Method of reclamation of fallow lands for hayfields and pastures and device for its implementation
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises pasturing by animals, destroying of not eaten, harmful and poisonous plants, levelling animal excrement, and removal of uneaten residues by harrows and rakes, fertiliser application, as well as creation of tree and shrub shelterbelts. At that on the area intended for hayfields and pastures area after pasturing by animals the fertilisers are initially applied, and then the uneaten plants are destroyed, tilting them and applying herbicide by method of smearing it on their biomass, including stems and lower surface of leaves. Harrowing and treatment the grass with rake is carried out after the start of regrowth of plants eaten by animals. The device comprises a reservoir for the herbicide, as well as a pump for feeding it to the tubular perforated rods with means for application of the herbicide to the plants. The perforated rods are mounted behind each other in parallel with the ability of horizontal and vertical displacement, and the device for application of the herbicide to the plants is made in the form of capillary cloth located between the pressure plates and attached on the perforated parts of the said rods which are connected and framed with the cloth and placed in the tubular casings with longitudinal slots through which the cloth is passed, compressed by the pressure plates fixed on the edges of the slots. And the perforated tubular rods are communicated with each other by the hose, at that the inlet end of the front tubular rod is connected to the pump and the outlet end of the rear rod through the drainage tube with the valve - with a reservoir for the herbicide to form a flow regulated system. Furthermore, the perforated tubular rods and their casings are attached to the frame, mounted on the propellers, with freedom of vertical and horizontal displacement.
EFFECT: inventions enable to simplify the technology of creation of forage land on fallow lands with simultaneous formation of tree-shrub belts.
6 cl, 3 dwg, 2 ex
The present invention relates to agriculture and can be used in the reclamation of land to create their hayfields and pastures, including forested.
There is a method of creating highly productive seeded cultural pastures and hayfields by soil preparation, making of amendments and fertilizers, seeding grasses and forming grass (N. Parakhin, I. Kobozev, Gorbachev IV, Lazarev N.N., Mikhalev S. Fodder production. M: Colossus, 202, p.150-250).
With all the benefits (good productivity, high forage quality) implementation of this method requires large funds, including mechanization of work, creating grass, fertilizing. Currently, he is for the development of 47 million ha of former arable land is not yet applicable.
There is a method of creating parks grassland and create cultural hayfields and pastures, including on the slopes and floodplains with alternating grass and lisakustannuksia shelterbelts with natural herbaceous vegetation (I. Kobozev the Influence of anthropogenic factors on the condition of agricultural land in floodplains of small rivers of the non-Chernozem zone. News of TAA, no 4, 1983).
This method has the same disadvantages as the method proposed above. Closest to the proposed technical solution is the well-known way to create what I grassland on old-growth, natural herbage, and on fallow lands by periodic cutting, unpalatable, harmful and poisonous plants, selective processing of clumps (I. Kobozev "Optimization of a production process in agroecosystems - Doctoral thesis C. agricultural Sciences, M.: ICCA, 1997, s).
This method has the following disadvantages:
- takes a long time for the cultivation of grass;
- requires painstaking execution by selective processing of the grass herbicide and manual labor in her performance;
is not created, organized lacustricola the forest;
- during the processing of a grass herbicide, including curtains with unpalatable vegetation, damaged and useful forage plants.
Close to the claimed device is towed sprayer boom OP-2000-02, including the capacity for herbicide, and a pump for supplying the herbicide in the bar, which is equipped with a device for its application on plants, which is made in the form of spraying nozzles (khalanski V.M., Gorbachev IV, Agricultural machines. M: Colossus, 2000, s-229).
The disadvantage of this device are:
- high consumption of herbicide;
- getting the herbicide on the soil and on plants;
- the complexity of the atomizer, the unreliability of their work.
Closest to the claimed device is Wu is a contact-wetting sprayer Rotowipek from Enginering interrational LTD for crops clogged vysokostebelnye weeds, including the capacity for herbicide, the pump for its submission to the rod, on which is mounted a rotating panel in contact with the rotating brushes (brochure Rotowipek from Enginering international LTD. Internet _bottom/222/zapehasti_zapasnje_chasti_k_opriskivatelyam_navesnjm.html // (the "Company "Nutahara" 394038, Voronezh, street Designers, 31A).
The disadvantages of this device are:
- the complexity of the device for applying herbicide to the weeds;
- poor performance when working on fallow lands and meadows and unreliability in these conditions.
The claimed invention is directed to a simplification of the creation of grassland on fallow lands with simultaneous formation of tree and shrub strips.
Formed task is solved by a method for development of fallow land for hay and grazing, including grazing of foliage and animals, destruction, unpalatable, harmful and poisonous plants, leveling animal manure and cleaning uneaten residues harrows and rakes, fertilizer application, as well as the creation of tree and shrub protection strips, used for hay and pasture area after grazing grass animals initially make fertilizer, and then destroy uneaten plants, inclining them and causing the herbicide method of smearing it on their biomass, including CTE is whether and lower surface of leaves, and processing of grass harrows and rakes carried out after the beginning of the regrowth consumed by the animals and plants drying uneaten.
