Method of evaluating detoxification activity of black soils in farming ecosystems
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. The method comprises collecting soil samples, adding metsulfuron-methyl (MSM) to the sample in a given amount, followed by incubation and determining specific metabolic activity of the saprophytic soil complex by multisubstrate testing and counting the number of colony-forming units on a diluted agarised medium. The level of the detoxification activity is estimated based on the relative increase in specific metabolic activity of the saprophytic microbial community of the soil when MSM in comparison with characteristics of the soil without adding MSM (Kd factor).
EFFECT: improved method.
4 tbl, 1 ex
The invention relates to agriculture, soil Microbiology, ecology, namely the definition of the self-purification capacity of the soil.
Detoxification (self-cleaning) soil activity - the ability of soil to degradation, inactivation of toxins of natural and anthropogenic origin, is primarily due to its biological properties.
Methodical approaches to the problem can be divided into direct determination of fluorine in soil using physico-chemical analyses and indirect - with the help of different biotests.
The first group of methods, as is known, requires rather expensive equipment. Second, there is a difficult problem of the choice of indicator indicator from their extensive list. To date, it is clear that there is no single criterion for assessing favourable eco-Toxicological effects of certain agricultural technologies, resulting in the need to use complex indicators reflecting various aspects of the functioning of soil microbial communities. The traditional approach to the problem consists of determining the number of certain groups of microorganisms. Applying indicators of activity (respiration, nitrification, enzymatic activity, and others) often gives conflicting results. This is quite understandable, since the latter reflects the Ute certain aspects of the functioning of the microbial system of the soil. In these conditions, increasing the relevance of research related to search more or less integral indicator to assess the soil's ability to detoxify the pesticide. The claimed method provides as such a quantitative measure of the response activity and the number of CFU (colony forming units) of the microbial community of the soil during application of the active substance of a number of herbicides, characterized by high residual resistance, which is especially noticeable in soils with neutral or alkaline pH, in particular in the black.
There is a method of evaluation of residual herbicides with a low dose of the active substance (Spiridonov YA, Shestakov V.G., G. Larin How to reduce the residual effect of sulfonylurea herbicides// Protection and quarantine of plants, 2006, No. 2, S. 59-60), which include herbicides on the basis of methylsulfuric methyl (MSM)in soil using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which provides for the extraction of compounds from soil samples by passing the extract through a chromatographic column under high pressure and determination of the required connection with detectors.
The disadvantage of this method from the point of view of achievement of the technical result of the claimed invention is the low efficiency, due to the fact that sensitivity is lnost HPLC in the determination of residual herbicides with a low dose of the active substance, which include herbicides based on MSM, up to 30 times lower in comparison with biotests on higher plants, and also for implementing the method requires special expensive laboratory equipment and qualified personnel.
Also known estimation method residual herbicides with a low dose of the active substance (Kolupaev M.V., Matveev, Y.M., Spiridonov YA, Shestakov VG Method of determining chlorsulfuron in the soil in terms of phytotoxicity // Agrochemistry, 1993, No. 6, s-86), which include herbicides on the basis of the MSM, in the soil, providing the seeds of the test plants in the test sample of the soil and growing crops in chambers with controlled temperature conditions of illumination.
The disadvantage of this method from the point of view of achievement of the technical result of the claimed invention is the analysis duration (30 days), the complexity (conducting vegetation of experience), and also for implementing the method required a special chamber with controlled conditions of light and temperature (laboratory of artificial climate).
There is also known a method of estimating the self-purification capacity of the soil (Ananjeva N Microbiological aspects of self-purification and stability of soils. - M.: Nauka, 2003. - 223 C.), which introduce in the test sample glucose, accounting changes on the respiratory activity of the microbial community compared to the soil without making glucose and calculate the magnitude of microbial metabolicheskogo factor.
The disadvantage of this method from the point of view of achievement of the technical result of the claimed invention is that in the known method conclusion about the level of detoxification activity of soil is based on the functional response of the microbial community when making only one carbon source (glucose), which reduces the efficiency evaluation of the detoxification activity of soil, also for the implementation of the method requires special laboratory equipment - gas chromatograph.
Closest to the claimed invention by a combination of traits is a method (patent RF № 2335543, IPC C12Q 1/02 (2006.01)published 10.10.2008), which includes soil sampling, obtaining a suspension of soil microbial complex introducing the suspension into the cell test tablet containing a set of test substrates, mineral environment and an indicator of consumption of the substrate, subsequent incubation of test tablets in a thermostatted chamber until the color of the indicator, photometric registration of the intensity of the color indicator. Next, perform a mathematical analysis of the obtained spectra consumption of substrates. Adopted for the prototype.
