connected, as will be clear to the peripheral end of the turbine shaft directly above the hole in the Central area of the spherical concave surface 22b'. Other components and techno is logicheskie means for adjusting an alternative spherical concave circular surface 22b' are assumed to be not beyond the nature and scope of the invention.
Building site generator 28 is connected by bolts through a group of round holes, available in round surface 22b. Building site generator 28 includes an annular spacer, or the element stiffness 30 for placing screed generator 32 with the shaft of the turbine, an annular rim 34 with the first loop for the mechanical lift 34a, and a cover 36 having a second loop for the mechanical lift 36A. Specialists in the art will understand that the loops 34a and 36A are suitable hinges to lift all or part of the mounted components of the t-shaped profile of electricity generation during Assembly, disassembly or maintenance. Specialists in the art will understand that the generator may be a generator of direct current or alternating current (DC or AC), single-phase or three-phase, synchronous generator at 120 V AC or 240 V AC, etc and/or can be converted from one form to another, depending on the needs of the electric grid.
The installation surface 12f is welded to the pipe 12 around the small holes 12C and the second leg 38 containing block roller bearing, in which is planted the peripheral end of the turbine shaft Assembly 96 for smooth rotation on the bearing. Specialists in the art it will be clear that with the Directive with a circular cross section of the cylindrical tube 12 of the first holder 26, in accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, contains the shim (not shown in detail, but, as we assume, is clear from this brief description specialists in the art), which has a flat outer surface and a cylindrical inner surface, and provides interfacing with the external cylindrical surface of the pipe. This shim can be machined on the machine tool or formed by any appropriate process and from any appropriate material that provides an appropriate tight connection between the shaft and the hole of the pipe, through which passes the shaft. It should be understood that the described and/or shown here, the shim may be made separately or can be easily inserted into the corresponding mounting block or surface.
The first and second holders 26 and 38 can have alternative forms, in accordance with the nature and scope of the invention, however, we believe that the adjustment of axial and radial forces is best achieved using a spherical roller bearing, creates only the rolling friction, unlike, for example, from sliding bearing or other means of creating sliding friction. We believe that the holders of the roller bearings, which have been described here, allows Aut system 10 to operate safely, reliable and long-term, and to generate electricity at low speeds the flow of working substance through a pipe 12, which constitutes approximately 3-4 feet per second (f/s).
Specialists in the art will understand that the turbine Assembly 96 is inserted through the large hole 12d of the pipe 12, and the peripheral end of the shaft attached to the second holder 38. The generator Assembly 14 is connected by bolts to the flange 12 of the pipe 12, and the hydroelectric power system 10 is ready for operation. The power system 10 is mounted, or in other words, submitted as part of the piping system (not shown). When the working medium flows through the pipe 12, the power system 10 generates electricity.
It has been unexpectedly discovered that such a turbine Assembly, which have been described and illustrated by the drawings, rotating at low velocities of flow of the working substance, constituting roughly 3-4 feet per second (f/s).
Specialists in the art it will be clear that instead of the term "spherical" can be deliberately used the broad term "spheroidal", or Vice versa, with spheroidal turbine, which in cross-section would be slightly or to some degree non-circular or oval could be used effectively within appropriate to some extent non-circular or oval is in the cross-section of a cylindrical pipe. These and other variants of the invention are not beyond the nature and scope of the present invention.
Figure 2 presents the lateral projection of the mounted system 10. The image in figure 2, as we believe, largely obvious from the point of view of the above detailed description with reference to Figure 1, which corresponds to Figure 2. From Figure 2 one can see that the volume of the spherical turbine Assembly is approximately between 15% and 30%, depending on the number of blades together, their individual configuration and the step between the shoulder blades. It should be understood that the angle of intersection of each of the many spherical blades of the turbine and the Central axis of the shaft, in accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, is approximately 30 degrees, although it can be assumed, and other angles that are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention. For example, the angle of intersection, which is the alternative, but within the essence and scope of the invention, may amount to in the range of between approximately 10 and 45 degrees, or more preferably in the range of between approximately 15 and 35 degrees, or most preferably in the range of about between 25 and 35 degrees. Any suitable angles inside any useful ranges are considered as being in the sight of the crystals of the essence and scope of the invention.
