Control over diesel operation

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automotive industry, particularly, to diesels and can be used for control over diesel running on alternative fuels. Diesel runs on liquid hydrocarbon fuel and incorporates glow plug in combustion chamber of every cylinder. For its operation fuel is selected with cetane ratio of 22-45 and glow plug supply voltage is maintained with due allowance for selected fuel cetane ratio in compliance with linear relation: U=29-0.24×CR, where U is glow plug supply voltage, V, CR is selected fuel cetane ratio.

EFFECT: higher engine efficiency.

4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to engine, in particular for diesel engines, and can be used in the methods of the workflow management of diesel engines running on alternative fuels.

Known way to control the workflow engine implemented on the example of four-cylinder diesel compression-type that uses a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel with a high ignition temperature and requires an external supply of electricity to ignite the gas-air mixture (see patent RU 2204727). The known method provides a lower preheating temperature of the gas mixture and includes an external supply of heat with glow plugs that are installed in the combustion chamber of each cylinder, the adjustment of the coefficient of excess oxidant and combined heating of the gas mixture due to:

- regulation of the heating of the glow plugs to be installed in each cylinder to minimize the variance of temperature regimes;

control the preheating temperature of the mixture, which is the main governing parameter, defining the moment of ignition.

Gas-air mixture, heated to the required temperature, received in the cylinder in the suction stroke, is compressed by the piston during its movement to the upper dead is the point increase its temperature and in a predetermined phase ignite in the area of the glow plug, regulated current through the adjusting device, with the aim of creating the same temperature in the cylinders. Due to these measures reduce the temperature of the preheating gas mixture.

Currently, as more stringent requirements of international and national environmental standards efforts of researchers and designers increasingly aimed at reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides and soot particles primarily due to the improvement of the working process of diesel engine, including the use of alternative liquid fuels: gas condensate, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel and gasoline and so on (see the article "Technology to reduce emissions and resource conservation in the engine," Miller GV, "engine", 2011, №2, p.45-52; see "characteristics of the injection process and the performance of high-speed diesel, operating on diesel fuel and rapeseed oil. Gusakov S.V. and other News. MSTU. Ser. Machinists. 2009, No. 2, p.58-71, 124).

In the course of the research workflow diesel 1415/20 .5 (see the PHD Thesis. Malozemova A.A. Ensuring ignition of various fuels in a diesel engine with a combustion chamber in the piston electric candle bulbs. Chelyabinsk: EGA is, 1996, 250 C.), running on alternative liquid fuels, it was found that the temperature of the glow plug and characteristics of samovosplameneniem fuel affect the ignition delay period of the air-fuel mixture.

Known from the patent RU 2204727 method cannot be implemented in the working process of diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels (gas condensate, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel and gasoline), which has a high ignition temperature, affecting the basic workflow settings: the ignition delay period and the rate of pressure rise of gases by combustion, cyclic stability of ignition of the fuel in the cylinders of the diesel engine (especially at low loads), as in a diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels:

- no pre-heating an air-fuel mixture;

- is internal, not external mixture formation, therefore, the regulation of excess air coefficient impossible;

in the patent RU 2204727 are not specified according to the number supplied to the glow plug energy from the fuel and mode of operation of the diesel.

The prototype of the present invention can serve as a method of workflow management of diesel engine that uses liquid hydrocarbon fuel, vklyuchayuschimisya supply of electricity to ignite the air-fuel mixture with an individually installed in the combustion chamber of each cylinder spark plugs, adjusted power in accordance with variable modes of operation of the diesel (see U.S. patent US5367994, F02B 33/38).

The peculiarity of the method is that to ensure the lowest specific consumption of diesel fuel to keep the temperature of the heating element glow plug, which is included in the combustion chamber during operation of the diesel mostly above 1600 degrees F (871 ° C), ensuring the ignition of the compressed air-fuel charge without extra cost of thermal energy.

In addition, the known method provides the possibility of reducing the power of the glow plug or stop the supply of the heating element in the periods when the diesel engine works at the speed of the crankshaft and the load below the nominal values.

Known way to control the working process of diesel, selected as a prototype, could not be implemented in a diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels, and gas condensate, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel and gasoline, which has a high ignition temperature, due to the fact that recommended a known manner, the temperature of the heating element glow plug, sufficient for the normal functioning of the engine on diesel fuel, may be under catechna for ignition of alternative fuels, that involves:

- increase of the ignition delay period;

- increase the rate of combustion of fuel;

- increase of emissions of harmful substances from the exhaust gases;

- skipping cycles in the cylinders of the diesel engine (especially at low loads);

- increase the dynamic loads on the details of the diesel.

The objective of the proposed invention is the provision of the efficiency of a diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels: gas condensate, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel and gasoline, with good operational and environmental parameters.