Before grazing grass animals future tree and shrub belts aphiwat on both sides, destroying in subsequent buryanistoy vegetation plowed on the bands, and the destruction carried out by the method of lubrication herbicide herbaceous plants, pre-bending them over the seedlings and young shoots of trees and shrubs, with a further form of tree and shrub strip of plants, obtained through self-seeding.
In the device for implementing the development of fallow lands in hayfields and pastures, including herbicide tank and the pump for its submission to the perforated tubular rod with devices for applying herbicide to plants, perforated rods are mounted one behind the other in parallel with the possibility of horizontal and vertical movement, and a device for applying herbicide to plants made in the form of a capillary cloth, mounted on the perforated parts of these rods, which are connected and lined with cloth and placed in a tubular sheath with longitudinal slots through which omitted the panel located between the clamping plates for exurbanite on the edges of the slots, moreover, the perforated tubular rod communicated with each other with the hose, the input end of the front tubular rod connected to the pump, and the output end of the rear rod through the drain hose from the faucet to the tank for a herbicide, forming a flow-regulated system, in addition, the perforated tubular rod and their housings are fastened to the frame installed on dvigatelya, with freedom of vertical and horizontal movement.
Top capillary cloth covered with a waterproof film, and covers with inside them perforated tubular rods placed in the front and rear cylindrical tanks in the rear of the tank bottom, perpendicular to its axis made the cut edging, which are placed in vertical capillary tape, spaced narrow side in the direction of travel of the device.
The frame is equipped with a transverse front beam, mounted with possibility of vertical displacement and the change in the height of its location.
The frame is made with the possibility of reducing the length of the telescopic rails and provided with an additional trailer brackets mounted on its lateral side, and a tubular rod is placed in a plane inclined backward from the front transverse rod.
Due to the fact that before processing the herbage exercise clause is studnie use, the height of the most valuable food plants is only 5-10 see, Unpalatable species, including the widespread Calamagrostis epigeios, poisonous St. John's wort common buttercups and others, as well as harmful, type of tansy and other, have a height of 40 or more, see When this valuable herbs are all under the cover of the latter, reducing the penetration of herbicides on the first. This effect is due to the fact that the herbicide is applied on the developed low-value plants, method of lubrication of their biomass, pre-tilting them. This provides them the full treatment, including stems and lower most delicate leaf surface. As the herbicide is not applied in the form of drops, and with the help of moistened them with the cloth, then placed in the lower tier valuable plants under cover of little value, herbicide almost misses. However, when such processing low-value plants are destroyed in the entire area, and not just selectively on the curtain.
Due to the fact that fertilizer, especially nitrogen, is made not after the destruction of uneaten residues, as is customary, and applications of herbicide, valuable plants grow faster, thus reducing the damaging them with herbicide, they quickly take the place of the destroyed plants. It is noted that fertilization increases eziologicheskie status of plantlets, reducing their damage by herbicides. As a result the soil becomes more friable. In addition, since dried plants, including shrubs and young shoots of trees and shrubs are removed using a rail harrows and transverse tractor rake, while simultaneously leveling and grinding of animal excrement.
Under this treatment improves the formation of feeding high-yielding grass. At the specified way, before producing a drain grass animals and the processing of the herbicide, the field is marked by a kind of pens, beating wands future tree and shrub strip, reducing their width with respect to their opakowania. Raw strip deposits where there is a wood-shrub vegetation, aphiwat from two sides. The soil loosened and leveled. Because of this, the visible border areas, where it is necessary to conduct grazing, and where to make fertilizers without affecting the future of the protective strip, which have a horizontal slope. In the future the band will be an effective means of combating soil erosion and transfer of surface runoff into the subsurface. This increases the productivity of the surrounding agricultural landscape, improvement of the hydrological regime.
In the first year after opakowania bands on plowed and RA is rihannas soil appears buryanistoy vegetation and shoots (shoots) of trees and shrubs. The latter are inhibited by vegetation. The proposed method of destruction of the latter contributes to the preservation of seedlings and young trees and shrubs. So for the last herbicide misses, because it is not applied by spray and by capillary wetting cloth high sloping grass-weeds, under cover of which is a woody shrub vegetation to which the herbicide misses.
Further tree and shrub vegetation becomes competitive, it shoots thinned out and form shelterbelts, facilitate transfer of precipitation to the soil, improving microclimate, prevent soil erosion and preserve the useful fauna, including native pollinators forage plants. At the same time, breaking up the field into a kind of pens, easier to enforce rational Senokos-pasture rotation system and the correct use of the grassland.
It should be noted that such processing deposits allows you to apply bystrorazvivajushchiesja herbicides continuous action, for example: tornado, roundup, Otel etc. this damaged and destroyed all unwanted plants and useful, located in the lower level under their cover remain fairly intact.
Implementation of the proposed method dramatically simplified question is WMD production and application of the proposed device, hinged to the tractor.
This is achieved due to the fact that the device for applying herbicide to plants is made in the form of sagging capillary cloth that is constantly wetted by the herbicide, since the front and rear ends of the specified panel frame perforated tubular rod, which served the herbicide. Moreover, the excess herbicide does not fall on the ground, as these rods are placed in the casing and the tubular container. It is important that the tubular rod connected to each other in one system representing a flow pipe with no dead ends.
