SUBSTANCE: heater comprises heating units, each of which is located around the heated pipeline and comprises the heat insulating layer with the electrical heating element built in it, connected to current-carrying wires. The heating unit located at the beginning part of the pipeline is formed as a heat exchanger with the intermediate coolant using the thermal energy of the condenser of superheated steam of the nuclear reactor. Each subsequent heating unit is provided with a temperature sensor of the pipeline wall electrically connected to the control processor located in a control unit of the maritime platform. The heating element of each heating unit comprises a mechanism of start and stop of contact with current-carrying wires interconnected with the control processor. The pipeline with the heating sections and current-conductive elements are placed in a single heat insulated casing.
EFFECT: stable maintenance of the specified temperature range of the product pumped through the main pipeline under conditions of the cooling effect of the environment.
The unit refers to the operation of the main pipelines and can be used in the operation of oil fields in the Arctic shelf to heat the main product pipelines transporting oil and gas from offshore platforms in ice class, including use as an energy source nuclear reactors.
General technical level. There are technical solutions to prevent freezing of main gas and oil pipelines laid in permafrost soil (patents 1638431, 504044) or on the bottom of the deep water barriers (patent 2037725), including heat shields (patent No. 779719) or insulating covers (patent No. 394619). The drawback of this solution is the need to give high temperatures pumped by pipeline to the product at the initial stage of transportation.
The largest number of patent decisions relates to variants of heated pipelines(№№802686, 932084, 1221458, 1481553, 1620766, 2037725, 2292676, 2371889, 2406916, 2415517, 2439863 and the like), indicating that the prospects of this direction of struggle against freezing of the transported product. However, the implementation of these technical solutions is constrained by the shortage of electricity in the areas of allocation of drilling platforms.
Analogues of the proposed technical solution.
Known estuarine and p the network heating furnace for heating production wells in the mouths of flowlines wells or devices before dehydration and desalting. In particular, the oil heater block bn-2M with a bandwidth of up to 3 million tons per year is the main production unit comprising four series-connected heater type "pipe in pipe"; and the furnace tube PTB-10-64 with a water coolant, a heat capacity of 10 million kcal/h at allowable working pressure of 64 bar. weigh 57,1 t is designed for heating water-cut oil with a capacity of up to 9 million tons/year; however, the unit is equipped with devices for automatic regulation of temperature and pressure [Oil heating furnace. Electronic resource. Mode of access: oborudovanie/21-neftianve-nagrevateli-i-ptchi - accessed 30.01.2013].
The disadvantage of estuarine heaters is the use of gas furnaces with injection deployme burners, effective on the ground, but not under conditions of offshore platforms.
Famous oil heater, designed to heat the pipeline transportation of oil, placed inside a tubular element of elongated shape, which is supplied with fluid, while the tubular carrier may be in the form of a spiral [US patent No. N 2139, IPC 28F 7/10].
The disadvantage of all systems of heating oil or walls of the pipeline with in-line placement taleesha or heat generating about is orogovenia is the impossibility of further use of cleaning pigs or pigs, i.e. the necessary procedures for the operation of the main pipelines.
Known technical solution to prevent freezing of the pipeline by heating its walls ferry from additional collateral pipeline [Device heating pipe, patent # 1800205].
The disadvantage of analogue are additional costs for the creation and maintenance of duplicate pipeline.
Known heater intended for heating of a pipeline to transport oil, which contains a heating element made in the form of a pipe made of ferromagnetic material located on the outside of the pipe parallel to its axis and connected at the ends of the conductors with a current source [patent No. 343483 IPC N In 3/10)].
The linear contact of the walls of the heating or heated element is not effective and has a low coefficient of transmission of thermal energy.
