Aerostatic aircraft

FIELD: aircraft engineering.

SUBSTANCE: proposed aircraft comprises lifting air-bag and bearing air-bag and power plant with heater. Lifting air-bag is filled with working fluid of power plant arranged in its nacelle and including compressor, heater, turbine, power load and working fluid lines connected with lifting air-bag. Bearing air-bag is composed of sections and incorporates volume variator.

EFFECT: higher power-to-weight ratio.

9 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to managed aerostatic aircraft, in particular to the airships, mainly to airships equipped with Autonomous systems and facilities energy use as fuels and renewable sources of energy, such as Solar energy.

Famous airships with power plants that convert primary energy into mechanical energy propulsion or electricity. Apply various plant that converts thermal (solar or nuclear) energy into electrical energy. Significant capabilities have nuclear energy sources, which are beneficial to use for a constant load, while managed aerostatic aircraft required load, variable stages of flight and objectives. In addition to the freight task, especially in areas remote from highways, such devices in the main areas of application include: patrol, special control lines and pipelines, photo and video, rescue operations, and luxury tourism. As seen from the transfer characteristics of power generating systems for airships, there is the problem of usage and energy consumption and to change the carrying capacity of the airships when exp is watachi. Thus, the challenge is to build power plants and systems capable of aerostatic aircraft drive propulsion, different types of electrical energy and load bearing lifting force required by the terms of the uneven consumption mode.

The energy potential of nuclear and renewable energy will solve geopolitical problems associated with uneven placement of natural fossil fuels, and also will lead a significant restoration of natural ecological potential and improvement of the environment that attracts these resources and managed aerostatic aircraft.

In particular, the proposed airship, comprising a casing, an air chamber, an Autonomous energy system for electricity generation, heating and air air chamber and molten-salt nuclear reactor with the three-loop heat removal system, consisting of hardware circuit molten fuel salt composition, circuit intermediate melt salt coolant and circulation flow of gaseous coolant. On the second version of the airship includes an additional heat exchanger molten fuel salt composition is melt intermediate salt coolant. Potratem option airship includes additional air chamber in the heat-insulated housing. On the fourth draft of the airship includes an additional heat exchanger and the air chamber in the heat-insulated housing (RF patent for the invention №2408496, publication date 2000.12.20). The disadvantage of this solution is the high cost and low efficiency of energy supply to the airship, which is associated with large costs for the establishment and operation of a multi-circuit system of heat removal from the molten-salt reactor (up to 1500 dollars. USA/kW).

Similar to the proposed technical solution is also a high-altitude airship proposed in the patent for invention №2376687 (publication date: 20.12.2009), which uses regenerative power plant, designed to move the airship in the environment, comprising a solar battery, an electric drive screw with a control unit, electrically connected to the solar battery cells electrically connected by electric lines with a solar battery, the electrochemical generator, electrically connected by electric lines to the control unit of the electric screw drive, power storage and supply of hydrogen and oxygen, is pneumatically connected to the electrochemical generator and the electrolyzer, the power storage and supply of water that is hydraulically connected with electrochemical generator and an electrolyzer, a pump, characterized in that it introduced the Kama is and mixing, the combustion chamber, turbine, shaft with the compressor and generator, regenerative heat exchanger and the heat exchanger-separator, which features a water level sensor connected to the control channels to pump out oxygen from the electrochemical generator connected to the first input in the mixing chamber, a second inlet into the mixing chamber is connected to the first output of the regenerative heat exchanger, the outlet of the mixing chamber connected to the first input in the combustion chamber, a second inlet in the combustion chamber is connected with the release of hydrogen from the electrochemical generator, the output of the combustion chamber is connected to the turbine inlet, the outlet from the turbine is connected to the first input of the regenerative heat exchanger, a second entrance to the regenerative heat exchanger connected to the air outlet of the compressor, the second output of the regenerative heat exchanger is connected to the gas inlet of the heat exchanger-air dryer, the air outlet of the heat exchanger of the air dryer is connected to the air inlet to the compressor, the water outlet of the heat exchanger of the air dryer is connected through a pump with a power storage and supply of water, and the output of the generator is electrically connected by electric lines to the control unit of the electric screw drive. The disadvantages of this solution is the low efficiency and high cost of installation.

More for e is e the solution proposed in the patent of the Russian Federation for invention №2390466 (publication date 27.05.2010), the prototype, in which the aerostatic aircraft includes a housing shell for carrier gas and power plant, made in the form of the nuclear reactor. The apparatus has a cooling system of the reactor core and the temperature-controlled carrier gas. The cooling system of the reactor core comprises a heat exchanger, a first cooling circuit with a circulating pump and a second cooling circuit, designed to pick up heat from the coolant of the first contour and provided with a circulating pump. The temperature regulation system carrier gas in the form of highways, equipped with a circulation pump connected to the shell of the carrier gas and passing through the heat exchanger. The disadvantages of this solution are relatively low efficiency associated with the need to transfer thermal energy using the fuel solution, the high cost and the need for additional energy source for the needs of the payload airship.