The disadvantage of this method from the point of view of achievement of the technical result of the claimed invention is that the known method is not provided in the em number of CFU in the original soil extract, which does not allow to assess the impact of microbial colonization of the original drawing in the formation of a color indicator, which reduces the efficiency of determining the detoxification activity of the soil.
The technical result of the claimed invention is a more effective assessment of detoxification activity of chernozems by developing quantitative criteria.
This technical result in the implementation of the invention is achieved in that in the method of evaluating the functional activity of the soil microbial community based on multisubstrate test (MCT), which includes sampling, obtaining a suspension of soil microbial complex, making the cell suspension in the test tablet, containing a set of test substrates, mineral environment, an indicator of consumption of the substrate, subsequent incubation of test tablets in a thermostatted chamber until the color of the indicator, photometric registration of the intensity of the color indicator in the soil sample contribute metsulfuron methyl (MSM) in the dose of 10 µg/100 g vs. soil after incubation for 10-15 days determine the level of metabolic activity of the microbial community of the soil according to the method of MCT using a set of 24 test substrates (dulcic, Inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, maltose, lactose, raffinose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, who silosa, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, ammonium citrate, potassium malate, tartrate potassium sodium, urea, carboxymethyl cellulose, TWEEN-80) added on Wednesday, peptone, the final concentration of substrate in the reaction mixture is 0.2, peptone and 0.1%, are counted in the number of CFU on agar medium containing dry nutrient medium MPA (mastopathy agar) - 0.3 g/l, peptone - 0,6, glucose - 0,1, calculate the value of the specific metabolic activity (MIND) of the microbial community, which represents the ratio of the sum of points assessment of metabolic activity on substrates 24 to SOME number, m/g soil, calculate the index KD, showing the growth of the MIND in the soil with pesticide per cent of the soil without making MSM and on the proposed scale to assess the level of detoxification activity of the soil, the activity is considered to be low, if you amend the soil sample MSM KD exceeds 200%, the average - by 100-200%, high - 20-100%, very high - 0-20%.
The proposal criterion detoxification activity of soil (KD)derived from the simultaneous consideration of the challenge to make MSM activity and the number of CFU of the microbial community in a nutrient medium close composition significantly increases the efficiency evaluation of detoxification activity of the soil, as the response of a community to the impact of a toxicant can C locatisa as an activity change at constant number of CFU, so a change in the number of CFU in stable activity.
The method is as follows.
In a fresh soil sample contribute metsulfuron methyl in an amount of 10 μg/100 g vs. soil, which corresponds to a dose of herbicide Magnum than the recommended 5 times. Experiment was repeated at least 3 vessels. Soil incubated for 10-15 days at a temperature of 23-25°C. After incubation of each vessel selected 3 medium sample to conduct MCT and culture on agar medium. The analysis is performed as follows. The sample preparation for the analysis is performed in the usual way for inoculation on agar medium. 2 g of soil triturated in 20 ml of sterile phosphate buffer by Sorensen pH 6.5. The suspension is shaken on a laboratory shaker for 15 minutes, centrifuged for 20 min at 4000 rpm/min Inoculate a volume of 0.1 ml of the dilution 1:10 bring in 0.5 ml of medium containing a mineral base medium of čapek, the substrate, peptone and indicator (trichloranisole chloride, TTX). For these purposes you can use Eppendorf tubes with a volume of 1.5 ml with lid. The final concentration of substrate in the reaction mixture is 0.2%, peptone and 0.1%. Use a set of 24 test substrates: dulcet, Inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, maltose, lactose, raffinose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, to Ajmal, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, ammonium citrate, potassium malate, tartrate potassium sodium, urea, carboxymethyl cellulose, TWEEN-80.
Incubation spend 40 hours at a temperature of 28°C. After incubation the contents of the test tubes dig in flat-bottomed immunological tablets to assess the degree of coloring the culture fluid. The turbidity of the culture liquid after incubation does not allow the use of immunological counters colored reactions. Therefore, the amount of coloring evaluated as follows. Received the tablet photographed using a digital camera and compared with a predefined scale in the PC mode comparison photos in 5-6-point scale.
