Construction block and method to erect stretcher bond from this construction block
SUBSTANCE: construction block, shaping of which is based on a rectangular parallelepiped, with stretcher, header and bed faces, comprises parallel and distant plates connected to each other by links. The link between some two plates is arranged with a shift towards one header face in respect to a link between two other adjacent plates displaced to another header face. In this block every two adjacently located plates are connected with a link to form a U-shaped part, external plates of which are stretcher faces, and internal ones are connected with an additional link, which divides the zone between U-shaped parts into two open cavities of different volume, the least of which is located at the side of the header face, to which open cavities of U-shaped parts reach. Also the method is described to erect the bond from the described blocks.
EFFECT: improved operating properties of stretcher bond.
6 cl, 20 dwg
The invention relates to the field of construction, namely the structures of building blocks or bricks, and the way stretcher bond brickwork of them, and can be used in the construction of external walls of buildings up to three storeys.
Known building block for stretcher bond brickwork, the formation of which is a rectangular parallelepiped with stretcher bond, stretcher and bed sides. This building block is made of three parallel and distant spaced plates of the same length, height and thickness, the outermost of which form stretcher bond faces, every two adjacent spaced plates connected by a single jumper, the jumper between one of the two plates is offset to one bonder faces towards the Col between two other adjacent plates shifted to another bonder face. Thus, jumpers divide the area between two adjacent spaced plates on two different size cavities (US 2011/0258957, AS 1/00, AS 2/30, publ. 27.10.2011).
From the same source known stretcher bond brickwork, consisting of row placement of building blocks, at least part of which is in the form of a rectangular parallelepiped with stretcher bond, stretcher and bed flat faces, with each block in the masonry of the imp is the Nene of three parallel and distant bars of equal length, height and thickness, the outermost of which form stretcher bond faces, every two adjacent spaced plates connected by a single jumper, the jumper between one of the two plates is offset to one bonder faces towards the Col between two other adjacent plates shifted to another bonder face.
This decision was made as a prototype for the stated objects - building blocks and method of stretcher bond brickwork.
The base number of stretcher bond brickwork is done by joining through masonry mortar building blocks, laid so that between adjacent spaced blocks are formed holes - channels to accommodate inthey of any solution or insulating liners. Next row put the same building blocks, but with an offset of½, and to align the holes of this new series with the already formed hole of the base number of blocks in this series is turned upside down by 180 degrees around the horizontal axis of the block relative to the vertical plane of the wall. When this occurs, the combination of jumpers in each row of the basic line with the jumpers on the top row that is presented in the patent version reinforcement any internal voids of the masonry of these blocks, mortar and reinforcement obvious forms a short path for the responsive is of cold or heat from the outer to the inner sides of the stretcher bond faces of the block, depriving such a clutch initially claimed advantages compared with the masonry of solid or hollow building blocks or bricks. Despite the fact that this clutch provides for the installation of insulation in the form of inserts parallelepipedal form when pouring mortar with reinforcement in any generated in the process of laying one of the vertical channels formed by the masonry of these blocks obviously loses the initial advantage of the properties of the formed blocks of voids in the masonry for thermal protection, because, in this case, the clutch turns into a standard brick or block masonry, thermal protection which in this case is provided only by the thickness of the masonry and heat-shielding properties of the material from which made such a unit, measured perpendicularly stretcher bond verge of laying in a horizontal plane.
The technical result of the invention is a significant improvement of performance characteristics stretcher bond brickwork of the new hollow building blocks for optimizing the location of their voidness with the purpose of the organization is increased along the length of the bridges, guaranteed rupture direct traffic within a block of the heat flow, the formation and preservation, regardless of variations laying inside a block of at least one row, in which RA is the transfer capolavoro thread in the case of casting solution with reinforcement in any one of the vertical channels formed in the masonry of these blocks ensuring the preservation of sufficient properties for thermal protection of the entire masonry in General in the form of single-layer walls, as well as a significant increase fire resistance of masonry due to a significant lengthening of the path of heat flow in the body of the block and obviously required more time to heat up to temperatures that can lead to the loss of overall strength of masonry.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that in the construction of the block on the basis of formation of which is a rectangular parallelepiped with stretcher bond, stretcher and bed sides, containing parallel to and distant spaced plates, the outermost of which form stretcher bond faces, every two adjacent spaced plates connected by a single jumper, the jumper between one of the two plates is offset to one bonder faces towards the Col between two other adjacent plates shifted to another bonder faces, every two adjacent spaced plates connected by a crosspiece for the formation of the U-shaped portion, the outer plates which are stretcher bond faces, and the internal interconnected extra jumper, desmaison between the U-shaped parts on two different volume open cavity, the smaller of which is on the side bonder face, on which there are open cavity of the U-shaped parts.
