Nanostructured aqueous phosphorite suspension as cucumber seed presowing treatment agent

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of biologically active substances which stimulate plant growth and can be used in agriculture. The nanostructured aqueous phosphorite suspension consists of nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm. Said agent is obtained from natural phosphorites by grinding, mixing with water and ultrasonic dispergation.

EFFECT: use of the invention increases cucumber yield during the first month of harvesting 2,0-2,5-fold.

19 ex, 2 tbl

 

The invention relates to the field of creation of biologically active substances that stimulate the growth of plants, and can be used in agriculture to increase yields of horticultural crops, including cucumber.

Known as a means for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber diamontina salt of fumaric acid, used in the form of (0.01-0.1) aqueous solution [1]. The disadvantage of this substance in the specified quality is the relatively low yield of cucumbers in the early fruiting period (40-60 days after planting), when the fruits of specified vegetable crops have the greatest nutritional value as compared to that in later periods of their collection.

Closest to the claimed us the object on the totality of symptoms is the tool for presowing treatment of seeds on the basis of the calcium salt of orthophosphoric acid, namely double superphosphate [2]. The disadvantage of this substance, which in connection with the just-noted fact chosen as a prototype, in the above, as also is the relatively low yield of cucumbers in the initial period of fruiting.

The aim of the present invention is to provide means for pre-treatment of seeds of cucumber on the basis of the calcium salt of orthophosphoric acid, allowing Powys the th yield of cucumbers it is in the initial period of fruiting.

The declared objective is achieved by using as a means for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber on the basis of the calcium salt of orthophosphoric acid, namely nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising the nanoparticles with sizes less than 100 nm, obtained from natural phosphate rock by grinding, mixing with water and subsequent ultrasonic dispersion. The use of such substances in the specified quality is increase the yield of cucumbers in the early fruiting period as compared to that for the substance of the prototype [2] 2.0-2.5 times.

So far in the literature was not someone described nanostructured water-phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, as a means for pre-treatment under any crops at all. This fact gives us reason to believe that declare to us the object meets the first criterion characteristic of the invention defined by the patent law of the Russian Federation, is a novelty. A map of known characteristics of the substance of the prototype [2] and the distinctive features that characterize declare our object (namely the replacement of double superphosphate at Phosphorit and suspending the latter in the water with the fragmentation of its particles to the nanoscale the match by ultrasonic dispersion), is not possible to predict a priori the appearance of his new compared to the substance of the prototype properties, namely, the above substantially enhance the yield of cucumbers in the initial period of fruiting. This fact allows us to conclude that we declare our object is not obvious from the well-known in the industry technology level and, therefore, corresponds to the second set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterial feature of the invention is an inventive step. We offer as a means for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber nanostructured water-phosphate suspension quite easily can be obtained on an industrial scale and its application in practice is feasible without any problems; therefore, declare our object is inherent in the third set by the legislation of the Russian Federation criterion characteristic of the invention and industrial applicability.

Declare on the subject of the invention nanostructured water - phosphate suspension comprising nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm, as a means for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber can be illustrated by the following examples.

Example 1 (preparation of nanostructured water-phosphate suspension)

Phosphorite flour, obtained from natural phosphates of Sundu what's deposits in the Republic of Tatarstan, mixed with distilled or deionized (demineralized) water at the rate of 20 g flour 100 ml water. This mixture is then treated with ultrasound in an ultrasonic disperser the TGS-0,25-80 watts at a frequency of 18.5 kHz with the amplitude of the ultrasonic waveguide 5 μm within 5-20 min at room temperature, resulting in a suspension with a particle size of phosphorite 5 to 95 nm. Thus obtained water-phosphate, the suspension is then used for a purpose as a means for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber.

Example 2

Prepare nanostructured water-phosphate suspension as described in example 1 technology at the time of water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser for 5 minutes, stand in it the seeds of the ordinary cucumber Cucumis sativus (parthenocarpic hybrid, variety "Courage") for 2 h at room temperature, and then planted in the soil (at the rate of 25,000 plants per 1 ha) traditional for this culture techniques. Growing lead in greenhouses (greenhouse) the traditional way to the stage of technical maturity of the fruits for 40, 45 and 50 days after planting, and then through each of the specified periods of time remove the crop and determine the level of yield on total fruit weight in kg/ha Data on the yield of cucumber on the achievements the Institute each of the above points in time are shown in Table 1.

Example 3

Carry out the General technique of example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 10 minutes yields of cucumber for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 4

Spend as example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 20 minutes yield Data for this case are presented in Table 1.

Example 5 (comparative)

Carried out in the same manner as example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser set equal to 1 min. yield Data for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 6 (comparative)

Carried out according to the General scheme of example 2, but the exposure time of the water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser is set to 30 minutes yield Data for this case, see Table 1.

Example 7 (comparative)

Perform the type of example 2, but water-phosphate mixture is produced by mixing the phosphorite flour with distilled or deionized water and mixing it manually conventional stirrer for 30 minutes yield Data for this case, see Table 1.