The example implementation illustrated here, is a spherical turbine Assembly with four blades, but it is assumed that only two blades and twenty blades will be within the essence and scope of the invention. It is assumed that it is preferable to have the number of blades is approximately between two and eleven. Most preferred is assumed to be the number of blades is approximately between three and seven. It is assumed that within the essence and scope of the invention will be another number, and other configurations of spherical blades of the turbine, curved in an arc of approximately 180 degrees. Specialists in the art will be clear from Figure 3 the best opportunity, when the spherical blades of the turbine Assembly characterized throughout the entire length of the cross-section of the airfoil. This ensures that the turbine hydrodynamics and the performance of hydroelectric power generation. In accordance with this embodiment, the spherical turbine of the present invention, around a rotating spherical turbine Assembly and inside the tube creates sufficient clearance to remove the unwanted compression of the working substance at the boundaries of rotation of the turbine (see Figure 2).
Specialists in danniebelle techniques will be clear, the spherical blades of the turbine, within the essence and scope of the invention may be made of any appropriate material and in any appropriate process. For example, the blades may be made of aluminum, an appropriate composite material, or good-reinforced plastics. These blades can be manufactured by the centrifugal casting or injection molding, extrusion molding, ultreia, bending or other technologies of formation, consistent with the material used and consistent with the cost-effective production of parts elongated, with mainly constant cross-section. These and other suitable materials and processes are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
In accordance with the illustrated example implementation of the invention, the aerodynamic cross section of spherical blades of the turbine corresponds to the standard NACA 20, although considered and alternative aerodynamic cross-section, as is within the essence and scope of the invention.
Figure 3 presents an isometric drawing of the spherical turbine 96. Spherical turbine 96 contains the upper and lower hub Assembly 98 and 100. Each hub Assembly includes a bearing surface of the hub 102 and the four mounting bracket 104, 106, 18 and 110 (for simplicity in assembled condition, showing only the upper hub Assembly). The bearing surface of the hub 102 is flat and has a peripheral edge in the form of a band saw (in the alternative embodiment has a curved edge in accordance with a round cross-sectional contour of rotation and straight edge for abutment and flush ends of the blades), straight parts which are mounted, as shown, the mounting brackets. Mounting brackets, in turn, secure the four spherical blades 112, 114, 116 and 118, each at a certain angle, for example, preferably at an angle of approximately 30 degrees between the plane defined, basically, each curved blade and the Central axis of the shaft. Specialists in the art will understand that the spherical blades 112, 114, 116 and 118 also has an aerodynamic cross-section, for example, in accordance with the standard NACA 20 or any other appropriate standard. To reliably attach the hub Assembly to the shaft 64 are upper and lower split clutch shafts 120 and 122. In accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, the mounting brackets attached by bolts to multiple blades attached to the bearing surfaces of the hub by welding, using the alignment shown here, the guide pins and holes. For Assembly of the remaining parts of the spherical turbine 96v Assembly used as shown here, appropriate fasteners, such as hex bolts, lock washers and mounting screws.
4 shows an isometric image of the mounted spherical turbine 96. The image in figure 4, as we believe, largely obvious from the point of view of the above detailed description with reference to Figure 3, which corresponds to Figure 4. Dynamic gap rotating spherical turbine Assembly is greater than the static gap, and adjusted slight underestimation of the size of the cylindrical turbine relative to the inner dimension (ID) of the pipe, i.e. the creation of a small but preferably a permanent gap in the range approximately between 0.5 cm and 5 cm, and preferably approximately in the range between 1 cm and 3 cm, depending on the diameter of the pipe 12 and the other specifics of the device. These distances are only illustrations and do not deliberate limitations, as an alternative intervals are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
Figure 5 illustrates the invented apparatus in accordance with another example embodiment of the invention. Alternative system 10' is similar to system 10 described above, and therefore, for identical components used here is identical reference symbols, and first the initial reference refer to similar components. You can see that the system 10' also includes a baffle upstream 122 (for clarity, figure 5 omitted parts of the turbine and generator Assembly). The baffle 122, in accordance with one embodiment, is made of two or more flat surfaces, with the first, less tilted surface a, which by its krivolineynoe is consistent with a circular internal cross-section of the pipe 12, and the second slanted surface 122b, forming a concave curved free inner edge 122b, which extends forward and, in General, consistent with a spherical turbine with a circular cross section. These two surfaces are welded or, in another embodiment, are connected along a line pair, which determines the change of the angles of inclination relative to the Central axis of the pipe. Thus, the baffle 122 when the system 10' effectively shields the external space of the rotating blades spherical turbine arc of rotation, in which the blades have the lowest productivity in electricity generation, and therefore can create an unwanted shutdown at low flow velocities.
Unexpectedly, it was found that the deflector 122 around the area upstream of the turbine Assembly 96 can increase energy production by value in the range approximately between the 14% and 40%, and more probably in the range of approximately between 20% and 30% above the nominal output power of the spherical turbine that does not contain such a deflector upward flow inside the pipe.