Accounting for SOME. Since the rate of color development reaction mixture depends on the initial number of microbial cells in the seed material, the necessary amendment to the original neravnoznachnost seed for microbial colonization. Therefore, simultaneously with the production of MCT spend sowing the same suspension on agar medium of the following composition (g/l): dry nutrient medium MPA to 0.3, peptone - 0,6, glucose, and 0.1. The medium composition close to that of the organic bases of the reaction mixture MCT. Incubation cups carried out in the same conditions as test tubes MCT. Accounting is carried out through 72 hours after seeding.
The analysis is performed from 3 separate batches each of which were acquired, with each sample sow 2-3 tubes. In the absence of reliable differences between the variants of the experience of the numerical values of average, which significantly reduces the likelihood of accidental fluctuations of the calculated values.
The calculating MIND of microbial complex. The results of the analysis carried out the calculation of the specific metabolic activity (MIND) microbial complex of the soil by the formula: MIND=-P1+P2+...R24/SOME (m/g),
where R scores the degree of utilization of one or another substrate for coloring suspension. (Total points evaluation coloring suspension on all involved in the experience of the substrates is an integrated feature of the microbiological activity of soil microbial communities. The allocation amount to the number of CFU is, in fact, an amendment to the original inequality options microbial population.)
Next, calculate the magnitude of the increase of this index relative to the control without making MSM in percentage according to the formula KD=(WITAbout-UMAC)*100/MINDTowhere the MINDAbout- specific metabolic activity in the soil with MSM, MINDTo- the same in clean soil. Next on the following scale assess detoxification activity of the soil (table 1).
|The scale for the assessment of detoxification activity of soil|
|KD (increase MIND when making MSM, % of net soil)||The level of detoxification activity||Assessment criteria (degree of disappearance of the residual phytotoxicity of the recommended dose of MSM for 45 days), %|
Calibration of the gradations of the scale conducted by Biotest, namely, the disappearance of residual phytotoxicity MSM, soil in the recommended dose for 45 days. As the test plants used radish.
An example of the calculation of the proposed criterion KD are given in table. 2.
The study involved samples of leached Chernozem Ob in Novosibirsk, selected from agricultural land with a variety of prior use is education.
Application of the proposed method allowed us to show that the plowing of all non-tradable part of the wheat harvest for 3 rotations three thermoprofile of crop rotation can improve detoxification ability of the soil to one gradation - medium to high level (table 2). Further increase of the biomass entering the soil and plant litter by replacing pure steam employed and green manure did not lead to a corresponding increase of the ability of soil to detox MSM. Therefore, to ensure the ability of the studied soils in detoxification of pesticides in the current after the application of the vegetation period enough of all subsistence crops in the crop rotation.
|Detoxification activity of leached Chernozem Ob at various agricultural technologies|
|Agrobackground||The level of detoxification activity||Option||Total points at MCT||The number of CFU, m/g||MIND||CD|
(the higher MIND, % of control)
|Permanent Zernov the e for 27 years||low||Control||5-15||10-15||0,5-1|
|Remove the straw from the field + pure steam||average||Control||10-20||10-16||1-1,3|
|MSM||55 to 63||18-20||3-3,2||150-180|
|Leaving the straw on the field + pure steam||high||Control||25-40||21-23||1,2-1,7|
|Leaving the straw on the field + engaged couples||high||Control||30-35||22-24||1,4-1,5|
|Leaving the straw on the field + green manure couples||high||Control||35-40||21-22||1,7-1,8|
|Fallow perennial||very high||Control||80-10||25-30||3,2-3,3|
|Note. In these intervals are not less than 75% of the experimental values for n=2.* Control - soil without making MSM.|
Proposed in the invention is a method of assessing detoxification activity of chernozems simple to perform, does not require special laboratory equipment and can be used in low-budget laboratories.
