Method of growing grain-haylage of high-protein crops in small spaces

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises sowing with minimum tillage. At that the band sowing seeds is carried out in stubble simultaneously with performing for one pass of technological operations of paring and preparing the soil, cutting weeds, harrowing, post-sowing compacting and levelling in extreme weather conditions. For optimisation of the ratio of high-protein crops as part of the grain-haylage the plants are grown at the same sowing rate, but at different stages of development and ratio of species within this rate, namely for the early-maturing grain-haylage, legumes - lupins, sorghum and base silage crops - sunflower or corn, they correspond to ratio of 40:40:20, for middle-maturing grain-haylage - lupine- sorghum-corn, they correspond to the ratio of 60:20:20, and for late-maturing grain-haylage - lupine-sorghum-corn, they correspond to the ratio of 50:40:10.

EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of drought-resistant high-protein feed.

1 tbl, 3 dwg

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to the method of cultivation 2-4 high-protein forage crops for carmoisine of cattle TPS, close to the feed in extreme weather conditions.

In the main regions of RF main negative climatic factor of farming and fodder production is drought, when the probability of drought is 40-50%. The frequency of droughts over the past decade has increased, and the average annual precipitation annually reduced by 50-70 mm These extreme conditions - objective nature factors that must be considered when improving agricultural technologies sowing.

The high cost of seeds, fertilizers, chemicals made the traditional technology monospecific of Russia one of the most expensive feed sources that are inaccessible to farmers. In this regard, we have to look for alternative solutions.

Known methods for the simultaneous cultivation of two or more crops on the same field, to increase the number Perevalova protein. In mixtures of maize-sunflower (A.S. USSR №843808, AS, 07.07.81 last very depressing corn, cereal components rye and wheat suppress legumes vetch and peas, which reduces the content of these to the components in the mass, sets the value of their completely dependent on growing conditions and ultimately reduces the overall yield of forage and its protein value.

The disadvantage of the existing traditional methods of technical equipment inoculated per culture different technique is a multi-phase, inability to obtain full multicomponent feed mixtures directly in the cleaning process. A large number of handling operations and the attraction of additional machines and entire production lines significantly increases capital investment, increases the intensity, energy intensity and the simultaneous involvement of additional labor for manufacturing processes, which is unacceptable for farms that do not have redundant workers. The transition to the combined aggregates is especially valuable for farms, where rugged terrain and small field sizes (up to 100 ha) make it impossible to use a wide swath and high-speed machinery of collective farms.

Also known traditional method of cultivation of agricultural crops containing sown with minimum tillage, strip seeding in stubble will run concurrently with one pass of technological operations of peeling and preparation of soil, trimming weeds, weeding, p is cleocine rolling and leveling, includes two sowing of summer crops (alfalfa-fescue) at an early stage and three-sowing annual crops (sorghum-maize-sunflower seed) at a later stage. (A.S. USSR №1058538, 01D, 07.12.83). The proposed technology of planting at a ratio of alfalfa and fescue 1:2 based on the application of 3-sealodge unit C3-3.6V. In the Central planter fall asleep alfalfa seeds, and two side - fescue with a total width of 3×3,6=10,8 m

The disadvantages of the traditional method are:

1. In the summer billet remove mowers green mass (band at 3.6 m) comes from the harvester to the trailer separate portions of different cultures without mixing. In addition, when performing work on traditional technology during soil preparation and planting of different crops on the field six to eight times are different units. Only in the spring one trail takes four to six passes and about half of the area is exposed to the wheels or caterpillars, which causes soil compaction and reduces crop production by 15-20%.

2. High-protein forage for this technologies is produced by application of additional (fixed or mobile) feed, including feed, molasses, which doubles the cost of the process.

3. Manufactured separately ploughs, cultivators, harrows, seeders, Schlei the-harrows, the equalizer, ice rinks have different capture and require different power, increased fuel consumption, metal, etc.

The objective of the invention is to increase the yield of drought-resistant high-protein feed (IBD) with a stable ratio of biologically compatible sown components, cultivation and harvesting in the field of balanced nutritional feed mixtures (TPS), similar in nutritional value to the animal feed (0,65-0,8 food. units).

In the method of cultivation TPS of high-protein crops on farms, including planting with minimum tillage, conduct lane seeding in stubble will run concurrently with one pass of technological operations of peeling and preparation of soil, trimming weeds, weeding, poslepoletnoi rolling and leveling in extreme weather conditions, to optimize the ratio of high-protein crops in the composition of the TPS plants grown at the same seeding rate, but at different phases of development and the relationships of species within this norm, namely TPS early, legumes - Lupin, sorghum and basic fodder crops - sunflower or corn, they correspond the ratio of 40:20:20, TPS mid - Lupin-sorghum-maize, they correspond to the ratio of 60:20:20 and used for the haylage late - Lupin-sorghum-maize, they correspond to the ratio of 50:40:10.