Specialists in the art it will be clear that the ratio between the area of the vent and turn the turbine may be between approximately 10% and 40%, and more preferably, between approximately 20% and 30%. Specialists in the art it will be clear also that the size of the active area of the deflector may be determined by the specific application, since the workspace provides the optimal ratio between the volumetric flow rate and pressure drop. Thus, the alternative ranges the working area of the deflector relative to a spread turbines are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art will be also understood that the deflector 122 may be made of any appropriate material, such as steel, and can be performed with spatial dimensions and orientation at any desired adjustment of the flow of the working substance in the area upstream of the spherical turbine Assembly 96. In accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, the deflector 122 is inclined relative to the long Central axis of the pipe 12 is and the angle less than 90 degrees at its free edge with 122b. The so-called angle of entrance of the free edge of the deflector relative to the Central axis of the pipe 12 is preferably approximately between 10 degrees and 40 degrees. In accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, the surface a declined by approximately 15 degrees, and the surface 122b declined by approximately 30 degrees from the Central axis of the pipe 12. However, other angles are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art will understand that the deflector 122 may take various forms within the nature and scope of the invention. For example, the baffle 122 can have more than two and shorter piecewise planar segments, when it diverges rays inwards towards the Central axis of the pipe 12, thereby better approximating smooth and preferably of a cylindrical curve, the Central axis of which is preferably approximately parallel to the axis of rotation of the turbine (i.e. approximately parallel to the long axis of the shaft 64). In fact, the baffle 122 may be, within the essence and scope of the invention, smooth cylindrically curved between the edge of the mating pipe and its free edge.
The free edge 122b baffle 122, in accordance with one example embodiment of the invention, generally concave curved for having oglasavanja its internal space along its height with the General curvature of the spherical blades of the turbine. Any proper straight line or a smooth curve or radius of curvature are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art will understand that the spherical turbine can be used in systems of power conversion, and not only in systems for electricity production. For example, the axial kinetic energy of the working substance can be converted into rotational kinetic energy of any rotating mechanism (e.g., conveyor, grinding machine, drilling machine, saws, mills, flywheel, etc.) containing an electric generator, or an appropriate alternative. All such applications invented the turbine working substance are considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art will understand that the orientation of the invented system in its many embodiments is only illustrative and should not be construed as limiting the scope of the invention. Thus, the use of terms such as upper and lower, should be understood as the terms are relative, not absolute, and are interchangeable. In other words, the system, within the essence and scope of the invention may take other vertical orientation, with nagscreen is m the generator housing and a turbine shaft, passing up or down along the long axis of the pipe. In fact, the system may form any suitable angle at which the turbine shaft is held approximately perpendicular to the direction of flow of the working substance.
Specialists in the art will understand that an integral part of the invented system can be made of any appropriate material, including steel and aluminum. Most of the parts, such as turbine shafts, flat surface and the deflector can be made of steel. The remaining parts, including bushings, connecting blocks and blades can be made of machined, extruded or extruded aluminum (blades then resultsbecause and/or bent to the required form) or reinforced obtained by injection molding of plastic. Any alternative material and any alternative formation process is considered as being within the essence and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art it will be clear also, that the invented system can be easily increased or decreased in size depending on their application. So although, in General, the dimensions are not given here, these dimensions, as can be understood, strictly proportional to the dimensions shown, the absolute scale which is can be changed within the essence and scope of the invention.
Specialists in the art will understand that at certain intervals (consistently) between itself and along the pipe through which water flows, can have two or more hydroelectric system, thereby increasing the generation of electricity. Specialists in the art it will be clear also that the parallel configuration of two or more hydroelectric systems generate electricity can be installed inside the branch pipe through which water flows, thus an alternative or in addition increasing the generation of electricity. Specialists in the art will understand that described here and illustrated hydroelectric systems generate electricity can be optionally added triggers for use of such systems in tidal (bidirectional or oscillating) flow. Specialists in the art will understand that the use of invented hydroelectric power generation systems in the pipe can be implemented failover modes to prevent self-destruction in case of failure of bearings or similar events. Finally, specialists in the art will understand that such hydro production is tion of electricity, as it was here described and illustrated, can be placed inside the outer sleeve of the pipe, which prevents the production of electricity from the elements and/or which facilitates the distribution of power on power cables or other appropriate means of transmission for the next storage device or the grid.
You must understand that the invention is not limited to the described and illustrated here, the method or detail of the design, manufacture, material, application or use. In fact, any proper modification of the manufacture, use, or use is considered an alternative example of implementation and, thus, is within the essence and scope of the invention.