The presence on the drain hose faucet allows you to adjust the back pressure of the solution to the capillary tissue. The design of the device allows you to adjust the height of the tissue, and the presence of transverse beam provides a high inclination unwanted plants before they are smearing this fabric herbicide. In addition, due to the fact that on the back of the tank, which is a casing with a perforated rod and cloth, made slits, into which are inserted capillary tape, lubricant plants of the upper tier of herbicides not only from above, but with two sides. Treatment of plants with the herbicide solution is improved, because the capillary fabric covered with moisture-proof film. The effect of several is like increases, if the fabric and the holes on the bottom rear of the casing to secure the capillary cords with weights at the lower end. However, such a cloth (linen or cotton) cords, forming a fringe or brush wear out quickly. Experience has shown rather high efficiency of capillary vertical ribbons.
The method and the device proved experimentally (example 1 and 2).
Example 1. Vegetation is located on the 8-year-old deposits mainly represented by Calamagrostis epigeios and buryanistoy vegetation. In the grass there are different kinds of clover, grasses and herbs, including valuable (40-45% projective cover). The grass was used as pasture for goats and bulls. Next year the yield of seeded grass species was 60-65% t/ha of green mass. After grazing use has conducted a field experiment in example 1 to perform the operations described below.
On salese are grazing, after which remain well and satisfactorily edible species of trees to a height of 5-10 cm In the above tier herbs high fodder value is formed of the upper tier of harmful weeds and poisonous plants. Then spend the conventional herbicide treatment. A month after the formation of herbage solution of roundup spend his handling of rail harrow, destroying meteor, ant is even vegetable mounds, levelling dry excrement. Then spend cleaning dry residues contribute fertilizer N45P30K30and the grass is used as pasture or hay.
The experiment showed that already in the 2nd year of herbage from buryanistoy deposits became hay-pasture containing valuable plant species 60-70%, the yield was 100-110 t/ha of green mass. It should be noted that under this treatment destroyed and the young tree and shrub plants. Damaged and valuable species of grasses.
Example 2. Label pens, outlining the future of the protective strip from the natural herbaceous and shrub vegetation. The width of the lanes 6-10 m, aphiwat plow width of 4-6 m from both sides. Then make processing of grass deposits in example 1. Spend overgrazing of grass animals, but after grazing make fertilizer, then the remainders of the upper tier trampled the rink or track harrow.
Experience has shown that after grazing, if palatable herbage mainly consists of legumes, then make phosphorus-potassium fertilizers, such as R40To60if the grass mainly consists of grasses (bluegrass), then apply N30-60.
On a sloping herbage move the capillary cloth moistened with a solution of the herbicide. In experiments were used ln the Noah homespun canvas, folded in half and stitched threads.
Experimentally revealed that, compared with the usual effect of herbicide (roundup) with a sprayer to its concentration should be increased in 2-3 times. If you normally use on 1 hectare of 4-6 kg/ha of herbicide dissolved in 300 l of water (the concentration of 1,3-2,5%), while the application of roundup in this way the concentration of the working solution is 3-5%, however, its consumption is about 50 kg/ha, i.e. the cost of the herbicide is only 1.5-2.5 kg/ha instead of 4-6 kg/ha, 2.5-3.2 times less. The increase in the concentration of herbicide necessary because buryanistoy vegetation is in the later stages of development, in which the pop-shrub vegetation remain, except on those bands grazing. When buryanistoy vegetation carry out the above processing herbicide, excluding harrowing.
While processing according to example 2, the content of valuable species of herbs was 75-85% (projective cover), and their yield was of 14.0-14.5 t/ha
Thus, the set of features of the method allows to obtain the maximum effect with the least effort and time to convert abandoned fallow land into productive hay-pasture areas, framed by tree and shrub protective forest belts.
Most who ROSTO, effectively and cheaply implemented this method offered by the device (Fig.1-3).
Figure 1 shows the General diagram of the device (a partial vertical section).
Figure 2 shows the wiring diagram of the main working bodies of the device (top view).
Figure 3 explained the layout of the rear of the perforated tubular rod in the casing and capacity, as well as fixing the capillary tissue and vertical ribbons.
The device is made in the form of a tank 1 for a solution of the herbicide and pump 2 to its submission to the working bodies, which are mounted on the frame 3, is provided with a mounting unit for mounting in hydraulic hitch system of the tractor.
Frame 3 provided with a front transverse beam 5, is fixed with the possibility of vertical movement and changes its altitude above the ground. This beam 5 is required for inclination uneaten plants 6, to improve the efficiency of subsequent herbicide treatment and create a better cover over valuable edible grasses 7.
On the frame 3 is fixed device for applying herbicide to plants 6 that have no nutritive value. This device is made in the form of a capillary cloth 8, the ends of which are located in the cylindrical nodes 9 and 10. The front 9 of them mounted on the stationary frame 3 and the rear 10 with freedom of vertical and horizontal is on the move. It is necessary to change the height of the capillary panels 8 and its configuration, ensuring the most effective application of herbicide on plants 6. Nodes 9 and 10 are required for filing solution in the capillary tissue and collection of excess.
Front node 9 with one end communicated with a hose 11 with the pump 3, and the other hose 12 with the rear hub 10. The latter is provided with capillary tapes 13 and its output end is in communication with a hose 14 with a valve 15 with a capacity of 1.