Examples of the application of the proposed method are given in table. 3 and betametazona activity of soil as a function of its live phase is quite dynamic. However, to experimentally verify this position is extremely difficult, due to the lack of available informative way. Use in the claimed invention MSM as test systems for the evaluation of detoxification activity of soil (WCT) is due to the fact that the behavior of this compound in soil have been well studied (Boldt T.S., Jacobsen C.S. Different toxic effects of the sulfonylurea herbicides metsulfuron methyl, chlorsulfuron and thifensulfuron methyl on fluorescent Pseudomonas isolated from an agricultural soil// FEMS Environ. Lett. 1998. No. 161. P.29-35/ Norhayati Mohd Tahir et al. Adsorbtion of chlorimuron - ethyl and metsulfuronmethyl on selected Selangor agriculturalsoils// Malasian J. Analyt Sci. 2008. V.12. No. 2. P.341-347. Ye, Q. et al. Causes of phytotoxicity of metsulfuron methyl bound residues is soil// Environ. Pollut. 2003. V.126. No. 3. P.417-423. Yun L. Y. et al. Fungal degradation of metsulfuron methyl in pure vultures and soil// Chemosphere. 2005. V.60. No. 4. P.460-466), it was found that MSM in the doses recommended for use in agrocoenosis, usually causes an increase in metabolic activity of microorganisms, also shows that the long residual toxicity in the soil of what is noted that in the conditions of lack of moisture, neutral environment and enriching environment litter. That is unfavourable from the point of view of Agroecology properties of MSM are useful for use MSM as an indicator of the self-purification capacity of the soil. As shown in tables 3 and 4, the use of the claimed method enabled us to trace the dependence detoxification activity of topsoil Ob from a number of factors. In particular, it is shown that the application of mineral fertilizers into the soil instead of making crop residues contributed to the increase detoksikatsionnoi activity of the investigated soil per gradation (options 1-3 in table 3). The fact that this phenomenon is due to the effect of nitrogen fertilizer, shown on a different experience (option 4 in table. 3).
Also with the help of the proposed method was able to track the dynamics of the WCT depending on the hydrothermal conditions of the vegetation period. Thus, the proposed invention the scale for the assessment of the WCT was developed in 2008-2011, when the temperature and humidity of the vegetation period were within the average values for Ob.
|The influence of mineral fertilizers on the detoxification activity of leached Chernozem|
|1||Remove the straw from the field||Walter||150-180||Average|
|2||Leaving the straw on the field||Walter||30-90||High|
|3||Green manure couples||Walter||55-65||High|
In 2012, it was Recorded the strongest drought at high temperatures, and in 2013 - wetlands at moderate temperatures. Soil samples for laboratory analysis were taken at all the years of research at the end of September after the autumn rains. As can be seen from the table. 4, when a severe drought, the overall level of WCT in embodiments 1-3 was lower perennial values, while in conditions of wetlands in all cases the level of WCT have achieved grades of "high" and is not dependent on the version of the experience.
|The influence of hydrothermal conditions of the vegetation period on the detoxification activity of soil|
|Agrobackground||KD||The level of detoxification activity|
|Average long-term (2008-2011,)||In acute drought (2012)||When waterlogging|
|Average long-term (2008-2011,)||In acute drought (2012)||When waterlogging (2013)|
|Leaving the straw on the field||30-90||100-150||80-100||high||average||high|
|Green manure couples||70-80||80-140||60-70||high||average||high|
Thus, the proposed in the invention method allows you to track changes to the WCT under various conditions specific vegetation period.
Method of assessment detoxification activity of humus in agricultural lands, providing for sampling, obtaining a suspension of soil microbial complex, making the cell suspension in the test tablet, soderjaschegosya test substrates, mineral environment, an indicator of consumption of the substrate, subsequent incubation of test tablets in a thermostatted chamber until the color of the indicator, photometric registration of the intensity of the color indicator, characterized in that the soil sample contribute metsulfuron methyl (MSM) in the dose of 10 µg/100 g vs. soil after incubation for 10-15 days determine the level of metabolic activity of the microbial community of the soil according to the method of MCT using a set of 24 test substrates (dulcic, Inositol, mannitol, sorbitol, glycerol, maltose, lactose, raffinose, glucose, arabinose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose, fructose, sucrose, starch, sodium acetate, sodium citrate, ammonium citrate, potassium malate, tartrate potassium sodium, urea, carboxymethyl cellulose, TWEEN-80) added on Wednesday, peptone, the final concentration of substrate in the reaction mixture to 0.2%, peptone and 0.1%, are counted in the number of CFU on agar medium containing dry nutrient medium MPA (mastopathy agar) - 0.3 g/l, peptone - 0,6, glucose - 0,1, calculate the value of the specific metabolic activity (MIND) of the microbial community, which represents the ratio of the sum of the scores of the evaluation of metabolic activity on substrates 24 to SOME number, m/g soil, calculate the index KD, showing the growth of the MIND in the soil with pesticide per cent of soil no vnesti the MSM, and according to the proposed scale to assess the level of detoxification activity of the soil, the activity is considered to be low, if you amend the soil sample MSM KD exceeds 200%, the average - by 100-200%, high - 20-100%, very high - 0-20%.