The technical result of the proposed invention is:

- improving the efficiency of influence of the glow on the working process of diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels;

- reducing the cost of electricity to power the glow plug;

- reduction of the ignition delay period;

- speed optimization of fuel combustion;

- reduction of emissions of harmful substances from the exhaust gases;

- elimination of skip cycles in the cylinders of the diesel engine (especially at low loads);

- reduction of dynamic loads on the details of the diesel.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of workflow management of diesel engine running on liquid hydrocarbon fuel and individualsoftware in the combustion chamber of each cylinder spark plugs, according to the invention selects a fuel with a cetane number in the range from 22 to 45, support the supply voltage of the glow plugs with regard to the cetane number of selected fuels according to the linear relationship:

U=29-0,24×CC,

where U is the supply voltage for the glow plug In;

CC - cetane number fuel.

As fuel pick kerosene.

As fuel select gas condensate.

As fuel choose a mixture of diesel fuel and gasoline.

The supply voltage for the glow plug support with regard to the cetane number of the selected fuel setting on the control unit as a threshold minimum voltage value determined experimentally in the process of testing a diesel engine.

In laboratory tests of the proposed method of workflow management of diesel engine operating on liquid fuels, including alternative (gas condensate, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel and gasoline), was established (for example, diesel 1415/20 .5)that the selected fuel have low cetane numbers ranging from 22 to 45, see table 1.

Table 1
FuelsAlternative liquid Diesel fuel
Gas condensateKeroseneGasolineA mixture of diesel fuel and gasoline
Value cetane number3839223447

The choice of fuel with a cetane number in the range from 22 to 45 and maintenance of supply voltage glow plugs with regard to the cetane number of the selected fuel, according to the linear relationship: U=29-0 .24×CC,

where U is the supply voltage for the glow plug In;

CC - cetane number fuel,

provides effective impact glow on the working process of diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels, since in the temperature range pin 600-1100°C, which corresponds to the supply voltage glow plugs: 18÷24 V, decreases the ignition delay period by up to (2,7 MS).

At lower temperatures and supply voltage below 18 In the candle does not affect the workflow, at higher temperatures the degree of influence of the glow plug on the workflow decreases (increases the energy costs of food candles).

In the table the CE 2 experimental indicators supported voltage power supply plugs with regard to the cetane number of the selected fuel.

Table 2
FuelsAlternative liquidDiesel fuel
Gas condensateKeroseneGasolineA mixture of diesel fuel and gasoline
Value cetane number3839223447
The supply voltage U (V) on the glow plug2020242118

The proposed method provides good environmental and operational parameters of a diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels, such as gas condensate, kerosene, mixtures of diesel fuel and gasoline, because:

- reduced the ignition delay period to 2.7 MS;

- reduced rate of combustion of fuel (8%);

- eliminated omissions cycles in the cylinders diesel (who particularly at low loads);

- reduced dynamic loads on the engine parts (5%);

- reduced emissions of nitrogen oxides by 5-8% and soot particles by 3-5%.

The invention is illustrated by the graph of the experimental dependence (figure 1) supported voltage power supply to the glow plug depending on the cetane number of the fuel.

Figure 2 illustrates a specific implementation of the method: shows how to install glow plugs in a diesel engine combustion chamber 1415/20,5.

The method of workflow management of diesel engine operating on alternative liquid fuels, consists of the following technological operations:

- the fuel-air mixture ignites in the area of the glow plug;

- support the supply voltage of the glow plugs with regard to the cetane number of the fuel by a linear relationship: U=29-0 .24×ZC, where U is the supply voltage for the glow plug, IN; CC - cetane number of the fuel;

the supply voltage for the glow plug is supported on the control unit, a pre-set minimum threshold voltage value determined experimentally in the process of testing a diesel engine.

An example of a specific implementation of the method

On the glow plug 2 (see figure 2), installed in the cylinder head 3 diesel 1415/20 .5, with an adapter 4 were applied voltage, maintains the radiated manually in the range 18...24 V, depending on the cetane number of a liquid fuel according to the expression: U=29-0 .24×CC, where U is the supply voltage for the glow plug, IN; CC - cetane number fuel. The control unit 4 in advance asked minimum threshold voltage value, which is determined experimentally.

1. The method of workflow management of diesel engine running on liquid hydrocarbon fuel and individually installed in the combustion chamber of each cylinder spark plugs, characterized in,choosing a fuel with a cetane number in the range from 22 to 45, support the supply voltage of the glow plugs with regard to the cetane number of selected fuels according to the linear relationship:
U=29-0,24×CC,
where U is the supply voltage for the glow plug In;
CC - cetane number fuel.

2. The method of workflow management of a diesel engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the fuel pick kerosene.

3. The method of workflow management of a diesel engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the fuel select gas condensate.

4. The method of workflow management of a diesel engine according to claim 1, characterized in that the fuel pick a mixture of diesel fuel and gasoline.



 

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