Comparison of the proposed method with the prototype shows that the new element is that to optimize the ratio of high-protein crops in the composition of the TPS early, legumes - Lupin, sorghum and basic fodder crops - sunflower or corn, they correspond to the ratio of 40:40:20; for TPS mid - (lupine-sorghum-maize) - 60:20:20 and TPS late - (lupine-sorghum-maize) - 50:40:10.

The TPS prepared from a mixture of EDC (lupins, sorghum) and annual fodder crops (corn or sunflower), eaten much better than silage made separately from the green mass or sunflower, due to the fact that the coefficient of digestibility of protein TPS above 1.5-2 times higher than in the processing of single-species crops on the farm.

The essence of the proposed method is illustrated by figure 1, 2, 3.

Figure 1 shows a diagram of a multi-band cultivating and harvesting protein plants placed together in small spaces. The acreage of annual fodder crops 1 and 5 (corn or sunflower), square lupine 2 and 4, as well as sorghum 3.

Figure 2 shows a set of high-protein crops for joint planting in the main region of the Russian Federation at different phases of cultivation and receiving while cleaning the TPS early - and, with inesperado - in late - C.

Figure 3 shows the triangular diagram of the optimal proportions of lupine (1) - sorghum - (2) - corn (3) to obtain TPS early (a), intermediate (in) and late (C).

The method is as follows.

To obtain a high-protein feed and TPS, it is necessary to determine the optimal set and the ratio of sown fodder crops early (a), middle (b) and late (C) maturity (figure 3) in extreme weather conditions, which is determined on the basis of the correlation of the probe.

The proposed method of cultivation TPS of high-protein crops provides lane seeding protein (lupins, sorghum etc) and silage annual crops (corn or sunflower) stubble will run concurrently with one pass of technological operations preparation of soil, trimming weeds, weeding, poslepoletnoi rolling and leveling.

This is achieved by the fact that Lupin 2 and 4 and sorghum 3, since April (when the soil temperature is above 5°C)sow parallel alternating stripes narrow way (distance between rows 15-30 cm between plants 5-15 cm at a depth of 2-3 cm). And the seeds of leguminous pre-slushat between the two discs with abrasive grating surface and rotating with a frequency of up to 15-1. Although the NGOs adjacent lanes 1 and 5 with the spacing of 70-90 cm, and distance between nests 45-70 cm and the depth of sowing 6-12 cm accommodate up to 200 thousand plant corn or sunflower. After growing cleaning of the entire mass of the TPS is carried out in phase brilliant Bob, when the yield of green mass is maximum. This set of IBD allows for extreme weather conditions to increase the productivity of small areas in 1,5-2 times.

To optimize the ratio of species in the mixture TPS plants were grown at the same seeding rate, but at different ratios of species within this norm. Correlation sounding dome of the response ratio of species in the seeding rate-harvest showed that the top of the dome corresponds to a ratio of 40:40:20 - Lupin : sorghum : sunflower in the milk stage (TPS ripening); 60:20:20 - Lupin-sorghum-maize in the stage of milky-wax ripeness (TPS intermediate). As deviations from these optimal ratios harvest TPS naturally decreases. For maximum bankowosci mixture, TPS late as expected, a relatively more legumes (lupine and sorghum)than corn or sunflower, namely: 50:40:10.

The effectiveness of the methods of animal feed production. Specific data calculation payback period of one ton of milk on traditional technology for the production of hay, silage and haylage, and TPS - energy-saving - different nutritional value (a and b) shows the below.

Hay: from 1000 kg of green mass and yield of 20% finished feed will be 200 kg of hay with an average nutritional value 0,46 kid or just 92 CED At a cost of 1.4 CAD per 1 kg of the milk yield will be only 66 kg

Silos: 1,000 kg of raw material at 70% humidity output of finished feed will be 700 kg With the average nutritive value of 1 kg of silage 0,17 CED total yield of forage will be 119 CED or at a flow rate of 1.4 CED on 1 kg of milk, the total yield will be slightly more than 85 kg of milk.

Haylage: when output is 50% with 1 t of raw materials will receive 500 kg of finished feed with nutritional value 0,32 ked one kilogram. This will give 160 cormed or 113 kg of milk.

Output of dairy products for TPS is defined in two ways nutritional components:

The TPS early-maturing (min): when output is 50% with 1000 kg of green mass and humidity of 50% can be obtained 500 kg diet with the nutritional value of 0.6 CED, and in General get 300 CAD At a cost of 0.9 CAD per 1 kg of the milk yield will be 332 kg

The TPS intermediate (AVG.): from 1000 kg TPS at 50% moisture content can be obtained 500 kg diet with the nutritional value of 0.8 CAD per 1 kg of the Nutritive value of the mixture is 400 CID When the cost of feed 0,75 CED 1 kg milk yield 530 kg

Analysis of the obtained data shows that the traditional technology for maximum milk yield will amount to 114 kg with 1 T. milk Yield per ton of high-protein weight zerosen the MS (nutritional value of 0.6-0.8 CED) can range from 330 to 500 kg or 3-5 times more.