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biotechnology. Claimed is a method of growing colonies of microbial cells on a surface of a porous plate. The method includes supply of a nutrient solution from bottom to top through the porous plate into zones of growth of colonies of the microbial cells on its upper surface, supply of a suspension of the microbial cells onto the upper surface of the porous plate, creation of controlled conditions for the colony growth, performing observation of the colony growth, separation of the grown colonies of the microbial cells from the zones of growth and their transfer into external means of identification. The nutrient solution is supplied into the zones of growth of the colonies of the microbial cells by creation of a pressure difference between the hole input and output. Holes are made in the plate from an anode aluminium oxide orthogonally to its large plane and are topologically coded. The said zones of growth are formed in them in the form of porous membranes. The porous membranes are located at the same level as the upper surface of the plate or with formation of a hollow and do not pass the microbial cells. After supply of the nutritional solution, the suspension of the microbial cells of a specified concentration is supplied onto the upper surface of the plate until their homogenous distribution is achieved. Between the zones of growth on the surface of the plate a film, preventing attachment of the microbial cells, is formed. Separation of the grown microcolonies from the zones of growth is performed by hydroblow. A hydroblow is directed from the side of the input of cylindrical holes of the plate and spreads along them and farther through the pores of the porous membranes with force, which does not destroy the microcolonies but is sufficient for their separation from the growth zones. Also claimed is a device for growing the colonies of the microbial cells by the claimed method.
EFFECT: providing conditions of automation of processes of the nutrient solution supply and processes of separation and transfer of the grown colonies, possibility of integration into miniature portable devices, and application in laboratories on a chip and provision of the device portability.
6 cl, 14 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to microbiology and can be used in monitoring environmental-microbiological investigation of the quality of sea water to determine the amount of oil-oxidising microorganisms. The method involves preparing a mineral medium - bases containing NH4NO3, K2HPO4, KH2PO4, MgSO4, CaCl2, FeCl2, a concentrated solution, agar and distilled water in a given ratio, followed by addition of an oil product in a given amount, said product being bunker oil. Seeding sea water on the surface of the culture medium and incubating the seed for 3-4 hours enables to detect colonies of oil-oxidising bacteria.
EFFECT: invention increases precision of the method when detecting oil and hydrocarbon oxidising bacteria when carrying out environmental monitoring.
2 tbl, 3 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of toxicity assessment of products from polymer and textile materials is proposed. The method comprises the use of biosensor based on oxygen electrode, immobilisation of whole cells of bacteria E.coli K-12 on the surface of the oxygen electrode. The immobilisation is carried out using a semipermeable membrane. After immobilisation the respiratory activity of microorganisms is measured in the presence of the sample and standard samples of positive and negative control. Then the toxicity index is calculated and the sample toxicity is evaluated based on the value of the toxicity index.
EFFECT: simplifying assessment of toxicity and improvement of reliability of the results of the sanitary-epidemiological expertise.
2 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention is a method of determining the nonspecific resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics and the fact of the presence of bacterial biofilms on the basis of measurement of catalytic activity of phosphodiesterases cleaving the cyclic diguanosine monophosphate, with a threshold sensitivity of 50 pg/ml, comprising: 1) isolating the target-phosphodiesterase from lysed bacterial cells; 2) binding of phosphodiesterase with biotin-conjugated antibodies specific for non-catalytic domains of phosphodiesterase; 3) affinity purification of complexes formed by target-phosphodiesterase and biotin-conjugated antibody using paramagnetic particles containing neutravidin or its analogs that bind biotin; 4) interacting of the complexes of phosphodiesterase/biotin-conjugated antibody, immobilised on paramagnetic particles with complexes containing a-di-GMP in the form of G-quadruplex systems with intercalate dye, which is accompanied by decrease in the intensity while destruction of complexes of intercalate dye with c-di-GMP; 5) measurement of decrease of fluorescence upon hydrolysis with c-di-GMP and destruction of complex of c-di-GMP with intercalate dye, followed by quantitative estimation of the phosphodiesterase activity based on calibration curves made using known amounts of the recombinant enzyme of phosphodiesterase identical to the test target; 6) identification of increased level of phosphodiesterase activity detected by the test antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains capable of biofilm formation, as compared with the level of phosphodiesterase activity that can be detected for the control strains of bacteria of the same species not having the antibiotic resistance and the ability to form biofilms.
