Pressure chamber

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. Pressure chamber 4 comprises cylindrical housing 3 with bottom 2, cylindrical shell 8 and grate 6. Cylindrical shell 8 is arranged coaxially with housing 3 to divide it into central discharge channel 7 and lateral feed channel 1. Grate 6 is arranged in central discharge channel 7. Porosity factor of grate 6 corresponds to the range of 0.05-0.7.Relationships are fine for chamber 4 which allow, first, for interrelation between maximum radius of the grate perforated part, pressure chamber height, cylindrical shell outer radius, pressure chamber inlet height and housing inner radius. Second, interrelation between pressure chamber height, cylindrical shell outer radius, pressure chamber height and housing inner radius. Third, interrelation between pressure chamber inlet height, housing inner radius, inner and outer radii of cylindrical shell 8. Fourth, interrelation between pressure chamber height and that of its inlet. Fifth, interrelation between pressure chamber inlet height, housing inner radius and outer radius of cylindrical shell 8. Invention proposes the relationship for selection of pressure chamber flow section.

EFFECT: optimum flow hydrodynamics at pressure chamber outlet.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to heat engineering and can be used in power, chemical and other industries.

Known pressure chamber, comprising a housing, inside which a gap is established shell, a cylindrical annular insert, the upper end of which is adjacent to the bottom end of the shell, and the bottom end is installed with a clearance relative to the plate, coaxial side standpipe and the Central discharge channel provided between a pressure chamber, the displacer, is made in the form of a cylinder with cover, upper part of which is displayed in the annular cavity insert, installed with a clearance with respect thereto and located below the upper part of the annular insert [RF Patent for the invention №2025799 "Nuclear reactor"; priority from 02.10.1990; registered 30.12.1994].

A disadvantage of the known device is that it does not stipulate the possibility of obtaining a given profile of the flow velocity at the outlet from the pressure chamber through the proper ratio of the pressure chamber and metering the hydraulic resistance of the output part.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed device is a pressure chamber, comprising a housing, inside which a gap is established shell, coaxial side standpipe and the Central outlet is analy, communicated between a pressure chamber. For Plenum presents the ratio for the evaluation of non-uniformity of the velocity distribution at the exit, taking into account the ratio of the pressure chamber and the hydraulic resistance of the output part [Kirillov, P.L., Yuriev US, Bobkov VP Handbook of thermal-hydraulic calculations (nuclear reactors, heat exchangers, steam generators). M.: Energoatomizdat, 1990. Str-150].

A disadvantage of the known device is that the characteristic ratio, taking into account the relationship of the hydrodynamic characteristics of the flow in the flow part of the pressure chamber and the ratio of its size obtained for the construction of the pressure chamber in which the movement of the fluid flow in the channel between the plate and grid distribution flow path in the direction from the periphery of the pressure chamber toward its center, and, accordingly, may not be used for pressure chambers with reverse rotation flow with jet flow pattern of the working environment.

The technical result is to create a pressure chamber with a given hydraulic unevenness on the exit.

To eliminate this drawback in a pressure chamber containing a cylindrical housing with a bottom, a cylindrical shell mounted coaxially to the housing and separating the cavity of the messaging is installed between a Central outlet and a lateral annular inlet channels, and grill, located in the Central discharge channel, is proposed when the porosity coefficient of the lattice, corresponding to the range from 0.05 to 0.7, when the size of the pressure chamber, taking into account, firstly, the relationship of the maximum radius of the perforated part of the grid, the height of the pressure chamber, the outer radius of the cylindrical shell, the height of the inlet to the pressure chamber and the inner radius of the housing, and secondly, the relationship of the height of the pressure chamber, the outer radius of the cylindrical shell, the height of the inlet to the pressure chamber and the inner radius of the housing, thirdly, the relationship of the height of the inlet to the pressure chamber, the inner and outer radii of the cylindrical shell and the inner radius of the housing, the fourth, the relationship of the height of the pressure chamber and the height of the entrance and, fifthly, the height of the inlet to the pressure chamber, the outer radius of the cylindrical shell and the inner radius of the housing, the dimensions of the flow part of the pressure chamber to choose taking into account the hydrodynamic characteristics of its flow part ratio, taking into account the mass flow of the working medium in the hole lattice, the average mass flow of the working medium in the holes of the lattice, a complete loss of pressure in the pumping of the working medium through the lattice, the average density of the working environment, the average speed of the working environment in the holes of the grid, the height of the pressure is camera, the outer radius of the cylindrical shell, the height of the input side of the pressure chamber, the inner radius of the housing, the number of holes in the lattice, the radius of the holes in the lattice, the current radius of the lattice and the maximum radius of the perforated part of the grid.

Longitudinal axial section of one of the embodiments of the pressure chamber is represented on the figure, where the following notation: 1 - lateral annular inlet channel; 2 - bottom; 3 - cover; 4 - pressure chamber; 5 - hole lattice; 6 bars; 7 - Central discharge channel; 8 - cylindrical shell.