In addition, it is understood that any other embodiments of the present invention that result from any changes in application or method of use or operation, configuration, method of manufacture, shape, size or material, and which is not specified in the detailed description or illustrations contained herein, but would be clear to experts in the art, are within the essence and scope of the present invention.
Accordingly, although the present invention has been shown and described with references is as the above examples of the implementation of the invented apparatus, specialists in the art will understand that can be done other changes in form and details without deviating from the essence and scope of the invention as defined in the accompanying patent claims.
1. Basically, spherical turbine containing a Central longitudinal shaft configured for mounting and rotation on a Central axis perpendicular to the direction of flow of the working substance, and a few, mostly circular curved in the arc of the blades connected to the shaft and passing in a radial direction away from the shaft, and the blades are located mainly at equal intervals around the shaft, the blades are curved in an arc of approximately 180 degrees and are along a substantial portion of its length aerodynamic cross-section, and while rotating together with the shaft, the working area of the blades is mainly a spherical shape.
2. Turbine according to claim 1, which also contains the other hub Assembly, each of which includes a bearing surface of the hub and multiple mounting brackets for secure attachment to the shaft opposite ends of the respective multiple blades.
3. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that each bearing surface of the hub has a peripheral edge in the form of a circular saw, which is a combination of curvilinear and rectilinear CR is of evich segments.
4. Turbine according to claim 1, which also contains the other of the coupling shaft for secure attachment to the shaft of the respective hub Assembly.
5. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that the several blades define a nominal volume of approximately between 15% and 50%.
6. Turbine according to claim 1, characterized in that each of the multiple blades passes through an arc of approximately 180 degrees around the circumference, mostly spherical turbine, and the plane defined by each of the several blades, crosses the Central axis of the shaft at an angle of approximately 30 degrees.
7. The generation system that produces electricity from the movement of the working substance, the system includes a turbine containing a Central longitudinal shaft configured for rotation between diametrically opposite holders, while the shaft is held mainly perpendicular to the flow of the working substance, and one end of the shaft is configured so that when the work is connected with the rotating part of the mechanism, several bearings, the first of which connects the shaft end most distant from the generator to the support for rotation in a circular direction, and the second bearing connects the intermediate portion of the shaft to the support for rotation, the shaft passes through the second bearing is in, and a few blades connected to the shaft between a pair of bearings, with blades are radially away from the shaft, and the blades are located mainly at equal intervals around the shaft.
8. The system according to claim 7, characterized in that each of the multiple of turbine blades curved in an arc of approximately 180 degrees.
9. The system according to claim 7, characterized in that each of the multiple of turbine blades has an aerodynamic cross-section along mainly throughout the entire length of each blade.
10. The system according to claim 7, characterized in that the full form of the turbine is mostly spherical.
11. The system according to claim 7 which also comprises a pair of opposite, generally round hub attached to the shaft, mostly spherical turbine, with each hub has several mounting brackets attached thereto at spaced radial intervals around its peripheral circumference, and a few brackets are installed at opposite ends of many blades.
12. The system according to claim 7, comprising an electric generator connected in working condition with the proximate end of the shaft for rotation with the shaft and generate electricity when exposed to a flow of the working substance.
13. The system according to claim 7, wherein the turbine is configured to rotate in one and the same direction regardless of the direction of flow of the working substance.
14. The system according to item 7, characterized in that the holders holding the shaft of the turbine, contain bearings.
15. The generation system that produces electricity from the movement of the working substance through a pipe, the system includes a turbine containing a Central longitudinal shaft, configured to rotate between diametrically opposite holders inside, in the main, cylindrical tube, the shaft passes mainly perpendicular to the long axis, in the main, cylindrical pipe, and one end of the shaft is configured so that when the work is connected with an electric generator, a few bearings, the first of which is configured to fasten the shaft end most remote from the generator to the side wall, generally cylindrical tube to rotate in a circular direction, and a second bearing configured to affix the intermediate part of the shaft for rotation within a mainly cylindrical tube, and the shaft passes through the second bearing, and a few blades connected to the shaft between the bearings, with blades are radially away from the shaft, and the blades are located mainly at equal intervals around the shaft.
16. The system of clause 15, wherein each of the multiple of turbine blades curved in arcs is approximately 180 degrees.
17. The system of clause 15, wherein each of the multiple of turbine blades has an aerodynamic cross-section along mainly throughout the entire length of each blade.
18. The system of clause 15, wherein the full form of the turbine is mostly spherical.
19. The system of clause 15, which also comprises a pair of opposite, generally round hub attached to the shaft, mostly spherical turbine, with each hub has several mounting brackets attached thereto at spaced radial intervals around its peripheral circumference, and a few brackets are installed at opposite ends of the several blades.