EFFECT: method enables to determine the nonspecific resistance of pathogenic microorganisms to antibiotics and to establish the fact of the presence of bacterial biofilms.
4 dwg, 5 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medical microbiology and a method of determining activation of plasminogen with bacteria. The method involves adding protamine sulphate to a prepared supernatant fluid, incubating the obtained mixture, depositing cells by centrifuging, incubating the supernatant fluid with the protamine sulphate, depositing protein and detecting activation of plasminogen with bacteria from the amount of split arginine, content of which is determined by Sakaguchi method from the red colour of the sample.
EFFECT: invention enables to detect activation of plasminogen with bacteria in vitro using protamine.
4 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology. Claimed is container for isolation and identification of microorganism. Container includes upper part, which has wide internal diameter, and lower part, which has capillary tube, middle conic part, connecting said upper and lower parts, and optic window on the bottom and/or on one or more than one wall of container. Optic window is less than 0.1 inch (2.54 mm) thick and is transparent for wavelength of near-infrared, visible and/or ultraviolet light spectrum. Window contains quartz, quartz glass, sapphire, acrylic resin, methacrylate, cyclic olefin copolymer, cycloolefin polymer or any their combination. Capillary tube has internal diameter from 0.01 inch (0.03 mm) to 0.04 inch (1.02 mm).
EFFECT: container ensures isolation of microorganisms, which are free of interfering materials and compatible with fast identification technologies, from hemoculture and other complex samples.
8 cl, 12 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to microbiology and biotechnology. Analysed bacterial strains are inoculated on a dense nutrient medium. Paper disks impregnated with a disinfectant are applied. They are incubated in a temperature chamber until the bacteria start growing. The bacterial growth inhibition areas are measured. A quantity of the grown colonies is counted to construct a dependence diagram of the bacterial growth inhibition area and the quantity of the grown colonies after the disinfectant reaction. The diagram and Shughart inspection sheet are used to assess the disinfectant activity on specific types of the microorganisms. The disinfectants with mean measurements of the bacterial growth inhibition area are above an upper control limit of the Shughart inspection sheet are considered to be high bactericidal activity agents. The disinfectants with mean measurements of the bacterial growth inhibition area are below a lower control limit of the Shughart inspection sheet are considered to be low bactericidal activity agents. The disinfectants with mean measurements of the bacterial growth inhibition area between the control limits of the Shughart inspection sheet are considered to be mean bactericidal activity agents in relation to all analysed agents.
EFFECT: method enables assessing the bactericidal activity of the disinfectants.
3 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biotechnology and can be used in biological treatment of waste water from electroplating plants from heavy metal salts. The method involves adding yeast biomass to waste water, said biomass being in form of brewery wastes containing a combination of yeasts of different strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae with viability of 90-95% in a given amount. The biomass is mixed with the waste water to obtain a suspension. The obtained suspension is held for 8 hours at temperature of 10°C-29°C and solution pH of 5.5-8.0, followed by recycling spent yeast containing heavy metals by treating with lime Ca(OH)2, with the ratio of yeast biomass to lime of 1:5-8, to obtain a mixture. The obtained mixture is subjected to wet treatment at temperature of 90°C for 1 hour, followed by isolation of the obtained mixture, which contains heavy metals, in concrete paste.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of purifying waste water from heavy metal ions.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to molecular biology. Disclosed is a method of detecting frameshift and nonsense mutations in the BRCA1 gene, which involves construction of recombinant plasmids where the amplified gene fragment is located in a single translation frame with the alkaline phosphatase gene of E.coli (phoA). A plasmid vector pPhoA-frame, which contains a DNA sequence which encodes alkaline phosphatase of E.coli was constructed. A DNA fragment containing restriction endonuclease recognition sites BgIII, StuI, Apal, SacII and intended for cloning BRCA1 gene fragments (polylinker) was inserted into said DNA sequence. The amplified BRCA1 gene fragment is inserted into the plasmid vector pPhoA-frame in a single translation frame with phoA. The occurrence of mutations which violate reading frame integrity in the investigated gene fragment is evaluated visually from the absence of colour of E.coli. cell colonies transformed by the obtained recombinant plasmid on an indicator dish containing a substrate for alkaline phosphatase. The disclosed method enables to detect only mutations that are significant for development of pathology since it avoids detection of polymorphous versions which do not lead to stop codons and most cases have not significant effect on protein function. The method enables to detect any, including unknown, mutations which violate frame integrity.
