Liquid-propellant rocket engine turbopump unit

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: set of inventions relates to turbopump units of liquid-propellant rocket engines and nuclear rocket engines. Turbopump unit comprises pump 1, turbine 2, shaft 3 running in ball bearings 4, wheel 6 of turbine 2 and impeller 6 fitted on shaft 3, housing 8, separation chamber 9 with shaft seals 11 on the side of pump chamber and chamber ahead of turbine wheel 6. Separation chamber 9 is connected via channel 12 and external discharge pipeline 13 with engine main line wherein pressure is lower than that inside turbine 2. External pipeline 13 can be connected with gas circuit downstream of turbine 2, with line feeding fluid to pump 1 and lined feeding fluid into engine. Separation chamber 9 can be communicated with gas circuit downstream of turbine via channel or channels in shaft 3 and turbine wheel 6.

EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.

5 cl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of engineering, namely the region of shoulder machines, and can be used in the field of rocketry, turbopump units (TNA) liquid propellant rocket engines (LPRE) and nuclear rocket engines (YARD).

When creating TNA LPRE one of the key moments of creation of the unit is to ensure the operability of the turbine and reliable separation of the pump and the turbine, especially for engines operating at cryogenic propellant components. To exclude the ingress of hot gas from the turbine to the pump at the entrance to the seal between the pump and the turbine is fed liquid component high pressure due to the impeller or pump, which leads to increased leakage of the liquid component of the fuel in the turbine. This method provides a reliable separation of the pump and turbine, but has some disadvantages, the main of which are: significant leakage into the cavity of the turbine, which reduces the efficiency of the pump, the negative effects on the pattern of flow at the entrance to the turbine wheel, which leads to reduction of its efficiency, a negative effect on the stress-strain state of the impeller of the turbine because of the "cold" leaks on the disk, which leads to increased stresses on the disk of the impeller of the turbine compressive side of the pump and rastah the living - the side opposite to the pump.

Known design turbopump Assembly consisting of a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals from the side of the pump cavity and the cavity in front of the turbine wheel, which is connected with the output cavity of the impeller or pump (Dmitrenko A.I. Development design turbopump assemblies rocket engine developed in kbkha // Scientific-technical jubilee collection. KB of Federal - IPF Voronezh, 2001. - S-314 - prototype).

This design turbopump Assembly is typical for TNA LRE. The disadvantage of this design is the presence of high leakage of the cold working fluid from the pump to the turbine, which leads to deterioration of the strength characteristics of the impeller of the turbine reduces the total efficiency of the turbopump Assembly.

The present invention is directed to improving the reliability TNA LRE and efficiency turbopump Assembly.

The technical effect is achieved by the turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals outside the s pump cavity and the cavity in front of the turbine wheel, dividing the cavity according to the invention the channel in the housing and an external discharge pipe connected to the main engine, a pressure which is lower than the pressure in the cavity of the turbine. External discharge pipe can be connected to the gas path after the turbine, with the line supplying fluid to the pump, with the line supplying fluid to the engine. In addition, dividing the cavity may be connected to the gas path after the turbine channel or channels in the shaft and the impeller of the turbine. While the diameters of the seals from the pump and the turbine may be different.

The use of the invention provides increased reliability TNA for the exclusion of the influence of cold leaks from the pump on the stress-strain state of the impeller of the turbine, increasing the efficiency of the turbine and the overall efficiency turbopump Assembly, which is achieved by excluding the negative impact of leakage from the pump at the picture of the flow at the entrance to the turbine wheel.

Turbopump Assembly LRE created using the present invention has a higher efficiency and reliability by eliminating leakage of working fluid from the pump to the turbine. In addition to the turbopump units LRE, the invention can be used in aggregates General appointed the Oia, including working with cryogenic liquids.

Figure 1 shows a General view, figure 2 - option offer turbopump unit with 1 pump; 2 - turbine; 3 - shaft; 4, 5-bearing; 6 - turbine wheel; 7 - impeller; 8 - body; 9 - separation cavity; 10 - seal separation between the cavity and the pump; 11 - seal separation between the cavity and the turbine; 12 - channel in the housing; 13 - external discharge pipe; 14 - channel in the shaft and the impeller of the turbine.

Turbopump Assembly (figure 1) consists of a pump 1, a turbine 2, the shaft 3. The shaft is mounted on bearings 4, 5. Shaft mounted turbine wheel 6 and the impeller 7. The cavity of the turbine is separated from the pump separation chamber 9 with seals 10 and 11. The channel in the housing 12 and the external discharge pipe 13 of the separation chamber 9 is connected to the main engine, a pressure which is lower than the pressure in the cavity of the turbine. External discharge pipe can be connected to the gas path after the turbine, with the line supplying fluid to the pump, with the line supplying fluid to the engine, with a line for supplying the working fluid into the chamber. Dividing the cavity may be connected to the gas path after the turbine channel in the shaft and the impeller of the turbine 14 (figure 2).

In the beginning of a turbopump Assembly made according to figure 1, 2, the working fluid ceratopteris separation between the cavity and the pump and the gas from the turbine through the seal between the turbine and the separation cavity fall in the separation cavity. Then the mixture of fluid and gas through the channel in the housing and an external discharge pipe (or holes in the shaft and the impeller of the turbine) is fed into the cavity at a pressure which is lower than in the separation cavity. In case of "cold" leaks from the pump to the turbine flow having a lower gas temperature, getting on the impeller of the turbine leads to the violation pattern of the flow at the entrance to the impeller, which reduces the efficiency of the turbine, as well as to increased stresses on the disk of the impeller of the turbine compressive side of the pump and stretching from the side opposite the pump. As in the proposed turbopump Assembly eliminated the leakage of cold fluid to the turbine, reduced voltage in the impeller of the turbine and improved gas-dynamic characteristics of the turbine that provides improved reliability and overall efficiency of the turbopump Assembly.

1. Turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals from the side of the pump cavity and the cavity in front of the turbine wheel, wherein the separating cavity channel in the housing and an external discharge pipe connected with the highway number is I, pressure which is lower than the pressure in the cavity of the turbine.

2. Turbopump unit rocket engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the discharge pipe is connected with a gas line after the turbine.

3. Turbopump unit rocket engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the discharge pipe is connected to the line supplying fluid to the pump.

4. Turbopump unit rocket engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the discharge pipe is connected to the line supplying fluid to the engine.

5. Turbopump Assembly LRE containing a pump and a turbine, a shaft supported on bearings mounted on the shaft of the impeller of the turbine and the impeller, casing and dividing the cavity with the shaft seals from the side of the pump cavity and the cavity in front of the turbine wheel, wherein the separation cavity is connected with a gas line after the turbine channel in the shaft and the impeller of the turbine.



 

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