Closest to the claimed technical essence and the achieved result, selected as a prototype, is the heater pipe containing a heating blocks, each of which is located around a heated pipeline and includes the insulating layer with built-in it the electric heating element connected to the current-carrying wires, each of heating the lock is made in the form of two coaxial heating sections, each of which includes a housing having the shape of a hollow thin-walled hollow semicylinder, the inner cavity of which is filled with insulating material, and an electrical heating element placed inside the enclosure on the wall adjacent to the heated pipeline, with the electric heating element made in the form of a wire made from a material with high electrical resistivity and are supplied with an insulation elements, the inner diameter of the heating section is equal to the outside diameter of the heated pipeline, and each heating unit heating sections are connected to each other easily removable outer clamps located at the end sections of the heating sections [RF patent for useful model №38214, MPK7 F16L 53/00, epubl].
The technical unit is intended as a temporary removable surface preparation construction of the pipeline to the insulation coating.
The technical objective of the proposed technical solution is stable maintenance of range of the set temperature of the medium pumped by pipeline product in terms of cooling effect of the surrounding environment.
The problem is solved in that the heater pipe containing a heating blocks, each of which is located around the heated pipeline and contains insulating layer with built-in it the electric heating element, connected to current-carrying wires, according to the invention a heating unit located in the initial part of the pipeline, made in the form of a heat exchanger with intermediate heat carrier that uses thermal energy of the superheated steam condenser of the nuclear reactor; and each subsequent heating unit is provided with a temperature sensor pipe, electrically connected to the control processor; electric heating elements, each heating unit includes an engine start-off contact with current-carrying wires interconnected with the power unit; the pipeline with the heating units, the current-carrying wires, the information-managing communication channels and power cable is placed in a heat-insulated casing.
The design of the proposed heater pipeline presented in figure 1 and figure 2. Figure 1 illustrates the design of a heating unit of the initial part of the line, placed in the compartments of the marine platform and is designed as a heat exchanger that uses the heat of superheated steam condenser of a nuclear reactor. Figure 2 illustrates the relationship of the elements of the heating block on the pipe sections remote from offshore platforms.
The inventive heater pipe is (constructively) in the initial section of the pipeline 1, placed in uploading compartments offshore platform 2, and contains the heat-shielding cover 3, which holds the pipe section 1 in contact with the heat exchanger in the form of heat-release system of tubular channels 4, cross-cutting capacity of the heat carrier 5 with the system teplonagrevateley tubular channels 6, receiving heat from the condenser 7 superheated steam reactor 8, and the capacity of the heat carrier 5 has sensors 9 system temperature and pressure are interrelated information-management communication channels 10 to the control processor 11, and the system of tubular channels 4, indicating the capacity of the heat carrier 5 with the system of the heated tubular channels 6, is connected via a pump 12. Each heating unit 13 of the heater remote from the platform 2 sections of pipe 14 has a heat-shielding layer 15, in which is embedded an electrical heating element 16, with each heating unit 13 is equipped with a temperature sensor 17 of the pipe wall 14 and a mechanism 18 start-off, contact the electric heating element 16 from the current-carrying wires 19, interconnected with the power block 20 offshore platform 2, and a power block 20 has an electric connection with the power cable 21, electronician coastal technological base (not shown); at the same time all remote areas of the pipeline 14, the heating units 13 to 19 toconsumption, information-management communication channels 10 and the power cable 21 is placed in a cylindrical insulated housing 22.
The device operates as follows. The range of allowable temperatures of the wall of the pipeline at the initial and subsequent segments of the path from the platform to the onshore processing facilities database is specified in the control processor 11 taking into account indications of the temperature sensor 17 of the first segment of the pipeline 1. The device operates in continuous mode. The wall of the first segment of the pipe 1 is heated by heat from the walls of the heat-release system of tubular channels 4, cross-cutting capacity of the heat carrier 5 with the system teplonagrevateley tubular channels 6, receiving heat from the condenser 7 superheated steam reactor; however, the circulation of the coolant in the heat exchanger system is based on the principle of a heat pump and is driven by the pump 12 for pumping the cooled coolant in the system teplonagrevateley tubular channels 6. The temperature of the walls of the main pipe 14 is controlled by the sensors 17 and regulated by the CPU 11 of the control unit offshore platforms on each area heating units 13, using feedback processor 11 for enabling the electric heating elements 16 through the trigger 18 for short is the design temperature of the pipe wall 14.