The frame 3 is made by the crease of the telescopic beams (not labeled) and connected to the support wheel 16, mounted with the possibility of changing the height of the rear end of the frame 3.
The frame 3 is made pleat for ease of transportation, as the width of the capillary cloth and the entire device can reach 5 m and more. In this regard, the frame 3 at its longitudinal beams fixed trailing brackets 17 for towing the device after changing its length to 2.5-3.0 meters and ensure move the device in the direction of placement of the cylindrical nodes 9 and 10. To this end the device is provided with a detachable wheels 18, which can be installed on the frame 3 or the mounting site 4 (figure 1).
The main working bodies of the device is performed as follows (figure 1 and 2). Nodes 9 and 10 represent the capacity and 19 and 20, which are placed in the perforated tubular rod 21 and 22, which are framed by the ends of the capillary cloth 8, which is enclosed within a casing 23, which the panel 8 is pressed perforated rods 21 and 22. The casing is made of a longitudinal slot, the edges of which the pressure plates 24. The panel 8 is passed through the specified slot, compressed clamping plates 24 on its edges (see figure 3).
In tanks 19 and 20 are made of longitudinal slots on the outer edges, which made the pressure plates 25, between which is placed a capillary cloth 8. Located on the right side of the device the perforated ends of the rods 21 and 22 are connected by the hose 12. The input (left) end of the front rod 21 is connected with a hose 13 with pump 2, the suction device is communicated with the tank 1.
Left (discharge) end of the rear rod 22 is connected with a hose 14 with an adjusting valve 15 with the tank 1. Thanks to this connection hoses 12 and 14 of the rods 21 and 22 with the pump 2 and the tank 1 provided reliable adjustable flow supply system of the herbicide solution in the capillary panel 8 (Fig 1 and 2). Rear unit 9 for supplying the herbicide solution in the capillary cloth 8 (3) is fixed with freedom of vertical and horizontal movement (Fig 1 and 2). For the reliability of its cylindrical eat the awn 20 strengthened by brackets 26, in addition, it is equipped with a sight glass window 27. Tanks 19 and 20, the casing 23 is made detachable.
In the vessel 19 perpendicular to its axis is made transverse slot 28 with the outer edges as spljusnutyj shells 29, in which the compressed vertical capillary tape 13 narrow part that is installed along the device.
To improve the functioning of the capillary cloth 8 is covered with moisture-proof film 30.
The device operates as follows. The transverse beam 5 is lowered to the height strawling grazing valuable plants 7. When moving the device, the beam 5 tilts forward uneaten plants 6.
Capillary panel 8 and the rear wall 10 for submission of herbicide are set so that the capillary tape 13 and the specified panel 8 in contact with the tilted uneaten plants 6. Then the pump 2 from the tank through the hose 11 is a solution of the herbicide in front perforated tubular rod 21, moistening its frame capillary cloth 8.
To accelerate the wetting of the cloth 8 and the tape 13, the valve 13 to the hose 14 is covered. The excess solution from the tubular rod 22 through the hose 14 and the valve 13 is discharged into the tank 1.
Capillary flow of a liquid into the cloth 8 is amplified due to the presence of casing 23 which presses on to the perforated rods 21 and 22 will be used around the x ends of the cloth. This effect is enhanced due to their location between the plates 24 and 25.
Part of the solution of the herbicide enters the tank 20, from which it enters the capillary tape 13, is compressed in spljusnutyj shells 29.
Capillary cloth 8 wet and partially slack, lubricating solution of herbicide uneaten plants. For more contact with them cloth 8 priglushaetsya, for example, by placing on it a long polymer bags or tubes filled with sand.
Herbicide is applied to plants 6, located not only capillary panel 8, and between the belts 13, i.e. is a more complete treatment herbicide destroy uneaten plants.
Under moisture-permeable film 30 capillary cloth 8 well-hydrated, as you move the moisture is distributed on a sloping uneaten plants 6 without the formation of droplets, i.e. the risk of damage to valuable plants 6 is minimized. The appearance of the cloth 8 excess of a solution of the herbicide or decreases its supply pump 2 hose 13, or by opening the valve 15 on the hose 14 increases the discharge of herbicide in tank 1, i.e. increased transit its passage through the tubular rod 21 and 22 and hoses 12, 13 and 14.
Upon completion of the work due to the implementation of the longitudinal bars of the frame 3 telescopic nodes 9 and 10 converge and fixed. The mouth of the identified removable wheel 18, the device is removed from the hydraulic hinge of the tractor and with the help of brackets is transported, without interfering with the flow of traffic.
Thus, the set of features of the method and device allows to provide the most complete achievement of this goal: fast and cheap to learn fallow land in hayfields and pastures, to create around their areas of tree and shrub protective strip. If necessary hayfields and pastures can be translated into the arable fields are provided erosion protection while improving hydrological regime, microclimate and preservation of useful fauna, including pollinators.