This technical result is achieved in that the method of construction stretcher bond brickwork of the building blocks in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds, each of which is made of plates, each two of which are located adjacent are connected by a jumper for the formation of the U-shaped portion, the outer plates which are stretcher bond faces, and the internal interconnected extra jumper, which divides the area between the U-shaped parts on two different volume open cavity, the smaller of which is on the side bonder face, on which there are open cavity of the U-shaped parts, is the connection between a mortar through the bonder face building blocks, in which the cavity smaller one building block communicates with the cavity of a larger volume of another building block and is formed more vertically oriented hole, and jumper the U-shaped parts of the same building close the open side of the cavity in the same parts of another building block, and in each subsequent row of masonry, stacked on the lower set number of masonry, each building block deploying a relatively lower number of str is defined blocks by turning around the vertical axis of the block 180 degrees relative to the horizontal plane of the masonry and stack with overlapping transverse vertical seam of each row is less than 1/3 the length of the block in stretcher bond series for the location of jumpers the U-shaped parts of building blocks stacked number on the lintels of the U-shaped parts of the building blocks below the stacked rows of masonry.
These characteristics are essential and interrelated with the formation of a stable set of essential features, sufficient to obtain the desired technical result.
The present invention is illustrated with specific examples of implementation, which, however, are not only possible, but clearly demonstrate the possibility of achieving the desired technical result.
1 shows a General view of the building block, the first example embodiment;
figure 2 shows a General view of a building block, a second example embodiment;
figure 3 shows a General view of the building block, the third example embodiment;
figure 4 shows the algorithm of the provisions of the building blocks in stretcher bond brickwork;
figure 5 shows the ratio of the sizes of elements of the building block;
6 shows the position of the building blocks of the next row relative to the building blocks of the previous row;
7 shows the overturning of the building blocks of the next row relative to the building blocks of the previous row;
Fig shown stretcher bond multi-row clutches;
Fig.9 shows the placement of liners Stroitelny blocks;
figure 10 is a first example of the placement of the valve;
11 is a second example of the placement of the valve;
Fig - example placement of composite liners in masonry;
Fig shows the installation of the liner into the hole in the masonry blocks made with the protrusions;
Fig shows the installation of the liner into the hole in the masonry blocks made with the protrusions;
Fig is the first example of construction of the block with flanges;
Fig second example of construction of the block with flanges;
Fig third example of construction of the block with flanges;
Fig is the first example of construction of the unit with the guides;
Fig second example of construction of the unit with the guides;
Fig third example of construction of the unit with the guides.
According to the present invention is the construction of a building block or brick with cavities for stretcher bond brickwork (figure 1).
In the General case, building block, based on the formation of which is a rectangular parallelepiped with stretcher bond, stretcher and bed sides, contains parallel to and distant spaced plates connected by jumpers. Jumper between one of the two plates is offset to one bonder faces towards the Col between two other adjacent Plaza is ins shifted to another bonder face. In this unit every two adjacent spaced plates connected by a crosspiece for the formation of the U-shaped portion, the outer plates which are stretcher bond faces, and the internal interconnected extra jumper, which divides the area between the U-shaped parts on two different volume open cavity, the smaller of which is on the side bonder face, on which there are open cavity of the U-shaped parts.