We refused the opportunity to use the potential of the power cable 21 is placed in one casing 22 with the main pipeline 14, due to the unreasonable risk of frequent violations of the integrity of the sheath of the power cable to connect the electric heating elements 16 heating units 13, and chose to enter into the structure of the inventive heater pipe separate electric cable 19, which tells of electric elements 16 heating units 13 with the power block 20 offshore platforms.
We have rejected the use of exhaust gas heat standard for platform installations type L2500 electric power 28 MW each, placed with all auxiliary systems in teplozvukoizolyatsionnykh containers that are designed for operation on the open deck. For example, on the exhaust pipe of attorneygeneral.gov the "Prirazlomnaya" platform equipped units utilizing exhaust heat thermal capacity of 25 MW each. However, the use of attorneygeneral.gov on offshore platforms leads to massive air pollution with nitrogen oxides at a considerable distance from the areas of operation that resulted in the need to replace them at a nuclear power plant. In this regard, the source of heat for heating of pipelines, we used the excess heat is the Nergy of the capacitor 7 superheated steam reactor, transmitted to the intermediate heat carrier, for example, glycol heating the initial division of the pipeline 1 in the node processing fluid on an offshore platform.
Heater pipe containing a heating blocks, each of which is located around a heated pipeline and contains insulating layer with built-in it the electric heating element connected to the current-carrying wires, characterized in that the heating unit is located in the initial part of the pipeline, made in the form of a heat exchanger with intermediate heat carrier that uses thermal energy of the superheated steam condenser of the nuclear reactor; and each subsequent heating unit is provided with a temperature sensor pipe, electrically connected to the control processor; electric heating elements, each heating unit includes an engine start - off contact from the current-carrying wires interconnected with the power block offshore platform while the pipeline with the heating units, the current-carrying wires, the information-managing communication channels and power cable is placed in a heat-insulated casing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering and can be used in heat exchange systems intended for recovery and use of waste heat. A system operating as per Rankine organic cycle and intended for recovery and use of waste heat supplied from a waste heat source by means of a closed circuit of working fluid medium includes at least one evaporator. In addition, the above evaporator includes a surface-treated substrate for contribution to bubble boiling of working fluid medium to provide restriction of working fluid medium temperature to the value below the specified temperature. Besides, the evaporator is made so that evaporation of working fluid medium is provided by using waste heat supplied from the waste heat source.
EFFECT: reduction of sizes; lower cost and improvement of the system's efficiency.
21 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to heat engineering and can be used in cooling towers with dry-type heat exchangers. A heat exchanger meant for cooling of liquid and oriented vertically along the longitudinal axis, comprises the first cooling delta set in the first point along the longitudinal axis and including the first inlet pipeline to let the flow of liquid in, which is connected to the first supply main via the fluid medium, and the first outlet pipeline to let the flow of liquid out, which is connected to the first inlet pipeline and the first discharge main via the fluid medium as well as the second cooling delta set in the second point along the longitudinal axis above the first cooling delta and including the second inlet pipeline to let the flow of liquid in, which is connected to the second supply main via the fluid medium, and the second outlet pipeline to let the flow of liquid out, which is connected to the second inlet pipeline and the second discharge main via the fluid medium.
EFFECT: increased heat exchange in cooling deltas.
21 cl, 15 dwg
FIELD: energy industry.
SUBSTANCE: cooled gas from the gas main pipeline after the compressor station is fed into the heat exchange tubes of the heat exchange section. The additionally cooled secondary coolant (fuel gas etc.) is fed into the inner tubes located in the cavity of the heat exchange tubes. Due to the heat exchange of the cooled gas with the secondary coolant the additional cooling of the gas after the compression station is carried out and heating the secondary coolant.