The objective of the invention is to increase the capacity of the apparatus, the distance and cruising altitude, its total installed power, environmental, security apparatus, the land use for power supply reliability, reduce the cost of delivering payload, opportunities for the use of renewable natural energy sources.

The problem is solved in that

in aerostatic aircraft, containing the lifting ballonet and the power plant, including the heater, aerostatic aircraft is equipped with a bearing ballonets, lifting ballonet filled with the working fluid power plant, located in energokontrole, including the compressor, heater, turbine, power loading, highways working body connected with lifting ballonets;

- bearing ballonet partitioned and provided with means for changing its volume;

- the heater is selected nuclear reactor or heat the battery;

as the working fluid is selected the air, or helium, or a mixture of helium and hydrogen;

- lifting ballonet provided with means changes its volume and heat exchanger, cooled by the external air;

as the power load connected to the turbine, the selected generator or propulsion;

the path formed by the compressor, heater and turbine, equipped with adjustable bypass circuit;

- compressor mechanically coupled to the turbine.

In the drawing given a diagram of the apparatus, where 1 - bearing ballonet, 2 - lifting ballonet, 3 - loop working fluid, 4 - energihandel, 5 - compressor, 6 - heater, 7 - turbine, 8 - power load, 9 - bypass path 10 to the supply pipeline RA is Otsego body.

Aerostatic aircraft (Zeppelin) contains bearing ballonet 1, which is connected with the lifting ballonets 2 containing gaseous working fluid whose flow 3 is withdrawn from the winding ballonet 2 energogolodu 4, in which the flow path of the working fluid 3 is directed into the compressor 5, and then compressed heated in the heater 6 and flows into the turbine 7, which serves to drive a compressor, and power load 8. After tripping the turbine 7 enthalpy obtained in the heater 6, the flow of the working fluid is returned to the pipeline for supplying the working fluid 10 in lifting ballonet 2. Part of the working fluid flow after the turbine flows into the bypass path 9, which is closed at the entrance to the compressor 5.

Depending on the selected working fluid (air or helium or a mixture of helium and hydrogen) the inlet pressure of the working fluid in energogolodu 4 is chosen close to atmospheric, and the density of the working fluid in the compressor 5 may range from 0.1 kg/m3(a mixture of helium and hydrogen) to 0.8 (heated air), which can cause differences in the design of ballonets 1 and 2 of the apparatus and its energokontrole 4. In particular, for the working fluid of higher density can be increased bearing ballonet 1, to provide basic lift apparatus. The heater 6 can be selected samples of different objects of the second reactor or heat accumulator, charge, for example, solar panels on the hull of ballonets 1 and 2 or sbresny warm various devices on Board of the machine to which the heater may also be provided with a host of regenerative heat exchange (not shown). For the selection of the working fluid from the lifting of ballonet 2, for example in the embodiment of it in the form of a double-walled cavity, it can be put underwater and idler bellows tube. Double-walled cavity lifting ballonet 2 can also be partitioned and equipped with volume changes, made in the form of bellows, provided with, for example, mechanical, pneumatic or hydraulic actuator, and a heat exchanger, cooled by the external air, which will accelerate the change of speed of lowering of the apparatus, and reduce the work of compression of the working fluid in the compressor 5 in the mode of removal of the accumulated energy in the heater 6, for example in the embodiment of it in the form of heat the battery, or when the cooldown nuclear reactor that is used as a heater 6.

In turn, the bypass circuit 9 allows you to change the load of the heater 6 and the turbine 7 without changing the flow rate and temperature of the working fluid supplied to the lifting ballonet 2 through a pipeline for supplying the working fluid 10. This solution will allow to change the speed of ascent apt the rata and the power of the power load 8.

To reduce the temperature of the working fluid and/or condensation of the pipeline supplying the working fluid 10 can be connected with the cooling side of the battery is cold (not shown), the cold accumulation which may be due to the low ambient temperatures or refrigeration machines compression or absorption type (not shown). Rationally accumulating cold in the form of binary ice mixtures, so-called "liquid ice" (a mixture of water, alcohol and inhibiting corrosion additives).

In addition, the entrance to the turbine 7 and the compressor outlet 5 are provided with adjustable valves.

Taking into account the possible irregularity of the supply of thermal energy, such as using renewable sources such as solar energy, the heater 6 can be connected to additional heat accumulator, which in turn rationally be performed in a sealed insulated container filled heat storage substance: liquid, for example water or oil, or solids, such as salts and oxides of alkaline and alkaline-earth metals, and minerals with a high heat capacity.

