Method of determining energy value of white lupine grain

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: energy value is determined based on the calculation of the activation energies of chemical components as the sum of the activation energies of the grain cover and core of white lupine, multiplied by the mass fraction of the cover and core in the grain, respectively. To calculate the activation energy the data of thermogravimetric and differential-thermal analysis are used, obtained in continuous heating of samples at a rate of 20 deg/min to thermal decomposition of the components of the grain cover and core.

EFFECT: invention enables to estimate fast and accurately the energy value of feed white lupine grains for feeding farm animals.

3 tbl, 8 ex

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular for the production and evaluation of the energy value of feeds for animals (agricultural and domestic), containing grains of white Lupin.

The modern system of normalized balanced feeding of animals based on the assessment of nutrition/diet digestibility by calculation of the exchange energy (OE) using experimental data carrying experiments or according to the chemical composition of forage from reference and research literature. Exchange energy calculated according to the chemical composition of fodder with regard to the content of crude protein, crude fat and carbohydrates in the form of nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and taking into account their coefficients of digestibility and energy value (energy content in joules). However, the reliability of the calculated data about metabolizable energy of feed depends on the accuracy of the chemical analysis of all components of the nutrients.

The study of the chemical composition and energy value of grains of white Lupin seven varieties of white Lupin breeding by rsau-MTAA named after K.A.Timiryazev. and production of crops in whose name Iwiczna Tambov region was carried out in 2008-2012 on samples obtained within 2-3 years related (A.L. Steele, Tsigutkin A.S., Terekhov V.A. Biological and feeding value of grain b is the logo of Lupin as a source of feed for poultry // Materials of all-Russian scientific-practical conference. So 1. - Belgorod: Publishing house "homeland", 2012. - S. 339-344).

The calculation of the energy value of lupins (table 1) was performed according to chemical composition and digestibility coefficients of nutrients by the formula:

Oeckel/100g=SP×74%SP×%C+9,SG×86%LF×%LF+4,BM×57%BEV×%BEV

Table 1
Chemical composition (%) and energy value of white Lupin (on adjacent crops 2008-2009)
IndexStartMakovickyGammaDeltaDegasDeterDesnyanskiyAverage
Moisture9,9210,018,868,668,938,928,789,15
Dry matter91,0889,9991,1491,3491,0791,8 91,2290,95
MA, kcal 100 g261261269269267268274267
MA, MJ/kgof 10.93of 10.93of 11.26of 11.2611,1811,2211,4711,18
Crude protein33,6234,2534,9733,0933,3734,6931,9733,71
Crude fat10,41to 9.5710,7011,0610,6710,3511,58to 10.62
Crude fiber10,049,98 10,0110,1910,489,589,52becomes 9.97
BEV33,4233,1232,0733,5233,0433,1835,0133,30
Crude ash3,59of 3.073,393,483,513,283,143,35

Additionally in 2012, studies of the chemical composition of the three samples feed of white Lupin: whole grain, husked grain (core) and outer shell (table 2).

Table 2
Chemical composition (%) and energy value of food products grain white Lupin
IndexWhole grainsHusked cornThe shell
Moisture12,0810,5710,66
Dry matter87,9289,4389,34
The exchange energy: kcal/100 g264305252
MJ/kg11,0912,80of 10.58
Crude protein35,1942,06or 4.31
Crude fatfor 9.6411,031,28
Crude fiber9,401,7437,90
BEV33,6934,6045,85
Crude ash3,323,622,09
Calcium0,300,140,72
Phosphorus0,400,490,03

Studies of the chemical composition of grain of white Lupin held in the Testing center breeding of the RAAS, calculating the energy value of the feed is made in the laboratory from the white Lupin by rsau-MTAA named after K.A.Timiryazev..

There is a method of determining the metabolizable energy of feed of white lupine, based on the determination of the content of crude protein, crude fat, starch and sugar. Crude protein is determined by Kjeldahl, crude fat in to conventional Soxhlet extractions. Determination of sugar and starch-based extraction of forage soluble carbohydrates (sugars) into distilled water at a temperature of 70-80°C and subsequent hydrolysis of starch in concentrated hydrochloric acid. In calculating the energy value of forage fiber do not take into account (assessment of the quality of feed, organs, tissues, eggs and poultry: guidelines for animal laboratories. Breeding: Sergiev-Posad.-2009. - 112 S. Prototype).

The calculation of the exchange energy (OE) in kJ/100g feed from grain Lupin calculated by the regression equation:

MA=4,184(53+38 × % crude protein+2,25 × % crude fat+1,1×%BEV) (1)

The disadvantage of this method of determining the energy value of grains of white Lupin is the length of the analysis when determining chemical sotavuosista grain, great energy and labor costs associated with the use of a large number of expensive chemical reagents.

The objective of the invention is to reduce energy and labor to determine the energy value of grains of white lupine, while increasing accuracy.

This object is achieved in that the energy value is determined on the basis of the calculation of activation energies of chemical components as the sum of the activation energies of the shell and core grain white lupine, multiplied by the mass fraction of the shell and kernel in the grain, respectively. To calculate the activation energy use data thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis obtained during continuous heating of the samples at a rate of 20 deg/min to thermal decomposition of the components of shell and kernel corn.