1. Method development of fallow land for hay and grazing, including grazing of foliage and animals, destruction, unpalatable, harmful and poisonous plants, leveling animal manure and cleaning uneaten residues harrows and rakes, fertilizer application, and the establishment of tree and shrub protection strips, characterized in that used for hay and pasture area after grazing grass animals initially make fertilizer, and then destroy uneaten plants, inclining them and causing the herbicide method of smearing it on their biomass, including stems and lower surface of leaves, and harrowing and processing of grass rake carry out the settlement of the e beginning regrowth consumed by the animals and plants.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that prior to grazing grass animals future tree and shrub belts aphiwat on both sides, destroying in subsequent buryanistoy vegetation plowed on the bands, and the destruction carried out by the method of lubrication herbaceous plants, pre-bending them over the seedlings and young shoots of trees and shrubs, with a further form of tree and shrub strip of plants, obtained through self-seeding.
3. The device for implementing the method of development of fallow lands in hayfields and pastures, including herbicide tank and the pump for its submission to the perforated tubular rod with devices for applying herbicide to plants, characterized in that the perforated rods are mounted one behind the other in parallel with the possibility of horizontal and vertical movement, and a device for applying herbicide to plants made in the form of a capillary of a panel located between the pressure plates and fixed on the perforated parts of these rods, which are connected and lined with cloth and placed in a tubular sheath with longitudinal slots through which omitted the cloth, compressed pressure plates recorded on the edges of the slots, and perfo the new tubular rod communicated with each other hose, the input end of the front tubular rod connected to the pump, and the output end of the rear rod through the drain hose to the faucet with tank herbicide, forming a flow-regulated system, in addition, the perforated tubular rod and their housings are fastened to the frame, installed the drivers, with freedom of vertical and horizontal movement.
4. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the top of the capillary cloth covered with a waterproof film, and covers with inside them perforated tubular rods placed in the front and rear cylindrical tanks in the rear of the tank bottom, perpendicular to its axis made the cut edging, which are placed in vertical capillary tape, spaced narrow side in the direction of travel of the device.
5. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the frame is equipped with a front transverse rod fixed with the possibility of vertical movement and changes its altitude.
6. The device according to claim 3, characterized in that the frame is made with the possibility of reducing the length of the telescopic rails and provided with an additional trailer brackets mounted on its lateral side, and a tubular rod is placed in a plane inclined backward from the front transverse rod.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental conservation technologies, cutting-edge agricultural technologies and chemistry of organosilicon compounds and can be used to restore the structure of disturbed soils by stabilising water-stable aggregate. In particular, the present invention employs water-soluble humic silanol derivatives that are modified in a special way to endow them with the capacity to be irreversibly sorbed on surfaces of mineral particles and other hydroxyl-containing carriers. Humic derivatives are added to the degraded soil in form of aqueous solutions.
EFFECT: method for use in agricultural technologies includes using humic derivatives as structure-forming agents (soil ameliorants) by via attachment thereof to the surface of soil aggregates in order to endow the latter with water-stable properties.
8 cl, 11 dwg, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of environmental protection and can be used in the rectification of the consequences of the oil spill on the soil. The method consists in mixing the oil-contaminated soil, spread over the surface of freshly ploughed uncontaminated field with the thickness layer from 1/10 to 1/6 of the ploughing depth, to the full depth of ploughing using the tiller several times.
EFFECT: invention enables to restore oil-contaminated soil without application of additional neutralising foreign substances and reagents.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: for biorecycling of oil sludge and oil production and processing waste by means of soil populating with natural black-soil-forming organisms a mixture is prepared with an initial composition of 26-30% of oil sludge, 26-30% of liquid oil sludge and the remaining part of organic domestic waste and/or saw dust, the mixture is infused within 20-24 hours at a temperature of 20-25°C for further populating with earthworms of the first generation, the mixture is withhold within 17-30 days till the earthworms of the second and third generations appear for the purpose of the sludge-contaminated soil treatment. The earthworms of the second and third generations grown in a hothouse conditions by adaption of the earthworms of the first generation to the above mixture are introduced to the contaminated soil. At that introduction of the earthworms of the second and third generations is made at a volume ratio of soil and the mixture equal to 10-15:1.
EFFECT: improving efficiency of the contaminated soils treatment.
SUBSTANCE: soil-sludge mixture is obtained by thermal treatment and contains a mixture of components obtained by processing wastes in the UZG-1MGZH apparatus for treating oil-contaminated soil in amount of 30-40 wt %, peat 20-35 wt % and sand 20-50 wt %, wherein the mixture of components contains, wt %: vanadium oxide 32.5; carbon 31.4; aluminium oxide 7.5; silicon oxide 7.5; nitrogen oxide 6.8; iron oxide 5.3; hydrogen 4.4; magnesium oxide 1.5; manganese oxide 0.8; lead oxide 0.4; chromium oxide 0.4; zinc oxide 0.4; nitrogen 0.4 and related impurities 0.7.
EFFECT: improving environmental conditions, restoring fertility of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands, higher fertility as a result of enrichment of contaminated soil with oxygen and mineral fertilisers during treatment and reducing oil-contaminated areas.