20. The system of clause 15, containing mainly cylindrical pipe made with a diameter slightly larger than the distance between a pair of hubs on the shaft of the turbine, however, mainly in the cylinder tube turbine mounted for rotation therein when exposed to a flow of working substance through a mainly cylindrical pipe.
21. The system of clause 15, containing mainly cylindrical pipe made with a diameter slightly larger than the distance between a pair of hubs on the shaft of the turbine, however, mainly in the cylinder tube turbine mounted for rotation therein when exposed to a flow of the working substance h is cut, basically, a cylindrical tube, with the tube contains one or more surfaces of the baffle adjacent to its lateral walls directly upstream from the mostly spherical turbine, and one or more baffles inclined to the turbine in the direction of rotation of the turbine at an angle less than 90 degrees to the plane perpendicular to the long axis of the pipe, and each of the one or more deflector has a curved inside edge, approximately form the turbine side of each baffle, the most remote from the place, where the deflector is adjacent to the lateral wall of the pipe, and one or more vent covers part of the area of the pipe cross section.
22. The system of clause 15, containing an electric generator connected in working condition with the proximate end of the shaft for rotation with the shaft and generate electricity when exposed to a flow of the working substance, mainly through a cylindrical pipe.
23. The system of clause 15, wherein the turbine is made to rotate in the same direction regardless of the direction of flow of working substance through a pipe.
24. The system of clause 15, characterized in that the holders holding the shaft of the turbine, contain bearings.
25. The system of clause 15, containing mainly cylindrical tee section, which credits the external side wall, basically, a cylindrical pipe, with the branch section contains electrical generator that is operable connected for rotation with the shaft of the turbine and generates electricity when the turbine rotates.
26. System A.25, which also contains a cylindrically curved surface, which closes the inlet, mainly in the cylindrical tube to prevent flow of water, mainly in the cylindrical tee section.
27. System A.25, which also contains round flat or concave surface, which closes the inlet, mainly in the cylindrical tee section.
28. The system according to item 27, which also contains the generator, which is installed on top of the round flat or concave surface.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind power engineering and can be used for conversion and application of wind power. Windmill comprises twist strut with bearing assy rigidly secured at its top end with two-end horizontal shaft. Its one end is connected with generator while counterweight with at least two detachable blades is secured at opposite end. Extra bearing assemblies with one-end shaft are rigidly secured at counterweight ends, in the plane of its rotation, ends of said assemblies are directed in opposite side from the counterweight. Torsion spring is fitted on the shaft of every bearing assy between bearings, its one end being locked at the housing while opposite end being rigidly coupled with the shaft supporting detachable blade.
EFFECT: higher wind power use factor and windmill reliability.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind-power engineering. Windmill stator comprises exciter, L-shape magnetic conductors, coils, base and fasteners. Extra coils with cores are fitted between the main coils. Segment-shape inserts are fitted there outside.
EFFECT: increased electric power output.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind power engineering. A wind-driven plant includes an air intake with a windwheel with blades, which is located inside it; the above blades are attached to upper and lower rings supported from centring rollers installed on shafts of rotors of energy converters, and flow rarefaction devices that are located from above and from below. Flow rarefaction devices are installed so that they can be rotated relative to the air intake and the windwheel to transfer torque moment to an energy convertor stator. On the inner side of flow rarefaction devices there installed are blades with an aerodynamic profile providing opposite rotation of flow rarefaction devices in relation to the windwheel.
EFFECT: invention improves operating efficiency of a wind-driven plant.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: turbine of a wind generator with a vertical rotation axis includes elongated blades, the longitudinal axes of which are parallel to each other. Blades are uniformly located in a circumferential direction at equal distance from the turbine shaft; each of the blades is turned through an equal angle about its own longitudinal axis. Each major blade is equipped with an auxiliary blade that is similar to it and located between the major blade and the shaft of the turbine that is located from the major blade at least by 30% of its width and turned about its longitudinal axis parallel to the axis of the major blade through an angle that is approximately equal to a turning angle of the major blade, but as a mirror reflection.
EFFECT: invention will allow reducing turbine production cost owing to using simple structural components and improving use efficiency of kinetic wind force by increasing the number of positions of blades, at which positive operation on rotation of the turbine shaft takes place.
FIELD: energy industry.
SUBSTANCE: wind turbine blade with vertical axis of rotation, comprising a tip made in the form of the input part of the airfoil. The tip consists of two freely rotatable parts interconnected by the hinge with a vertical axis of rotation located at the extreme entry point of the tip. The tip of the blade is provided with a mechanism of fixed changing the distance between the free ends of the tip. The tip of the blade is made of flat plates connected by the hinge. The inner surfaces of the flat plates of the tip are provided with the trellis work of reinforcement ribs. The tip is provided with regulated springs inserted in the telescopic cylinders which are fastened by the hinges to the flat plates at one end and to the stopper located on the axis of symmetry of the tip in an expanded form, at the other end.