The pressure chamber contains a cylindrical housing 3 with the bottom 2, the cylindrical shell 8 and the grating 6.

Cylindrical shell 8 is installed coaxially to the casing 3 and separates the cavity on the communicated between a Central outlet 7 and a lateral annular inlet 1 channels.

The bars 6 are placed in the Central discharge channel 7.

The porosity coefficient of the grating 6 is in a range from 0.05 to 0.7. The ratio of the pressure chamber 4 correspond to the following conditions:

where r1- the maximum radius of the perforated part of the grid 6, m; H - height of the pressure chamber 4, m; r34- radius of the inner shell 3, m; r2- the inner radius of the cylindrical shell 8, m

The dimensions of the flow part of the pressure chamber 4 is chosen taking into account the hydrodynamic characteristics of its flow part at the following ratio

where M is the mass flow rate of the working environment in the hole 5 grid 6, kg/s;M- average mass flow rate of the working environment in the hole 5 grid 6, kg/s;ζ=2ΔP/(pw02)the hydraulic resistance coefficient of the grating; ΔP is the complete loss of pressure in the pumping of the working medium through the grid 6, PA;p- the average density of the working environment, kg/m3;w0- the average speed of the working environment in the holes 5 grid 6, m/s;

f=(0,21H+1,31h1+0,27r3-0,06h)2(nr02)-1the relative cross - sectional area of the jet; H - height of the pressure chamber (4), m;

h1=-2,58r3+0,55h+(to 4.52r32-1,92r3h+2,13r42+0,2h2)0,5- the height of the jet of the working medium in the inlet portion of the pressure chamber 4, m; r3- the outer radius of the cylindrical shell 8, m; h - height of the input side of the pressure chamber 4, m; r4- radius of the inner shell 3, m; n - number of openings 5 in the lattice 6; r0- the radius of the hole 5 grid 6, m; r is the current radius of the grating 6, m; r1- the maximum radius of the perforated part of the grid 6, m

Used in expressions (1÷6) denote structural elements of the pressure chamber 4 presents nfigure.

Ratios for the determination of hydrodynamic non-uniformity at the output of the axisymmetric pressure chamber 4 is designed with consideration of the law of conservation of mass in the assumption of constant thermophysical properties of the working environment and the jet nature of its course.

At the conclusion of the calculated ratios adopted the following assumptions.

Moving along the bottom 2 flat stranded jet after turning in the center of the pressure chamber 4 is converted to round the flooded stream.

When moving flat half-jets along the bottom 2 after stabilizing section, the ring is constructed of a jet along the body 3 and a circular submerged jet in the main volume of the pressure chamber 4 is to increase the area of their cross section, accompanied by a decrease in the speed of the working environment in it.

Angle unilateral extension of flooded streams is 12°.

When the jet hit the bars 6 one part of the flow enters into the holes 5 grid 6, located at the meeting point of the jet, the other spreads along the grating 6 with the change in the flow rate along the path.

The relation (1) corresponds to the condition of contact of the inner side surface of the circular submerged jet on the grid 6, the relation (2) is the condition for the formation of the incident on the grating 6 circular submerged jet, and the relation (5) is the condition for transforming alzieu half-jets in all the flooded stream in the main volume of the pressure chamber 4 in the reverse flow.

During the working environment in the flowing part of the pressure chamber 4 is as follows.

Working environment through the side of the annular inlet channel 1 goes in the pressure chamber 4, the changes in her direction, strikes the grating 6 and through its hole 5 extends in a cylindrical discharge channel 7.

A specific example of the pressure chamber

Pressure chamber 4 has the following aspect ratios: H-h=0; r1/r4=0,87; r2/r4=0,95; r3/r4=0,97; h/r4=0,15; H/r4=0,15. The porosity coefficient of the grating 6 (ε) equal to 0.10. At this Reynolds number in the lateral annular supply channel 1 and the hole 5 grid 6, respectively 2,11·104and 1.12·103and the ratio ζ=13,2. The result of the comparison of the results of calculation according to equation (6) with the experimental data obtained for the pressure chamber 4, satisfying the conditions (1)÷(5), it was found that the difference in costs M does not exceed ±10%.