Samples of substances have individual thermal characteristic, which reflects its behavior when heated and depends on the composition, properties, structure, mechanism and kinetics of the reactions of thermal transformations. After processing the curves of differential thermal analysis receive qualitative composition of the samples, and the area and height of the peaks - a quantitative characteristic of the substance. Calculation of thermodynamic characteristics are conducted under the assumption that react and are decomposition reactions-monomolecular and for them justly kinetic equation:

-dCdt=k0be-E/RTC,(2)

where C is the proportion of the substance (A)participating in the reaction and the remaining at some point; k is the reaction rate constant from the equation k=k0·e-E/RT; k0- the pre-exponential factor; n is the reaction order; E - activation energy, kcal/mol; R - 1,987 cal/mol·deg; T is the absolute temperature in degrees Kelvin,b=dTdt.

For subsequent calculations of thermodynamic characteristics and parameters of the kinetic equation, evaluation of the chemical composition of the samples grain white lupine use computer software.

To determine the chemical composition of grain of white Lupin the sample is placed in a thermo analytical system based on derivatograph, where heat the sample in an atmosphere of air at a velocity of 20 deg/min as standard apply kaolin. The heating is carried out to a temperature of 450°C for 20 minutes Conduct a separate analysis of the Obol is his grain and kernel white lupine taking into account the mass fraction of shell and kernel in grain Lupin.

Example 1 (the prototype). Define the kernel of a grain of white Lupin (mass fraction of nuclei in the grain 0,83) varieties Degas method of chemical analysis the content of crude protein, crude fat, sugar and starch and carry out the calculation of the exchange energy according to equation (1). The results of the calculation of the exchange energy are presented in table 3.

Example 2 (the prototype). Define the shell of the grain (mass shell in the grain 0,17) white Lupin varieties Degas method of chemical analysis the content of crude protein, crude fat, sugar and starch and carry out the calculation of the exchange energy according to equation (1). The results of the calculation of the exchange energy are presented in table 3.

Example 3. Sample shell grain white lupine varieties Degas placed in a thermo analytical complex and heated at a rate of 20 deg/min to a temperature of 950°C. the Sample comparison - kaolin. Controlling simultaneously the mass loss of the sample during analysis (TG curve), thermal effects (DTA curve) and maximums during thermal decomposition (DTG curve). They calculate the mass fraction of each component in the sample according to the mass loss and the temperatures of the maxima of the peak activation energies according to equation (2). Then calculate the energy value of the sample by the equation:

E=m1×Ea1+m2×Ea2+... +mn×Ean(3),

where E is the energy value of the sample, mn - mass fraction of the nth component in the sample, Eanthe activation energy of the n-th component.

The results of calculation of the energy values given in table 3. From the results of thermal analysis, it follows that the main weight loss of the samples - the decomposition of organic components occurs to a temperature of 400°C. it is Also noted that temperatures of 150-180°C there is a selection of the samples hygroscopic or vnutrivennoi water. Therefore, in subsequent calculations of energy values are accepted components that decompose in the range of 180-400°C.

Example 4. Similar to example 3. The difference is that as a sample for analysis using the core grain white lupine varieties Degas. The results of calculation of the energy values given in table 3.

Example 5. Similar to example 4. The difference is that the heating is carried out at a speed of 10 deg/min the Results of calculation of the energy values given in table 3.

Example 6. Similar to example 4. The difference is that the heating is carried out at a speed of 10 deg/min to a temperature of 650°C. the results of the calculation of the energy values given in table 3.

Example 7. Similar to example 4. The difference is that the heating is carried out until the temperature of 650°C. the results of the calculation of the energy values given in table 3.

Example 8. Similar to example 7, the Difference is that heating is carried out until the temperature of 450°C, the heating rate is 20 deg/min the Results of calculation of the energy values given in table 3.

The energy value of the grain is calculated taking into account the mass fraction bean shell and the nucleus of the white lupine and total activation energies, calculated from equation (3) as follows:

Egrain=mObol×EObol+mkernel×Ekernel(4).

Table 3
The results of calculation of the energy value (kJ/100g)
ExampleEkernelEObolEgrainNote
11045
21081153By the formula (4) from example 1 and 2
3110
4 10491159By the formula (4) from example 3 and 4
510531163By the formula (4) from example 3 and 5
610481158By the formula (4) from example 3 and 6
710501160By the formula (4) from example 3 and 7
810471157By the formula (4) from example 3 and 8

According to thermal analysis, we can conclude that the increase in the heating temperature of the samples more than 450°C does not change the calculated values of the energy performance, and only increases the time of the experiment, and energy and labor. Reducing the heating rate of 20 deg/min to 10 deg/min also does not change the calculated values of the energy performance, but it increases twice the time of the experiment.

Suggested usage : the BA will reduce energy and labor to determine the energy value of grains of white lupine, while increasing accuracy.

The method of determining the energy value of grains of white Lupin on the basis of calculation of the energies of its chemical components, wherein the energy value is defined as the sum of the activation energies of the shell and core grain white lupine, multiplied by their mass fraction in the grain, and the activation energy calculated according to thermogravimetric and differential thermal analysis obtained during continuous heating of the samples at a rate of 20 deg/min to a temperature of thermal decomposition of organic components of shell and kernel of grain.



 

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