EFFECT: improvement of manufacturability of the blade, increase in its strength, rigidity and operating efficiency.
FIELD: energy industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power plants using energy of flow of environment. The self-aligning sailing unit for outfeed of flow energy, characterised in that it comprises a rail closed in a ring, on which the mobile trolleys are placed, interconnected by the couplers and bearing generators, which rotor is brought into contact with the surface of the rail. Each trolley is equipped with a bracket, which is attached to the end of the strap, the other end of which is attached to the thrust bearing a triangular-shaped sail, made with a vane connected with that sail through the kinematic connection to provide turning of the sail depending on rotation of the vane in the flow direction. The said kinematic connection comprises a driven gear connected kinematically by the flexible transmission to the drive pinion with a smaller diameter with a transmission ratio of 2:1, or connected through the shaft through the bevel gears to the drive pinion of smaller diameter with a transmission ratio of 2:1, or connected by a toothed belt with this drive pinion through an additional pair of gear wheels with the same transmission ratio of 2:1. All thrust bearing triangular-shaped sails are connected with the cords in series with each other, and the sails are equipped with air balloons to keep the sails with the thrusts at a height relative to the trolleys on the rail.
EFFECT: invention enables to mount automatically optimally the sail system relative to the wind.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: wind-driven plant comprises a rotor of vertical rotation installed inside the frame and equipped with blades of alternating section and thickness, bent along the vertical and horizontal line, a flywheel installed on the secondary shaft coaxially with the rotor, and an aggregate block with power take-off mechanisms installed in it. On the inner surface of the rotor blades there are wavy forms with the start of the wave from the external edge of the blade and with an elevation angle from 0°, with transition of the elevation angle in 2/3 of the blade arc up to 60°. On the rounding of the inner part of the blade along its entire length there is an element installed of sickle-shaped section with a clearance. The flywheel is additionally equipped with a system of movable sectors arranged on guides of the flywheel disc and connected by means of rope joints with a counterbalance. The counterbalance is installed concentrically on the secondary shaft with the possibility of vertical movement and is equipped with circular ledges that are in contact with forks fixed hingedly in the aggregate unit and designed to connect different aggregates of power take-off.
EFFECT: higher capacity and efficiency of a wind-driven plant with provision of automatic switching of power take-off mechanisms.
4 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to wind-power engineering and can be used for electric power production. Proposed windmill comprises tower with turntable, windwheel, rotor elements, stator, guides, pole tips and coil of two types: working and excitation coils alternating in circle. Ends of low-rpm windwheel blades are equipped with high-rpm windwheels furnished with electromechanical rotor elements. Stator is secured ay vertical flange of angle-piece secured with turntable moving part while bar with the guide is secured at horizontal flange of said angle-piece. Thus, said stator is mounted at turntable in circular zone of rotor elements nearby low-rpm windwheel shaft.
EFFECT: higher power output, simplified shape of stator elements.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: wind power module contains vertical centripetal turbine, electric power generator linked to turbine with profiled vanes, mounted inside stationary nozzle distributor with top and bottom bases to which guide vanes are attached. Nozzle distributor features bearing support in the top part for turbine and electric power generator mounting and profiled output device in the bottom part for exhaust of waste air flow, connected to internal space of turbine equipped with deflector in its upper part. Nozzle distributor features annular bracket attached with its outer flange to nozzle distributor shell and bearing a shelf for mounting of three-dimensional bracket with axial symmetry to support stator shell with electric generator core and bearing unit disc with turbine attachment flange mounted on it. Top end of the turbine features a disc linked to turbine attachment flange and bearing an annular rotor of electric power generator with permanent magnets, located in the gap between bearing support and stator shell. Power plant for alternate current generation includes foundation, middle support, vertical power structure bearing wind power modules, each of them containing electric generator linked to the turbine with profiled vanes, mounted inside stationary nozzle distributor with top and bottom bases to which guide vanes are attached, and equipment for electric power accumulation, control and distribution. Wind power modules are mounted on consoles of horizontal platforms attached to vertical reinforced frame. Each module is equipped with a nozzle distributor featuring bearing support in the top part for turbine and electric power generator mounting and profiled output device in the bottom part for exhaust of waste air flow, connected to internal space of turbine equipped with deflector in its upper part.
EFFECT: enhanced wind power utilisation rate at small wind load, increased output power.