EFFECT: method can be used to detect frameshift and nonsense mutations that are responsible for the development of a range of cancerous diseases in human genes.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: detection method of microfungi Coccidioides posadasii 36 S and Coccidioides immitis C-5 in vitro involves pre-growth of culture in mycelial phase, preparation of a suspension corresponding to 5 units of activity of a standard opacity sample, possibility of spherules formation and detection of spherules filled with endospores. Culture in mycelial phase is grown during 3 days. Possibility of spherules formation is provided by infection of the one-day culture of cells of murine splenocytes, which is obtained on RPMI-1640, and further cultivation during 5 days at the temperature of 37°C, with content of CO2 in atmosphere of 5%. In order to detect spherules in the form of round double-outline formations filled with endospores, a sample is taken, deactivated with formalin and investigated by means of a light microscopy method.
EFFECT: invention allows simplifying the method and reducing the investigation period.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to biocides. Biocidal composition contains gluteraldehide and biocidal oxazolidine compound. To realise control over microorganisms in water or water-containing system in the process of oil or gas extraction the system is processed with composition, containing gluteraldehide and biocidal oxazolidine compound. Oxazolidine compound represents 4,4-dimethyloxazolidine. Weight ratio of gluteraldehide to 4,4-dimethyloxazolidine is in the range from 6:1 to 1:9. Oxazolidine compound represents 7-ethylbicyclooxazolidine. Weight ratio of gluteraldehide to 7-ethylbicyclooxazolidine is in the range from 20:1 to 1:20. Water or water-containing system contains sulfides. Microorganisms to be eliminated represent sulfate-reducing bacteria.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of control over microorganisms in water or water-containing systems, such as systems, detected in the process of oil or natural gas extraction.
3 cl, 7 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The herbicidal composition contains as active ingredients (a) a herbicidal benzoylpyrazole compound of formula (I) or a salt thereof: , where R1 is an alkyl or cycloalkyl, R2 is a hydrogen atom or an alkyl, R3 is an alkyl, R4 is an alkyl, haloalkyl or similar, R5 is a hydrogen atom, alkyl or similar, R6 is a haloalkyl, halogen or similar and A is an alkylene substituted with an alkyl, and (b) another herbicidal compound.
EFFECT: invention increases weed control effectiveness.
10 cl, 144 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Herbicidal composition contains clethodim in form of trialkylamine salt, which contains in one of alkyl radials not fewer than eight atoms of carbon, and tribenuron-methyl in form of trialkylamine salt, which contains in one of alkyl radials not fewer than eight atoms of carbon. Composition contains surface-active substance of nonionic type. Herbicidal composition is obtained by mixing components with the following components ratio, wt %: clethodim 15-40, tribenuron-methyl 5-30, trialkulamine, which contains in one of alkyl radials not fewer than eight atoms of carbon 15-60, surface-active substance of nonionic type 20-40, aromatic solvent 5-15.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of composition in crops of sunflower, resistant to tribenuron-methyl, with respect to monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous weed plants.
10 cl, 7 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The herbicidal composition comprises as active ingredient an effective combination N-(2,6-difluorophenyl)-8-fluorine-5- methoxy[1,2,4]triazole[1,5-c]pyrimidine-2-sulfonamide (florasulam) (1) or a salt thereof and a herbicide of sulfonylureas series, which is a methyl ester 2-[[[[(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazine-2-il)methylamine]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]of benzoic acid (tribenuron-methyl) (II) or its salt. The weight ratio of the components I:II is from 1:5 to 5:1. The composition also comprises a solid carrier or liquid solvent and a surfactant. When processing at an early stage of development of crop plants the herbicidal composition destroys or inhibits a wide variety of monocot and dicot weeds.
EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of processing.
8 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and specifically to chemical agents for protecting plants based on arylsulphonylurea derivatives, used for weed control in grain and vegetable crops. Disclosed is a method of producing a granular herbicidal preparation which contains water-soluble diethylethanolamine or alkaline salts of arylsulphonylurea of formula: where or n equals 0 or 1; for n-1 Z-CH2; R1-COOCH3; R2-CH3, OCH3, OC2H5; R3-OCH3, NHCH3; R4-H, CH3; X-N, CH; M-(C2H5)2NHC2H4OH, K, Na, involving reaction of the corresponding sulphonylurea and diethylethanolamine or alkali metal hydroxide in an aqueous medium at temperature 25-80°C, adding 3.5-6.5 wt % urea to the reaction product, separating the end product by crystallisation in the presence of 7-30 wt % salting agent to obtain a product in form of a melt which is then extruded at temperature 30-60°C, and subsequently drying the obtained granules.