EFFECT: improving the thermal effectiveness by reducing energy consumption.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger contains pipeline made in the form of wall of a through cavity with outer surface and end sections. Also it contains external heat transfer elements attached to one end section. Wall of the through cavity of another end section is made in the form of an enveloping element of a through opening that is formed in the wall of the room. At that external heat transfer elements are made in the form of facing elements of the wall of the room being made from steel plates, pipes, channel sections, angle elements or bars. End sections are fastened to each other by metal fixing device.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of heat transfer from heat exchanger to ambient air enlarging functional capabilities of heat exchanger and the number of hardware.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline is made in the form of wall of a through cavity with outer surface and end sections. Besides external heat transfer elements are made and attached to one end section. Wall of a through cavity of another end section is made in the form of an enveloping element of a through opening, which is made in the wall of the room. At that external heat transfer elements are made in the form of facing elements of the wall of the room being made from steel plates, pipes, channel sections, angle elements or bars. End sections are fastened to each other by metal fixing device.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of heat transfer from heat exchanger to ambient air enlarging functional capabilities of heat exchanger and the number of hardware.
SUBSTANCE: pipeline is made by manufacturing a wall of a through cavity with outer surface, end sections and an intermediate section that is arranged between end sections. Besides, external heat transfer elements are made, which are attached to end sections. The wall of the through cavity of the intermediate section is made in the form of an enveloping element of a through opening, which is made in the wall of the room.
EFFECT: enlarging the number of hardware; improving heat transfer efficiency from heat exchanger to ambient air.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger includes a pipeline made in the form of a wall of a through cavity with outer surface, end sections and an intermediate section that is arranged between end sections. Besides, it includes external heat transfer elements that are attached to end sections. Wall of through cavity of the intermediate section is made in the form of an enveloping element of a through opening that is formed in the wall of the room.
EFFECT: enlarging the number of hardware, namely, creating a new site; improving heat transfer efficiency from heat exchanger to ambient air.
SUBSTANCE: heat exchanger is designed for heating-cooling of circulating flows of liquid or gas by thermoelectric batteries and may find application in power, chemical, petrochemical, food and other industries. The heat exchanger is made in the form of a forward-flow pipe from a rectangular profile, the width of which complies with width of contact plates of the thermoelectric battery, and inner surfaces are used for heat transfer to a heated (cooled) flow, with transverse partitions installed inside the pipe, which partially cover its throughout section. In the heat exchanger a rectangular profile is applied with the ratio of inner section sides within the limits of 0.2-1, and transverse partitions are made in the form of a bundle of cylindrical rods that close thermal flows of opposite walls of the pipe and installed in a corridor or staggered order perpendicularly to flow direction, besides, the rods are either tightly mounted into opposite walls of the pipe, or are installed on one or several longitudinal plates, pressed with rods into the inner cavity of the pipe.
EFFECT: high ratio of heat transfer from plates of a thermoelectric battery to a heated flow without considerable increase of aerohydrodynamic resistance to its motion.
SUBSTANCE: thermal diode is meant for primary heat transfer in one direction. It consists of an aluminium heat pipe covered with an oxide layer with thickness of not more than 20 nm and a heat pipe having the surface satisfactorily absorbing heat emission. Space between heat pipes is transparent for heat radiation. Increased temperature is supplied to the aluminium heat pipe at diode operation in forward direction. As a result, the heated layer emits heat radiation wholly absorbed with the surface. At backward diode connection, considerable part of the heat radiation emitted with the surface penetrates through the layer and interferes with the flow reflected back from metal. An oxide layer that found itself in the occurred standing wave node looses the possibility of absorbing an electromagnetic energy.
