Method of vegetable crop cultivation under drip irrigation

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises preplant tillage, layout and fixing flexible irrigation pipes with droppers built in their cavities, planting of sprouts of vegetable crops, weed suppression, application of herbicides and mineral fertilisers, harvesting and fall plowing. Before processing of the array the base station of the satellite navigation system is permanently mounted at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array. The boundaries of processed array are determined using the satellite navigation system. Size of the array is divided into parallel bands with the width of 1.40±0.02 m and their conventional boundaries are determined. At that the alternating bands are annually assigned for intensive use and fallow. On the bands for intensive use two irrigation pipelines are placed at a distance for each of 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands. The following year, before processing the array the conventional boundaries of the array and bands are restored using the satellite navigation system; the last year assignment of bands is changed, and the alternation of bands in years is carried out with biennial cycles.

EFFECT: method enables to restore annually the conventional boundaries of the processed array and bands with an error less than 0,02-0,05 m and to obtain the guaranteed annual yield of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.

2 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The invention relates to agriculture, in particular to land reclamation in the cultivation of vegetable crops in drip irrigation system using a satellite navigation system.

There is a method of wide-row cultivation of tilled crops, including chisel tillage with the formation of estuarine bottom of the furrow and sowing culture over the recesses of the bottom of the furrow through one recess in the first year of planting, while in the second year of sowing is carried out on an untapped recesses of the bottom of the grooves of the first year, and the width between racks is determined after the soil is equal to half the distance between the rows. As wide-row row crop use, for example, corn or sunflower. (Patent RF №2454064, publ. 27.06.2012).

The disadvantage of this method is the impossibility of accurate reproduction of the conventional boundary between used and unused areas identified in last year.

There is a method of cultivation of fodder crops, including planting of several components in a mixed planting of parallel alternating series in pure form, with the use of leguminous and cereal crops and machinery cleaning at an angle to the direction of sowing in early spring steam box create reservation legumes in the form of broad bands, which alternate with PA the new zones, a width equal to or a multiple of the width of the steam cultivators, planting legumes in reservations carried out at an angle of 45-60° to the direction of the subsequent planting alternating rows of cereals and leguminous crops sown after the first cut on the seeds of legumes in reservations on stubble background and machinery cleaning multicomponent mixtures is carried out in the next year by cutting perpendicular to the direction of sowing of cereals and legumes in pure form. (Patent RF №2083068, publ. 10.07.1997).

The disadvantage of this method is that there is a large error in observing parallelism between strips of crops and fodder crops steam zones without the use of satellite positioning system.

The objective is to create a method of cultivation of vegetable crops under drip irrigation, making rational use of irrigated land and increase productivity of agricultural land under drip irrigation.

The technical result - the possibility of rational use of irrigated lands in the drip irrigation system biennial cycles, the annual recovery of conditional borders of the processed array and stripes with an error of not more than 0.02-0.05 m, receiving guaranteed annual harvest of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.

Significant profile the additional features of the invention are the steps for defining and annual conditional restoration of field boundaries for the rational use of agricultural lands in drip irrigation system in the area of insufficient moisture:

before processing the array stationary set base station satellite navigation system at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array;

- define the boundaries of the processed array using a satellite navigation system, the area of which is divided into parallel strips with a width of 1.40±0.02 m and set their conventional boundaries, thus divert alternating between the strip under heavy use, and under par;

- on the strips under heavy use, place two irrigation pipeline on the distance of each 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the strips;

next year, before processing the array to restore the conventional boundaries of the array and stripes with the use of satellite navigation systems;

- change the last assignment of the bands, and the alternating use of the bands for years conducted a two-year cycles.

The prior art has not been identified technical solutions, similar in essential characteristics to declare that speaks to the compliance of the claimed technical solution the criterion of "novelty".

The Volgograd region is subject to frequent droughts, which does not allow to obtain a stable crop yields, and therefore this region is called the zone of insufficient knogo moisture. Irrigation is an essential element of technology of cultivation of vegetable crops. When irrigation is achieved by obtaining a guaranteed yield of vegetable crops.

Every year the field boundaries are shifted, which leads to a change of the squares of the fields and their position in space. This occurs due to the displacement of the established borders of the fields due to zapihivanija unhandled array. For the rational cultivation of vegetable crops need to know the size of the acreage and determine the position of their boundaries in space.