3 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: wind-driven power plant mainly for a tall structure with a vertical axis, which contains a movable wind wheel with vertical blades and an electric generator. The movable wind wheel is located at certain altitude and has support wheels with shock absorbers in upper and lower parts, which roll on the provided chutes - guides. Guides are located around the perimetre of the tall structure. In the lower part of the movable wind wheel a provision is made, in a circumferential direction as well, for a belt gear link, and towards the axis of the tall structure a provision is made for a gear of an intermediate gear link, which is adjacent to the belt gear link. The gear axis of the intermediate gear link is rigidly fixed on the tall structure. The electric generator is rigidly fixed too and its shaft is provided with a toothed gear that is adjacent to the gear of the intermediate link. The movable wind wheel is surrounded with vertical air flow guides that are movable in their axes and have remote automatic control tie-rods.
EFFECT: invention allows using a tall engineering structure as a load-carrying structure of a wind-driven power plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic power engineering and can be used for conversion of kinetic power of waste water. Proposed device comprises water-wheel 1 composed by rigidly jointed sidewalls 3, blades 4 and hub, water feed system 8 and water discharge system and water retaining element 9 secured at the housing. Said curved housing extends from water-wheel wall bottom point to top point on water-wheel working part and features width equal to that of water-wheel 1. Device comprises second water-wheel 1 in design identical to that of first water-wheel 1 and equipped with the same water retaining element 9. Both said wheels are articulated via gearing and mounted at housing 7. The latter is composed by two plates interconnected by elements 9 in symmetry with water feed system vertical axis at the distance of water-wheel 1 radius. Rectangular plate-shape blades 4 are fitted at the hub and walls 3. Pockets are composed between hub inner surfaces, blades 4 and walls 3 to be completely filled with water on the side of working parts of two water-wheels 1 to retain water at rotation to bottom point.
EFFECT: higher specific power and efficiency, perfected design.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic energy-generating plant 1 comprises a body 2 with a hole 8 for supply of water, arranged at the discharge side of the hydraulic canal, a hole 9 for water discharge, arranged at its bottom side, a channel 25, providing for connection of holes 8 and 9, a board 6 for collection of water, a vertical axial turbine 3, a generator 4 and a movable lock 5. The board 6 is arranged at the edge of the hole 8 and collects water in the hole 8 by means of catching and accumulating water flowing along the hydraulic canal. The turbine 3 is installed with the possibility of rotation in the channel 25 and comprises rotor blades. A generator generates energy, accepting the rotary force of the turbine 3. The lock 5 is made as capable of controlling the level of accumulated water at the discharge side of the hydraulic canal by means of variation of the area of the cross section of water flow, acting at the upper end of the blade of the turbine 3 as it arrives from the hole 8.
EFFECT: development of a hydraulic energy-generating plant, made with the capability to adjust water level at the discharge side and providing for stable quantity of generated energy with simple maintenance.
6 cl, 30 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device to convert energy of spent water into electric energy comprises a vertical forward-flow channel in the form of a pipe with a hydraulic generator connected to a load in the lower part, in which there is a hydraulic generator screw with blades. The device additionally includes an expanding reservoir, equipped with washing waves, lower and upper air nozzles, providing for accordingly supply of ascending air flow, which additionally rotates the screw blades, and its bleeding. The screw blades have a cone-shaped section, which prevents accumulation of deposits in areas of connection with the shaft. There is a control system, which accumulates and redistributed the produced energy.
EFFECT: increased operational reliability and provision of stable operation.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric plant comprises a floating base made in the form of a catamaran, between bodies 1 of which there is a channel formed, a water wheel 2 arranged in the latter, with blades 3 fixed on its outer surface and an electric generator 4 kinematically connected with a shaft 5 of the water wheel 2. Walls of the channel formed by bodies 1 of the catamaran are made as narrowing. The channel is symmetrical relative to the plane stretching via the axis of the water wheel 2. To the outer wall of the catamaran body 1, on which the electric generator 4 is located, a shield 7 is fixed at the angle to the flow, and on its upper part a rope 9 is fastened that attaches the plant to the coast. An electric cable connecting the electric generator 4 with a load is fixed freely to the rope 9.
EFFECT: simplified possibility to fix a hydroelectric plant in a certain area of a water stream.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: run-of-river hydropower unit includes base with posts on which there rotated is shaft of wheel with carriers on the ends of which axles with blades are installed. On edges of blades there fixed are tie rods having on their ends the rollers rolling in turn along "П"-shaped guide tracks of side members, which are placed inside near the above carriers. "П"-shaped guide tracks are made in circumferential direction. Centre of circle of guides is offset downwards from shaft axis. Central holes are cut in side members to allow the passage of axes of blades. Guides in upper part have L-shape due to the cutout.