3 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: soil-sludge mixture for reclamation of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands contains a mixture obtained by treating a composition consisting of oil sludge, peat, sand and water, with the following ratio of components, wt %: vanadium oxide 32.5; carbon 31.4; aluminium oxide 7.5; silicon oxide 7.5; nitrogen oxide 6.8; iron oxide 5.3; hydrogen 4.4; magnesium oxide 1.5; manganese oxide 0.8; lead oxide 0.4; chromium oxide 0.4; zinc oxide 0.4; nitrogen 0.4; related impurities 0.7. Components of the composition of oil sludge, peat, sand and water are in the following ratio, wt %: oil sludge 30-40%; peat 30-35%; sand 30-35%; water - the balance. The related impurities include a proppant which contains ceramic spheres, a cut of the oil-contaminated soil layer containing crushed stone, and fine wastes of ferrous and nonferrous metals. Treatment involves mixing the composition of oil sludge, peat, sand and water in a hopper of an UZN-1MGZH apparatus.
EFFECT: improving environmental conditions, restoring fertility of oil-contaminated and disturbed lands, higher fertility as a result of enrichment of contaminated soil with oxygen and mineral fertilisers during treatment and reducing oil-contaminated areas.
4 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection. The composition for cleaning soil contaminated with oil and motor fuel comprises peat filler, nitrogen and phosphorus fertiliser, used in ratio N:P2O5=1-10:1, zeolite-clay rock modified with a cationic surfactant, and cation-exchange minerals, with the following content of components, wt %: low- or high-moor peat 44.79-93.989; nitrogen fertiliser, N 0.01-0.15; phosphorus fertiliser, P2O5 0.001-0.06; zeolite-clay rock, modified with a cationic surfactant 1-15; cation-exchange minerals 5-40.
EFFECT: invention provides localisation and biodegradation of a hydrocarbon contaminant with high efficiency and prolonged effect.
6 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to reclamation of soils contaminated with oil products, decontamination of soils, liquidation of oil spillage, etc. Proposed device comprises intake bin, mixer, crusher, cleaned soil handling device, screw conveyor and vibrator. Crusher is arranged above intake bin and communicated via screw conveyor with mixer. Mixer represents and encased horizontal screw mixer with pelletised sorbent dispenser arranged at its top part. Mixer outlet is connected via screw conveyor with drier bin. Drier is composed by housing accommodating belt conveyors to carry the material along the drier and to pour it down onto belt conveyor. Conveyor top runs contact with vibrators mounted there under. Said vibrators are composed by roller eccentrics with individual or group drive. Burners to combust sorbent with oil products are arranged in drier housing above said conveyors. Drier top section accommodates the off-gas collection chamber communicated with cyclone and absorber via smoke sucker. Cleaned soil handling device is mounted at outlet of the last conveyor and composed by discharge channel connected with opening in drier housing sidewall to be closed by shutter.
EFFECT: higher intensity of oil removal irrespective of seasons.
SUBSTANCE: for bioremediation of cadmium-contaminated soils first before sowing peas, the inoculum is prepared from symbiotic microorganisms resistant to cadmium, consisting of soil-root mixture containing the strain of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungus Glomus sp.Fo 1 deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00630, in the amount of 0.5-1.0 g of a mixture per 1 pea seed; the aqueous suspension of nodule bacteria containing the strain Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM1066, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension, in the amount of 0.1-0.5 ml suspension per 1 pea seed, and the aqueous suspension of associative bacteria containing the strain Variovorax paradoxus 5C-2, deposited in the collection of state scientific institution All-Russian Research Institute for Agricultural Microbiology of Russian Agricultural Academy under the number RCAM00049, containing 106-107 cells of bacteria per 1 ml of the suspension in an amount of 0.1-0.5 ml of the suspension per 1 pea seed. Then in the cadmium-contaminated soil the seeds of genetically modified peas SGECdt are sown, which have higher resistance and accumulation of cadmium in an amount of 20-60 seeds per 1 m2, combining them during sowing with an inoculum following the specified standards, and the plants are grown to full maturity of beans, then the peas are mowed and removed from the soil surface.
EFFECT: accelerated recovery process of healthy biocenosis of soil.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to field of agriculture, in particular to revegetation. Method includes sowing perennial grasses with introduction of mineral fertilisers. Vermiculite substrate with granules up to 2-4 mm and pH from 6.5 to 7.2 is placed on ground in up to 1 cm layer. Seeds of grasses are sown on substrate surface with their irrigation with water solution of mineral fertilisers. After that, substrate surface is covered with polymer film, which is removed on 5-7 day. Vermiculite substrate represents swollen vermiculite with pH from 6.5 to 7.2, obtained by method of high-temperature burning at temperature up to 850°C with regulation of rate and temperature of burning, containing wt %: silicon oxide (SiO2)-34.0-36.6; iron oxide (Fe2O3)-5.6-6.5; aluminium oxide (Al2O3)- 9.1-9.9; magnesium oxide (MgO)-24.7-26.6; iron oxide (FeO)-0.20-0.27; titanium oxide (TiO2)-0.40-0.47; calcium oxide (CaO)-1.02-1.22; manganese (Mn)-0.05-0.07; potassium oxide (K2O)-0.70-0.87. Before application of vermiculite substrate layer on very dense ground, its tillage is carried out.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase efficiency of formation of sown culture phytocenoses and their longevity, initiate processes of seed germination and further growth and development of herbaceous plants and reduce terms of formation of culture phytocenoses.