EFFECT: simple design and high rectifying effect.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: inductance heat exchanger is meant for performing significant endothermic reactions; it contains steam chamber of common cylindrical shape, which is closed in its upper part with a dome essentially of oval shape and in its lower part - with bottom essentially of oval shape. The above steam chamber includes multiple vertical tubes which are installed along cylindrical part of steam chamber and inside which reagents circulate; at that, the above tubes contain at least one end interconnected with external space of inductance heat exchanger and are heated with multiple porous burners operating without pre-mixing and installed vertically between heated tubes.
EFFECT: compact design of reactor; lower costs.
14 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ship building and sea transport, particularly, to operation and design of natural gas production, storage and unloading vessels. Proposed system comprises natural gas extraction vessel and liquefied natural gas storage vessel connected with the formed by pipeline. To ensure safety, natural gas liquefaction is performed at extraction vessel while storage and unloading is carried out at storage vessel spaced from the first one by explosion-proof distance. Transfer of liquefied natural gas from first vessel to second one is performed via heat-insulated pipeline with required buoyancy and rigidity and articulated with both vessels.
EFFECT: higher safety in operation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: system includes jacket serving for partial covering of pipeline or tank surface. Jacket includes external mechanical protection means, means of heat insulation against ambient environment, heat energy generation element, element for distribution of heat energy in inward direction and channel for electricity supply line.
EFFECT: possibility of maintaining the temperature of working medium transported via pipeline or that stored in the tank.
13 cl, 21 dwg
FIELD: oil and gas production industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to main pipeline transport area, i.e. to method of oil heating in main pipelines and can be used for construction of new and upgrade of active main pipelines. According to the invention, the method of oil heating in main pipelines includes heat-exchange system installed at oil heat stations including heating of intermediate heat medium and heat transfer from intermediate heat medium to transported product. Water is used as the heat medium which is heated in water boiler by the 110-80°C schedule; heated water is supplied to pipe annulus of the first heat exchange system where temperature of water circulated in annular space at the 100-70°C schedule and this water is used to heat transported product to the set temperature in the second heat exchange system.
EFFECT: prevention of oil overheating, reduction of corrosion activity of transported medium and resulted reduction of pipeline wear.
FIELD: pipe-line systems.
SUBSTANCE: heater for fluid has housings of hydrodynamic converters which are made of diverging members at the ends of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the members is concave and is mating to the surface which is defined by the rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. Each face of the vortex pipe is provided with the flow generator which is mounted with a space relation to it. The flow generator is made of a disk whose symmetry axis is coaxial to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The space between the face of the vortex pipe and the surface of the flow generator, which faces it, receives at least four flow deflectors. Each flow deflector is made of a plate whose surface is parallel to the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe. The inner side of the adjusting chambers is concave and mating to the surface which is defined by rotation of a second order curve around the longitudinal axis of the vortex pipe.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency .
3 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: clutch is designed for heating pipes of water and heating supply in winter, during periods of emergency at places of central heating. The clutch is made in the form of a set of cuffs sequentially placed on the pipes or radiators, each of which comprises an electrical socket connected parallel to the lead wire, mounted on the outer side of the cuff, at the input of the wire to the cuff, at that the extreme cuff of the set is connected by the wire with the plug to the external power supply, each subsequent cuff is connected with its plug electrical to the electrical socket of each subsequent cuff, and on the edges of the cuffs the clamping elements are mounted, for example, made from fabric hook-and-loop. For the second embodiment, the clutch for heating pipes of water and heating supply, comprising a textile web with inner electric heating element is additionally comprises inside the flexible tube with distilled water adjacent to the electric heating element, the clutch is made in the form of a flexible elongated rectangular plate which length is multiply greater than its width, and along the long sides of the clutch the clamping element are placed, for example, made in the form of fabric hook-and-loop.
EFFECT: providing the firm and reliable contact of the heater with pipes of water and heating supply in all areas of their location.
2 cl, 4 dwg