Definition of the fuel consumption when planting high-protein crops on a small farm. For comparison we have selected a set of technical means of traditional technologies split and resource - combined seeding. What costs will bring each technology? Here the price of the introduction of seeds and plant protection products (PPPs) will be the same: 1763 RUB/ha seeds, plant protection products - 470 rubles/ha, fertilizer - 1175 RUB/ha, electroactivated solution (air) - 120 RUB/ha

To treat the soil and sow the seeds on a farm of 100 ha, working on traditional technology, it will take 1 tractor T-150 K, lumiline disk LDG-10, plough PLN-4,35, harrow smoothing BSS-1,0, planter Sz-3,6, rink SCCS-6, cultivator CPS to 4.5. Resource-saving technologies requires one combined set of seeds attached to the tractor T-150 K.

Traditional technology. Speed lumilikha disk LDG-10 is 13 km/h and fuel consumption of 25 l/ha of fuel. Plowing produce plow at a speed of 4 km/h (fuel costs-25 l/ha). Cultivated field with a speed of 7 km/h (fuel costs-14 l/ha). Harrowing is carried out at the fuel consumption of 5 l/ha with an average speed of 18 km/H. With presowing cultivation PSC-4,5 at the speed of 10 km/h, fuel consumption is 7 l/ha Sown with a speed of 8 km/h (fuel consumption 1 l/ha). Fuel consumption for plant protection - 6 l/ha If everything is calculated, the fuel consumption per 1 ha of the ri sowing according to the traditional technology will be on 100 ha: 86×30×100=258000 rubles

When energy-saving technologies are three operations in one pass: can be sown up to 4-5 lanes simultaneously made solution air (10-20%) and packing. And all this at a speed of 15 km/H. Accordingly, the cost of fuel per 100 ha will be only 43×30×100=129,000 rubles, or 1.5-2 times lower (save 1290 rubles for each ha).

The versatility of the combined unit helps to reduce the consumption of not only fuel, but also time. When this natural structure and soil fertility for future generations will be saved.

Economic evaluation of cultivation of fodder crops and TPS in the table.

Table.
Economic evaluation of cultivation of fodder crops in times of drought.
IndicatorsCorn silageSugar sorghumSorghum-sudanly hybridThe TPS (Lupin + sorghum + maize) 60:20:20
Green mass yield, t/ha6,5131511,5
With the actual content of Perevalova protein g/kg65-70110-125120-130150
The selling price of 1 ton of silage, RR3500350035003500
The cost of production per 1 ha, RR22750455005250040250
Production costs per 1 ha, RUB9989135041392012471
Including the cost of the seeds, RUB/ha1125750750875
Cost of 1 ton of silage, RUB153710399281168

Techno-economic performance of traditional technology are not only higher fuel consumption and energy intensity of the process in the production of hay, silage, haylage and feed (but according to the table of low protein content and high specific the cost of production).

When the joint cultivation increases the protein content and quality of IBD TPS due to the high protein content in legumes component, easier cleaning and reduced yield losses of crops, prone to lodging, improve the processes of photosynthesis and better use of soil fertility, soil enriched with nitrogen through biological fixation from the atmosphere in legumes.

Sources of information

1. The method of cultivation of agricultural crops, as the USSR №843808, AS, 07.07.81.

2. The method of cultivation of agricultural crops, as the USSR №1058538, 01D, 07.12.83.

The method of cultivation TPS of high-protein crops on farms, including planting with minimum tillage, characterized in that the conducting strip seeding in stubble will run concurrently with one pass of technological operations of peeling and preparation of soil, trimming weeds, weeding, poslepoletnoi rolling and leveling in extreme weather conditions, to optimize the ratio of high-protein crops in the composition of the TPS plants grown at the same seeding rate, but at different phases of development and the relationships of species within this norm, namely TPS early, legumes - Lupin, sorghum and basic fodder crops - sunflower or corn, they are suitable for the comfort of the ratio of 40:40:20, for TPS mid - Lupin-sorghum-maize, they correspond to the ratio of 60:20:20 and TPS late - Lupin-sorghum-maize, they correspond to the ratio of 50:40:10.



 

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3 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preplant tillage, layout and fixing flexible irrigation pipes with droppers built in their cavities, planting of sprouts of vegetable crops, weed suppression, application of herbicides and mineral fertilisers, harvesting and fall plowing. Before processing of the array the base station of the satellite navigation system is permanently mounted at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array. The boundaries of processed array are determined using the satellite navigation system. Size of the array is divided into parallel bands with the width of 1.40±0.02 m and their conventional boundaries are determined. At that the alternating bands are annually assigned for intensive use and fallow. On the bands for intensive use two irrigation pipelines are placed at a distance for each of 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands. The following year, before processing the array the conventional boundaries of the array and bands are restored using the satellite navigation system; the last year assignment of bands is changed, and the alternation of bands in years is carried out with biennial cycles.

EFFECT: method enables to restore annually the conventional boundaries of the processed array and bands with an error less than 0,02-0,05 m and to obtain the guaranteed annual yield of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

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