Example 8 (prototype [2])

Prepare the tool for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber, containing double the soup is phosphate 40 g, humic acid 0.05 g water to 1 l, stand in it the seeds of the ordinary cucumber Cucumis sativus (grade of "Courage") for 2 hours at room temperature, and then planted in the soil (at the rate of 25,000 plants per 1 ha) traditional for this culture techniques. Growing lead in greenhouses (greenhouse) the traditional way to the stage of technical maturity of the fruits for 40, 45 and 50 days after planting, and then through each of the specified periods of time remove the crop and determine the level of yield on total fruit weight in kg/ha Data on the yield of cucumber on the achievement of each of the above time points for this case are shown in Table 1.

Example 9 (comparative, the prototype [2])

Perform as example 9, but humic acid in the referenced solution for pre-treatment of seeds of cucumber is not administered. Data on the yield of cucumber on the achievement of each of the above points in time in this case is also presented in Table 1.

Example 10 (similar to [1])

Prepare the tool for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber - a 0.05% aqueous solution giammarino fumaric acid salt, soak in it the seeds of the ordinary cucumber Cucumis sativus (grade of "Courage") for 2 hours at room temperature, and then planted in the soil (at the rate of 25,000 plants per 1 the (a) traditional for this culture techniques. Growing lead in greenhouses (greenhouse) the traditional way to the stage of technical maturity of the fruits for 40, 45 and 50 days after planting, and then through each of the specified periods of time remove the crop and determine the level of yield on total fruit weight in kg/ha Data on the yield of cucumber on the achievement of each of the above time points for this case are shown in Table 1.

Table 1
The yield of cucumber Cucumis sativus varieties of "Courage" (kg/ha) when collecting through
# example
40 days45 days50 days
234.0152.5208.3
336.5162.0230.4
437.0161.5228.0
5 (comparative)25.31206 175.5
6 (comparative)36.8161.8228.5
7 (comparative)10.560.195.7
8 (prototype [2])12.268.5100.4
9 (comparative, the prototype [2])10.963.497.2
10 (similar to [1])17.282.1122.7

Example 11

Carry out the General technique of example 2, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus (phalloplasty hybrid, a sort of "Relay"). Data on the yield of cucumber for this case are presented in Table 2.

Example 12

Perform as example 3, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Information about the yield of this culture for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 13

Conducted according to the General technique of example 4, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, Sora is "Relay". Data on the yield of cucumber for this case, see Table 2.

Example 14 (comparative)

Carried out as example 5, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Data on the yield of cucumber for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 15 (comparative)

Perform as example 6, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Information about the yield of cucumber for this case is presented in Table 2.

Example 16 (comparative)

Carried out as example 7, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Data on the yield of cucumber for this case, see Table 2.

Example 17 (prototype [2])

Carry out on the General technique of example 8, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Data on the yield of cucumber for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 18 (comparative, the prototype [2])

Carried out according to the scheme of example 9, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Data on the yield of cucumber for this case are shown in Table 2.

Example 19 (similar to [1])

Carry out on the General technique of example 10, but as the tested vegetable crops use Cucumis sativus, a sort of "Relay". Yield data about what the RDCs for this case are shown in Table 2.

Table 2
The yield of cucumber Cucumis sativus varieties "Relay" (kg/ha) when collecting through
# example
40 days45 days50 days
1131.9143.8192.8
1234.7152.9219.0
1335.3149.0217.4
14 (comparative)22.7113.1164.6
15 (comparative)33.5150.2212.3
16 (comparative)9.853.687.9
17 (prototype [2])11.66.3 92.2
18 (comparative, the prototype [2])9.259.891.5
19 (similar to [1])13.669.7103.2

As you can see from the above Tables 1 and 2 data, declare us as a means of pre-sowing treatment of seeds of cucumber nanostructured water-phosphate suspension significantly (2.0-2.5 times) to increase the yield of this vegetable crops in the early fruiting period (40-60 days after planting) compared to that for the prototype [2]. However, this positive effect is observed only in the case if that is nanostructured water-phosphate suspension obtained by ultrasonic dispersion: in the case of water-phosphate slurry obtained by mixing phosphate in the water manually, the yield of cucumbers is much lower (compare the data of examples 2-4 and 11-13 with the data of examples 7 and 16, respectively). It should be noted that when creating the inventive suspension takes some time water-phosphate mixture in an ultrasonic disperser (5-20 min); with less time effect above the Oia yield of cucumbers, although it has a place, but to a substantially lesser extent than in case of prolonged ultrasonic dispersion (compare data of examples 2-4 and 11-13 with the data of examples 5 and 14, respectively). On the other hand, as clearly seen from comparison of the data of examples 2-4 and 11-13 with the data of examples 6 and 15, respectively, the dispersion of the water-phosphate mixture over 20 min gives no increase in yield.

Similar results were obtained by us and other parthenocarpic and phalloplasty varieties of cucumber Cucumis sativus ("Tristan", "Ceres", "Athlete").

LITERATURE

[1] Patent RF №2.219.771 (2003).

[2] Patent RF №2.352.115 (2009) (prototype).

Nanostructured water-phosphate suspension for presowing treatment of seeds of cucumber, consisting of nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm and is produced from natural phosphate rock by grinding, mixing with water and subsequent ultrasonic dispersion.



 

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