To determine the exact boundaries of the processed array, you need to fix and determine the location and position of a base station of a satellite navigation system. The base station is mounted fixed on a permanent basis, which provides the establishment, determination and the restoration of the borders of the processed array with an accuracy of 0,02-0,05 m base station is installed at a distance of not more than 50 km from the borders of the processed array. The increase of the distance between the base station and processed by the array leads to an increase in errors in the determination of the bounds of the array up to 1.5 meters

The delineation of the processed array is produced using a satellite navigation system that allows each year to use the area obrabatyvaemogo the array with an accuracy of 0,02-0,05 m

The breakdown of the processed array of parallel strips of a width of 1.40±0.02 m due to the fact that the standard distance between the irrigation pipelines under drip irrigation for vegetable crops is 1.40±0,02 m This distance ensures the conduct of inter-row tillage. The establishment of the conditional boundaries parallel strips are produced with the use of satellite navigation systems with an accuracy of 0,02-0,05 m

The lead strips under the steam helps to increase the fertility of the soil, and is also an effective means of accumulation of natural moisture in the soil. It provides guaranteed environmentally friendly crops vegetable crops each year. Strip pairs under process under "classical technologies, combining with row processing vegetable crops this year. Rational use of agricultural lands is provided by the rotation in the space lanes under intensive use and under pairs.

Accommodation irrigation pipes on the strips under intensive use on the distance of each 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands provides annual harvest of vegetable crops, as observed the same density planting of vegetable crops, as in the traditional layout of plants. After transplanting cultivation of osnyh crops produced by traditional technology.

The use of a satellite navigation system allows you to restore the conventional boundaries of the processed array and stripes every year with an error of not more than 0.02-0.05 m, which is provided by the use of base stations.

The alternating use of the bands by year two-year cycles contributes to the gradual restoration of soil fertility on all the processed array and receive an annual guaranteed environmentally friendly crops vegetable crops.

The invention is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows the mutual arrangement of the base station, the reference point and the processed array, figure 2 presents a breakdown of the processed array in parallel, alternating stripes.

The method is as follows:

The cultivation of vegetables was carried out in conditions of drip irrigation on the territory of the Volgograd region, which is an area of insufficient moisture. Cultivated tomato, pepper, onion.

The method includes pre-plant soil, layout and fixing flexible irrigation pipes with built in their cavities droppers, transplanting of vegetable crops, suppression of weeds, application of herbicides and mineral fertilizers, harvest, autumn plowing.

Before processing the array of stationary installed base is tanzio satellite navigation system at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array.

Defined the limits of the processed array using a satellite navigation system, which area was divided into parallel strips with a width of 1.40±0.02 m and have established their conventional boundaries, with averted alternating between the strip under heavy use, and under pairs.

On the strips under heavy use, was placed on two irrigation pipeline on the distance of each 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands.

The following year, before processing the array rebuilt the conventional boundaries of the array and stripes with the use of satellite navigation systems.

Changed last assignment of the bands, and the alternation of bands use for years conducted a two-year cycles.

The results of these studies are shown in table 1.

Table 1
The average yield of vegetable crops under drip irrigation.
The average yield, t/ha
№ p/pVegetable cropsIrrigation norm, m3/hawhile traditionally the second method of cultivation of vegetable crops under drip irrigation when the claimed method of cultivation of vegetable crops
1Tomato3198-400468,9-73,373,0-77,7
2Pepper2240-280037,5-40,639,6-42,8
3Onions4065-458058,6-62.162,7-66,4

Thus, using the proposed method of cultivation of vegetable crops under drip irrigation enables rational land use in drip irrigation system biennial cycles, the annual recovery of conditional borders of the processed array and stripes with an error of not more than 0.02-0.05 m, receiving guaranteed annual harvest of vegetable crops under drip irrigation. Furthermore achieved environmental benefits due to the selection of strips with a width of 1.40±0.02 m allocated under par.

The method of cultivation of vegetable crops under drip irrigation, including pre-processing is the soil, layout and fixing flexible irrigation pipes with built in their cavities droppers, transplanting of vegetable crops, suppression of weeds, application of herbicides and mineral fertilizers, harvest, autumn plowing, wherein before processing the array stationary set base station satellite navigation system at a distance of not more than 50 km from the processed array; define the boundaries of the processed array using a satellite navigation system, the size of the array is divided into parallel strips with a width of 1.40±0.02 m and set their conventional boundaries, annually assign alternating between the strip under heavy use, and under pairs; on the strips under heavy use, place two irrigation pipeline on the distance of each 0.35±0.02 m from the conventional boundaries of the bands; the following year, before processing the array to restore the conventional boundaries of the array and stripes with the use of satellite navigation systems; change last year's appointment of bands, and the alternating use of the bands for years conducted a two-year cycles.



 

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