EFFECT: obtaining chemical agents based on arylsulphonylurea for protecting plants.
4 tbl, 12 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The herbicidal water-soluble concentrate contains 3-(6-methoxy-4-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1-[2-(2-chloroethoxy)phenylsulphonyl]urea, a surfactant, an organic base and water. The organic base is dimethylethanolamine or diethylethanolamine. 3-(6-methoxy-4-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1-[2-(2-chloroethoxy)phenylsulphonyl]urea is in form of a water-soluble salt with dimethylethanolamine or with diethylethanolamine.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of the agent.
4 cl, 3 tbl, 22 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The herbicidal composition contains a dicamba modification and substituted sulphonylurea. The dicamba modification is in form of an ionic trialkylamine salt and/or non-ionic oxyethylated ether. The substituted sulphonylurea is in modified form in form of an ionic trialkylamine salt. The dicamba trialkylamine salt and the substituted sulphonylurea trialkylamine salt contain two alkyl radicals with 1-4 carbon atoms, and a third alkyl radical with not less than 8 carbon atoms.
EFFECT: invention increases degree of dispersion of the composition and widens the range of its action on weeds.
5 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the sphere of agriculture. An agrochemical composition in the form of a suspension concentrate or a granulate dispersed in water contains the following: - from 1 to 60 wt %, at least of one reactant selected from spirotetramate, tebuconazole, tiacloprid, fluopicolide and imidacloprid, - from 1 to 50 wt%, at least one penetration intensifier, which is ethoxylate of rapeseed, corn, palm kernel or almond oil , - from 1 to 20 wt%, at least one non-ionic and/or at least one anionic surfactant and - from 0.1 to 25 wt% of additives selected from a group containing defoaming agents, preservatives, antioxidants, additives to improve spread, dyes and/or thickeners. The composition is used to control pests, phytopathogenic fungi.
EFFECT: invention will make it possible to increase stability and activity of a composition.
6 cl, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the sphere of agriculture. The herbicide composition includes a (1) herbicide sulfonyl urea compound or its sodium salt and (2) polyoxyalkylene alkyl or its compound. Unwanted vegetation is controlled, or its growth is inhibited by application of the herbicide composition.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase activity of the herbicide component of the composition and to reduce impact at environment.
19 cl, 13 tbl, 13 ex
SUBSTANCE: present invention relates to a herbicidal composition containing (A) 2-(4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-ylcarbamoylsulphamoyl)-N,N-dimethylnicotinamide or salt thereof and (B) N2-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N4-ethyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine or salt thereof, in which the ratio of the mixtures (A) and (B) is such that the amount of (B) is between 1 and 250 weight parts per 1 weight part of (A).
EFFECT: composition exhibits unexpected synergetic herbicidal properties, which can be used to suppress undesirable plants or inhibiting their growth.
4 cl, 6 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: organic chemistry, herbicides, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention describes a synergistic composition of herbicides comprising components (A) and (B) wherein (A) represents herbicide taken among the group of the formula (I):
wherein R1 means (C1-C4)-alkyl; R2 means (C1-C4)-alkyl; R3 means hydrogen atom; X and Y mean (C1-C4)-alkoxy-group; (B) represents one or two herbicides taken among the group of compounds or their acceptable forms: alachlor, metolachlor, acetochlor, dimetenamide, atrazine, cyanasin, metribusin, fluthiamide, nicosulfuron, rimsulfuron, primisulfuron, pendimetalin, sulcotrion, dicamba, mesotrion, isoxachlortol, metosulam, anilofos, fenoxaprop-ethyl, setoxydim, diclofop-methyl, MCPA, bromoxynil, pyridat, clopyralid, iodosulfuron-methyl, ethoxysulfuron, amidosulfuron, gluphosinat-amminium, isopropylammonium-glyphosate, imasetapir wherein components (A) and (B) are taken in the effective doses. Also, invention describes a method for control of weeds by using above indicated herbicide composition. Invention provides the development of the synergistic herbicide composition eliciting high activity.
EFFECT: improved method for control, valuable properties of composition.
6 cl, 26 tbl, 3 ex