EFFECT: simplifying the design, increasing power, improving reliability and durability of hydropower unit.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydroelectric power plants. Hydroelectric power plant includes runner 2 fully submerged into water and installed so that it can be rotated, housing with half-round groove, which encloses runner 2 on one side. The other side of runner 2 is located in water stream. Runner 2 is provided with horizontal rotation axis. Housing is arranged at the river bottom and hinged on the ends of arms the other ends of which are hinged to the piles mounted into the river bottom. External surface of the housing is concentric to the groove, equipped with radially located soil washing-out nozzles, as well as cutters. Hydroelectric power plant is provided with a drive to perform backward swinging movement of the housing relative to the arms.
EFFECT: simplifying the manufacturing technology and reducing the cost of hydroelectric power plant.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power plant is a floating facility fixed by cables 2 with supports 3 on the shore, comprising one row and more turbines 4, installed in parallel on hollow platforms 7, changing into sharp edges along the vertical line in a fore part. Shafts of turbines 4 are installed in bearing supports 6 as capable of vertical displacement and are kinematically connected to a power generator 8 and starting-regulating equipment 9. There are sprockets 14 installed on shafts of turbines 4 and connected by chains 15 to each other. Upstream the floating facility 1 there is a filter 19 in the form of a wedge for discharge of objects. Blades of turbines 4 are crescent-shaped and are fixed to bodies of shafts so that their edges form a sharp angle with a water mirror. Hollow platforms 7 have a trapezoidal shape in their cross section, changing into sharp edges along the vertical line in a rear part. Vertical stands 20 of the filter 19 installed fixedly at a distance from the floating facility 1 are equipped with rollers as capable of cranking. The power generator 8 and the starting-regulating equipment 9 are installed on the shore.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, safety of operation and maintenance of a power plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: plant comprises a vessel with an inlet and an outlet for water, a turbine 12 with multiple blades 22. The turbine 12 is equipped with a mechanism for blades control arranged as capable of controlling blade angles relative to a working flow so that each blade 22 rotates around the appropriate axis with a rotation speed equal to a half of turbine 12 shaft rotation speed, as a result a larger area of the blade 22 surface faces the incoming water flow, to drive the turbine 12 in the preset direction of rotation. The smaller area of the blade 22 surface faces the incoming water flow opposite to the driving direction. The plant additionally comprises a partition 49, which passes almost from a central axis to assist in directing the working flow around a part of the vessel, through which each blade 22 moves as its larger area of the surface rotates.
EFFECT: development of a plant capable of fuller usage of a tidal cycle for energy generation.
16 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: mechanism of water flow energy conversion comprises energy receivers arranged on a rigid frame in the form of rectangular planes. These planes are covered with a water-impermeable material. Energy receivers are installed inside a body and are connected to two centres of rotation. One of rotation centres with the help of a crosspiece and a shaft is joined to ends of energy receives via axes. These axes at one side are rigidly connected to ends, and at the other end are joined with a ring. The ring centre of rotation is displaced relative to the crosspiece centre of rotation. The ring is movably joined with a body by means of rollers fixed on body walls. Whenever a ring rotates, energy receivers make circular movements, and angle of their inclination to the flow remains unchanged. Movement against the flow takes place in an air medium.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify mechanism design.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: riverbed hydraulic power plant comprises an impeller installed on vertical stands 1 of a base 2 and comprising a shaft 3 with radial drivers 6 and rectangular blades 8, a multiplier with a shaft and a generator. The upper part of rectangular blades 8 is installed hingedly on fluoroplastic bushings at the ends of drives 6. In the side ends of the lower part of the blades 8 there are rollers 9 that roll in guides of -shaped form of fixed sides 10 that are bean-shaped. Guides in the front part have a break or are made as closed with a transition section from the horizontal position of the blades 8 into the vertical one. Blades 8 are made of polymer material. The multiplier's shaft is made vertical.
EFFECT: simplified design of the riverbed hydraulic power plant with higher reliability of operation and increased capacity due to serial connection of hydraulic power units.
2 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic machine Francis-type wheel 1 has outer rim with symmetrical rotation about wheel central axis, inner rim 4 with symmetrical rotation about said axis and multiple vanes arranged between said rims. Wheel 1 comprises at least two elements to define, at least partially, outer rim 6 and/or two elements to define, at least partially, said inner rim 4. At least one edge of vane 2 is fitted between two said elements.
EFFECT: improved manufacturability, sufficient quality.
9 cl, 7 dwg