Does this aerostatic aircraft (Zeppelin) as follows on the three main modes: climb, cruise and descent. When the apparatus on earth is, during land preparation, make the filling ballonet 1 and 2 gas environment, in particular feeding in lifting ballonet 2 working medium, for example a mixture of helium and hydrogen stored in the battery of the working fluid, for example, in the isothermal model capacity at a temperature of -35°C and a pressure of 12 MPa, the supply lead up to the ambient temperature in the fuel line supplying the working fluid 10 with pre-throttling the working fluid to ambient pressure. Before lifting the flow of the working body 3 serves to the input of the compressor 5, which is compressed, for example, to a pressure of 0.35 MPa, and then the heater 6, in which at a temperature of, for example, up to 300°C is heated, for example, due to the accumulated thermal energy.

In the mode of lifting the heated flow of the working fluid 3 is supplied from the heater 6 to the input of the turbine 7, where the working fluid expands to a pressure of 0.1 MPa and a temperature of 70°C, and then served in the artery supplying the working fluid 10. The heated working fluid of low density fills lifting ballonet 2, which together with the bearing ballonet 1 allows to ensure the ascent of the airship to cruising altitude, where the device goes into cruise mode in which the energy of the heater 6, creatively working fluid in the turbine 7, which is used mainly to drive power-load 8 spent on overcoming aerodynamic resisting film to prevent the effect of air (drive propulsion, for example, a screw) and ensuring the needs of staff and its payload. As the power load 8 can be used an electric generator, a propeller apparatus, the flywheel.

Changing the temperature of the working fluid, adjust the lifting force generated by the lifting ballonets 2, thereby controlling the position of the unit at a height that allows a wide range to change cruising modes and without ballast.

When the shutter device is activated bypass circuit and the bypass flow 9 returns the flow of the working fluid at the inlet to the compressor, bypassing the supply of the working fluid 10.

In this mode may be used as the cooling of the working fluid surrounding the apparatus by air lifting ballonet 2, for example, blowing air between the walls of the casing and the mechanism to reduce the amount of lifting ballonet 2, wherein the mechanical actuator compresses the shell lifting ballonet 2, which allows for reducing the volume of the working fluid to reduce and lift force, aided by a simultaneous increase in the pressure of the working fluid and its density.

Tactical-technical characteristics of the device can be estimated based on the following indicators shown in the Table.

The volume of the shell10000 m3
Structural mass of the airship6500 kg
Payload mass3000 kg
The maximum allowable takeoff weight9700 kg
Maximum dynamic lift force1000 kg
The minimum speed control0 km/h
Cruising speed0...100 km/h
Maximum speed130 km/h
Power of main engine2×350 kW
Duration:
- cruising speed of 70 km/h24 hours
- maximum speed5 h
Rangeunlimited
Ferry Yes inost flight up to 6000 km
Practical ceiling3000 m
Operating altitudeup to 1500 m
Crew2 people
The starting team6-8 people.

Proposed aerostatic aircraft (Zeppelin) compared with the prototype has the following advantages:

- increases the power of the apparatus, the range and cruising altitude, its total energy supply, as the device does not require energy input in peak mode from the external energy source adopted in the prototype solution;

- increases reliability and reduces the cost of delivering payload and perform flight tasks due to a sharp (by several orders of magnitude) reduction of volume of the working fluid outside the membrane ballonet;

- provides full environmental security apparatus, since the working fluid is not released into the environment;

- using heat accumulators installation is stored for any desired amount of energy sufficient to ensure stable and uninterrupted work apt the rata, even in periods of interruption in supply of heat energy from a renewable source;

- provides the opportunity to use this device to generate electricity and supply of various objects thermal energy in the mode razoblachennogo graphics consumption in areas based system;

- technically simple and reliable provided the ability to change energy production regardless of the mode of motion of the system;

- ensured effective utilization of waste heat from various heat engines, as well as expands the possibility of using renewable natural energy sources, with significant resource potential and at the same time, the high irregularity of receipt of their energy, as well as further improve the efficiency of the installation in cold climatic periods;

- increases reliability and reduces the manufacturing cost of the apparatus due to the moderate temperature and pressure parameters of the working fluid.

An additional positive feature of this apparatus is the possibility of using already existing materials, technical solutions and equipment necessary for its creation.

1. Aerostatic aircraft, containing the lifting ballonet and power installation, comprising a heater, wherein the aerostatic aircraft equipped with bearing what allonym, lifting ballonet filled with the working fluid power plant, located in energokontrole, including the compressor, heater, turbine, power loading, highways working body connected with lifting ballonets.

2. The apparatus according to claim 1, characterized in that the bearing ballonet partitioned and provided with means for changing its size.

3. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the heater is selected nuclear reactor.

4. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the heater is selected heat accumulator.

5. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the working medium is selected, the air, or helium, or a mixture of helium and hydrogen.

6. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the lifting ballonet provided with means changes its volume and heat exchanger, cooled by air.

7. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that as the power load connected to the turbine, the selected generator or propulsion.

8. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the contour formed by the compressor, heater and turbine, equipped with adjustable bypass circuit.

9. The apparatus according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the compressor is mechanically coupled to the turbine.



 

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