Pressure chamber containing a cylindrical housing with a bottom, a cylindrical shell mounted coaxially to the housing and separating the cavity on the communicated between a Central outlet and a lateral annular inlet channels, and grille, located in the Central discharge channel, wherein when the ratio of the porosity of the lattice, corresponding to the range from 0.02 to 0.7, and is otnoshenijah size of the pressure chamber, relevant conditions:





where
r1- the maximum radius of the perforated part of the lattice, m;
H - height of the pressure chamber, m;
r3- the outer radius of the cylindrical shell, m;
h - the height of the inlet to the pressure chamber, m;
r4- radius of the inner shell, m;
r2- the inner radius of the cylindrical shell, m,
the dimensions of the flow part of the pressure chamber is chosen taking into account the hydrodynamic characteristics of its flow part at the following ratio

where
M - mass flow rate of the working environment in the hole lattice, kg/s;
M- the average mass flow of the working medium in the holes of the lattice, kg/s;
ζ=2ΔP/(pw02)the hydraulic resistance coefficient of the grating;
ΔP is the complete loss of pressure in the pumping of the working medium through the lattice, PA;
p - the average density of the working environment, kg/m3;
w0- the average speed of the working environment in the holes of the lattice, m/s;
f=(0,21H+1,31h1+0,27r3-0,06h)2(nr02)-1the relative cross - sectional area of the jet;
H - height of the pressure chamber, m;
h1=-2,58r3+0,55h+(to 4.52r32-1,92r3h+2,13r42+0,2h2)0,5- the height of the jet
the working environment at the input side of the pressure chamber, m;
r3- the outer radius of the cylindrical shell, m;
h - the height of the input side of the pressure chamber, the;
r4- radius of the inner shell, m;
n is the number of holes in the lattice;
r0is the radius of the holes in the lattice, m;
r is the current radius of the lattice, m;
r1- the maximum radius of the perforated part of the lattice, m



 

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Pressure chamber // 2525857

FIELD: power engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat engineering. Pressure chamber 4 comprises cylindrical housing 3 with bottom 2, cylindrical shell 8 and grate 6. Cylindrical shell 8 is arranged coaxially with housing 3 to divide it into central discharge channel 7 and lateral feed channel 1. Grate 6 is arranged in central discharge channel 7. Porosity factor of grate 6 corresponds to the range of 0.05-0.7.Relationships are fine for chamber 4 which allow, first, for interrelation between maximum radius of the grate perforated part, pressure chamber height, cylindrical shell outer radius, pressure chamber inlet height and housing inner radius. Second, interrelation between pressure chamber height, cylindrical shell outer radius, pressure chamber height and housing inner radius. Third, interrelation between pressure chamber inlet height, housing inner radius, inner and outer radii of cylindrical shell 8. Fourth, interrelation between pressure chamber height and that of its inlet. Fifth, interrelation between pressure chamber inlet height, housing inner radius and outer radius of cylindrical shell 8. Invention proposes the relationship for selection of pressure chamber flow section.

EFFECT: optimum flow hydrodynamics at pressure chamber outlet.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: distribution chamber is confined from outside by housing and bottom (3) to connected two lateral feed channels (1) and central discharge channel (7) via clearances between bottom (3) and end parts of end parts of inner walls (2). Housing is composed of two outer walls (5) and bottom (3). Set of plates (6) making working fluid channels (4) is arranged in cross-section of central discharge channel (7), parallel with inner walls (2) with clearance there between. Lateral discharge channels (1) are separated from central discharge channel (7) by inner walls (2) directed along outer walls (5). Outer and inner walls (5, 2), bottom (3) and set of plates (6) are composed by vertical flat plates. Porosity factor of said set 6 corresponds to 0.3-0.8. Cited are relationships for distribution chamber allowing for chamber height, chamber inlet and outlet heights, half width of housing and that of central part of central discharge channel (7), half width of outer and inner parts of central discharge channel (7).

EFFECT: enhanced performances.

1 dwg

FIELD: power industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to internals of a reactor with pressure water cooling. The reactor includes high-pressure cylindrical housing (1) with inlet branch pipes connected to it; fuel assemblies installed inside high-pressure housing (1); cylindrical core barrel (3) enveloping the fuel assemblies and forming annular downcomer (6) between core barrel (3) and the inner surface of high-pressure housing (1); and radial supports. Radial supports represent supports installed under downcomer (6) at some distance from each other in a circumferential direction, in each of which there is a vertical heat carrier passage duct formed inside it, by means of which positioning of core barrel (3) and high-pressure housing (1) is performed. For example each radial support can have radial key (21) with the heat carrier passage duct and element (40) with a key groove.

EFFECT: uniform distribution of a heat carrier flow in a circumferential direction.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics, atomic power.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to pressurised water reactors. The reactor comprises a reactor pressure vessel (11), a cylindrical core basket (13), a lower core support plate (17) and a cylindrical permeable membrane (31). A downcomer (14) is formed between the inner lateral surface of the vessel (11) and the cylindrical core basket (13). The lower core support plate (17) has a large number of openings (80) for an ascending stream. The cylindrical permeable membrane (31) divides the lower chamber (16) and the lower part of the downcomer (14), and has a large number of openings (83) for an incoming stream, which serve as channels for passing the stream from the lower part of the downcomer (14) into the lower chamber (16). The openings (83) for the incoming stream on the side where said openings for the input stream exit into the lower chamber (16) are inclined upwards towards the lower chamber (16).

EFFECT: high uniformity of the flow of coolant in the core.

13 cl, 12 dwg

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