3 cl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of forestry and reclamation. The method comprises coating the slopes with soil substrate by uniform shifting it from the horizontal surfaces, covering the horizontal sites with soil substrate by leveling, planting the nursery plants of trees and shrubs, planting seeds of herbaceous plants. As the soil substrate, a mixture of material with a high content of nutrients is used in the form of sewage sludge, organic matter, peat, manure and phosphogypsum with the ratio of the mixture components of 2:1 by volume. The mixture is stirred by milling on horizontal plate. Covering the surface of the slopes with the resulting mixture with the thickness of 25-30 cm is carried out by uniform sliding on the slopes. Then, a continuous layer with the thickness of 15-20 cm is formed on the horizontal surfaces. The layer of the soil substrate is covered on top with a mulch layer of sand with the thickness of 1-3 cm using a spreader. At the final stage of reclamation across the entire surface the nursery plants of fast-growing trees and shrubs are planted, which have the developed root system and aboveground part with the height of 0.5-1.0 m, followed by sowing seeds of herbaceous plants.
EFFECT: invention enables to accelerate biological reclamation due to creation of optimal conditions for growth of tree and shrubbery vegetation by optimising the composition of the artificial soil substrate used.
2 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises creation of deep vertical cavities, which enable to connect thawed zone of soil with the atmosphere during the period of its thawing, soil treatment, sowing Raphanus sativus subsp. acanthiformis. At that the grown harvest of the culture is left in the soil under the snowpack.
EFFECT: method enables to optimise soil conditions for growth and development of crops of agricultural cultures with the biological method of control of soil fertility.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture. The method comprises application in autumn of organic and phosphorus-potassium fertilisers, deep autumn ploughing, application of nitrogen fertiliser in spring and carrying out cultivation. In that artichoke is cultivated on the southern lit slope. In autumn organic fertilisers are applied at the rate of 30-60 t/ha, also phosphorus-potassium fertilisers are applied at a dose of P40-90K60-120 on soils with high acidity - lime. After 1-2 days deep autumn ploughing of the site is carried out. In spring to accelerate the melting of snow the darkening agents are thrown on it - ash, phosphorus-potassium fertilisers, peat or loose soil. After snow melting, the nitrogen fertiliser at a dose of rate of application of 60-90 kg/ha are applied, and harrowing soil is carried out twice cross-diagonally to a depth of 5-7 cm with the help of tooth harrows on the hitches. After 2-5 days cultivation is carried out at a depth of 10-15 cm. The presowing treatment of seeding material of early varieties of artichoke of tuber purpose is carried out in advance, the healthy not affected by disease tubers are selected, they are decontaminated against infection in an aqueous solution of potassium permanganate in a concentration of 1:10000, germinated in the nutrient medium of humus half with sawdust or peat. The seed tubers are laid in one layer inside the nutrient substrate placed a layer of 6-10 cm, and kept moistened constantly at 15-20°C for 1-2 weeks until emergence of buds and start of emergence of sprouts, then the temperature is lowered to 8-10°C for formation of 1-2 cm sprouts and roots. The identified diseased tubers are removed, then the germinated tubers with the nutrient medium are transplanted into the soil warmed up to 3-5°C in wells and covered with the opaque film. Small tubers weighing 20-30 g are placed on the scheme 40×40 cm, the middle - weighing 40-60 g - on the scheme 50×50 cm, and the tubers are located in chequered order. Over the tubers location the cross-shaped cuts are made with the size of 5×5 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to simplify weed control in the cultivation of culture and to obtain the early harvest of tubers of artichoke.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises soil treatment, pre-sowing treatment of seeds and sowing in spring. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is carried out by their moisture, bringing the moisture content of the seeds to 45-50% of their mass. The seeds are kept at a temperature of +5°÷+10°C for 20 days, then the seeds are packed and stored till sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and sowing is carried out at the seeding rate of 100-150 kg/ha. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is started with selection of germinable seeds.
EFFECT: method enables to provide full use of seed resources due to increasing the yield of spring spiked cereals.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method of sowing seeds of winter spiked cereals comprises pre-sowing treatment of seeds, for which the viable seeds are selected first. Then the seeds are moisturised, bringing the moisture content of seeds to 45-50% of their weight. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature of +4°…+6°C for 2.5-3 days. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature in the range of -3°…-5°C for 35-50 days, allowing short-term periods to 12 hours of temperature fluctuation in the range of +5° … to -30°C. Then the seeds are kept before sowing at a temperature below 0°C. Sowing is carried out in spring in time of sowing spring spiked cereals on the area of the fields, allotted for the winter and spring spiked cereals with a seeding rate of 100-200 kg/ha.
EFFECT: invention enables to provide the use of full seed resource due to elimination of crop losses from freezing in the field.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, in particular irrigated agriculture. The method comprises ploughing soil, levelling its surface and watering. Ploughing is carried out in spring upon the occurrence of physical maturity of soil, the soil levelling is carried out, followed by grooving of the irrigation network and pre-sowing water-charging irrigation. Then two post-irrigation cultivations and levelling soil with low leveller is carried out. After sowing, pre-sprouting and post-sprouting harrowing is carried out with toothed harrows, the furrows are cut for irrigation with simultaneous top dressing. The terms of carrying out of methods of the main soil tillage and water-charging irrigation are transferred from autumn to spring at the time of onset of physical maturity of soil for reduction of weed infestation and increase in crop yield.
EFFECT: method enables to avoid soil deflation, to reduce weed infestation of crops and to increase yield of phytomass.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture and land reclamation. The method comprises the cutting of the arable layer and its shifting to the side, the simultaneous and layerwise application of ameliorant doses in the arable and subsurface layers and mixing them with structural constituents of the respective layers. At that the subsurface layer is treated simultaneously with two instruments: the first - for the depth exceeding the thickness of the subsurface layer, and the second, following the first in the direction of travel for the depth of subsurface layer for destruction of layering of the intermittent horizon and the development of the root system of the plants. The width of the treatment area of the first instrument is less than the width of the treatment area of the second instrument. Then the ameliorant is applied in the subsurface layer and the intensive mixing to the depth of the subsurface layer is carried out.
EFFECT: method enables to increase the yield of crops cultivated on alkaline soils and soils with layered inhomogeneous lower part of the rooting zone, and the effectiveness of their treatment due to use the ameliorants as natural ameliorants placed in the intermittent horizon, change in structures of the three upper layers of soil with simultaneous application of recommended doses of the ameliorants.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises ploughing soil as enclosures across the slope to form back ridges and detached intermittent furrows - furrows with jumpers intercepting runoff flow. At that upwards the direct slope having incline not less than 0.015, the width of each previous enclosure Bi is smaller than the width of each subsequent Bi+1, such as Bi-1<Bi<Bi+1, where i is the number of enclosure, growing up the slope, and the width of the ith enclosure is determined by the formula Bi≈B ki, where B is the width of the enclosure that is set from the maximum performance condition of the applicable unit that takes into account the length of the pass, the width of the grip of one plough body, the number of bodies and the minimum turning radius of the unit; ki is the correction factor taking into account inequality of solid and liquid precipitation on the slope and its exposure, absorption and water runoff and defined by the formula
EFFECT: method enables to reduce soil washout on the lower parts of the slope, to ensure the termination of planar and linear soil erosion, to increase crop yield on the slope, and to prevent siltation of rivers and water reservoirs.
2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises soil treatment, the use of crop rotation of spring spiked crops, presowing treatment of seeds and sowing in spring in time of sowing the spring spiked crops. The seeds are moistened, bringing the moisture content of the seeds to 45-50% of their mass, held at a temperature of +5°÷15°C for 1.5-2.0 days. Then, at a temperature in the range of -3°÷5°C for 20 days, allowing for short-term periods of up to 12 hours of fluctuations in temperature in the range of +5° to -30°C. Then, the seeds are stored prior to planting at a temperature of 0°÷5°C, and planted with a decreased seeding rate in the range of 100-200 kg/ha. The presowing treatment of seeds is started with the selection of germinable seeds.
EFFECT: complete use of seed resource by eliminating crop losses from freezing in the field in winter season when sowing in time of sowing the winter spiked crops and to increase yields when sowing in time of sowing spring spiked crops.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the sowing on fields of complex of wheat varieties, co-located in the region. At that the field is preliminary divided by dividing bands at portions each of which is sown with one of the varieties from the complex. And one variety of the complex of wheat varieties is susceptible to the most aggressive pathogen race in this region, and the dividing bands are sown in spring with spring spiked crops. According to the method the seed mixture of complex of wheat varieties is also sown on each field. At that one variety of the complex of wheat varieties is susceptible to the most aggressive pathogen race in this region and is taken in an amount of not more than 20% of the total amount of seeds of wheat varieties, and around the field the spring spiked cultures are sown. The mixture of seeds of complex of wheat varieties is made of early ripening and late ripening varieties, and the early ripening varieties are used in the amount of not more than 50% of the total amount of seeds of wheat varieties.
EFFECT: methods enable to provide the duration of wheat resistance to local pathogens.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, ecology and land reclamation. The method comprises application into the soil of soil-fertilising material which is used as organo-mineral compost containing pig manure and cattle manure, sewage sludge, and phosphogypsum with the following component ratio (wt %): phosphogypsum with pH 5.0-5.5 - 10-13, pig manure - 11-13, sewage sludge - 6-8, cattle manure - the rest, that are composted in the summer period for 3 months under conditions of high average daily temperatures of compost from 35 to 45 °C, stirring every month till ripening. Then, the resulting compost is applied to the soil on one occasion for 5 years at a dose of 60 t/ha, embedding it in the late summer - early autumn at a depth of 14-18 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the properties of soil, to improve soil fertility and crop yield.
FIELD: environment protection.
SUBSTANCE: method involves mechanical removal of excessive contaminants from surface and reducing toxicity of contaminated soil; sowing green manure crops and perennial grasses; preliminarily removing taking soil samples from contaminated surface and separating native contaminant destructors therefrom; after mechanical removal of contaminant from soil surface, providing sequential treatment of plot soil with water-soluble humates and at least double treatment with native contaminant destructors; mellowing soil; applying lime with mineral fertilizers such as saltpeter, double superphosphate and calcium chloride. Green manure crops are sown after application of fertilizers. Method further involves grinding green manure crops, plowing into soil and covering with soil by means of covering roll.
EFFECT: increased efficiency, reliable ecologically clean restoration of soil after contamination thereof.