Figure 1 presents illustrative of this building block. This block represents the shape of a rectangular parallelepiped with 1 header 2, header 3 and bed 4 faces. All facets of this building block is made flat. In terms of this building block consists of two identical U-shaped parts, each of which lateral wall 5 forms part of the bonder face that connects the two parallel spaced parallelepipedal shaped element 2 and 6, the outer surface of the extreme of which forms a stretcher bond face 2, and the other is inwardly located edge 6 and connected by a crosspiece 7 with the same parallelepipedal form element inwardly located edge 6 of the other U-shaped part. U-shaped part of the building opened, with one bonder, the parties shall form an open cavity 8, and on the other TIC the OIC parties have wall 5, while both of these U-shaped parts of the block, these cavities are located on one bonder face. The presence of jumpers 7 not only provides a rigid positioning of the U-shaped parts relative to each other, but also forms inside a block of two open side bonder faces of the cavity 9. In addition, jumper 7 is asymmetric and therefore the volume of the cavity 9 from one bonder face (from open cavities 8) is smaller than the volume of the cavity 9 formed on the other side of the jumper 7. This unit is basic. Its modifications shown in figure 2 and figure 3. In figure 2 the base unit from an external stretcher bond side faces 2 of the two U-shaped parts of the base unit, supplemented by plates 10, associated with the nearby U-shaped part of the crosspiece 11. As figure 3 shows a basic block, which by jumper 12, placed symmetrically and in the same plane with the crosspiece 7, attached to the third U-shaped portion 13 located an open cavity 8 as well as the U-shaped parts of the base unit. Overall dimensions of this building block can be any of the corresponding series set the standard block.
Thus, for the base unit from one bonder faces there are three open cavity, and on the other only one. This base unit has a guaranteed construction R is srybom inside a block of direct movement of the heat flow through the laying on line measured perpendicularly stretcher bond verge of laying in a horizontal plane, compared with the blocks of the prototype as design excluded the possibility of forming a monolithic block in the case of casting solution with reinforcement in any one of the vertical channels formed in the masonry of these blocks. Wall thickness bonder face 5 of the U-shaped parts and jumpers 7 may be equal to each other or made uneven in thickness. Blocks in size can be both a square and a rectangular shape. The angles of the pair of walls forming internal cavities of the cavity block can be rounded or rounded.
Voids within a block can have a different geometric shape under the condition of equality of geometric forms voids in the U-shaped parts of the base unit, and forming equal internal voids between adjacent crosspieces 7 and unequal parts voids 9 taking into account the vertical seam masonry mortar between adjacent blocks.
This building block can be made of any structural material suitable for the manufacture of blocks of stone/ceramic blocks/bricks, for example, of:
- any clay or mixture based on it by plastic, and/or vibropressovogo, and/or vacuum forming and subsequent firing, as well as the method the Hyper is risovaniya or casting technology of artificial stone;
- any mix of aggregates (crushed stone, expanded clay, slag, ash, etc. with cement or foam concrete, aerated concrete, silicate, expanded clay, concrete opilkobetona any known casting method, the vibratory casting, pressing, compression;
- any mix (gravel, expanded clay, slag, etc. with cement by dry and/or semi/dry pressing or pressing, including silicates, claydite-concrete. concrete on sand and gravel, concrete waste bricks, sand-cement mixture with the addition of slag and/or granules of polystyrene, foamed polystyrene, foamed polyurethane, foamed glass and other well-known building materials/additives having insulating properties in different compositions between themselves and/or individually, foam concrete with the addition of clay and/or slag pellets of foam, polystyrene foam, polyurethane foam, foam glass and other well-known building materials with insulating properties in different compositions with each other or separately.
The block can be made of foam concrete, aerated concrete, does or mixture of wood chips and/or chip with cement or sand-cement mixture, claydite-concrete, foam concrete, aerated concrete and mineral supplements, in any combination, Solomona, opilkobetona (concrete + sawdust and/or chips of various sizes from 1 mm to 30 mm), derivable (Eton + wood chips of various sizes from 2 mm to 50 mm), the perlite-concrete or polistirolbetona.
This building block is intended for laying in a row, sequentially (figure 4. and 5) to retrieve only the header rows of masonry.
Stretcher bond brickwork of these building blocks is based on the connection between the mortar through the bonder verge of building blocks (Fig.6 and Fig.7), in which the cavity smaller one building block communicates with the cavity of a larger volume of another building block and is formed more vertically oriented hole, and jumper the U-shaped parts of the same building close the open side of the cavity in the same parts of another building block. In each subsequent row of masonry, stacked on the lower set number of masonry, each building block deploying a relatively lower number of stacked blocks by 180 degrees around the vertical axis of the block (7) with respect to the horizontal plane of the masonry and stack with overlapping transverse vertical seam of each row in stretcher bond series for the location and alignment of the stretcher party jumpers the U-shaped parts of building blocks stacked series on bonder sides of the jumpers of the U-shaped parts of the building blocks of the lower stacked rows of masonry.
Transverse and vertical seams cadaverine number of overlapping blocks of another number less than 1/3 of the block in the header rows (Fig and Fig.9). Masonry blocks are combined using various mortars or adhesives (masonry mortar, mortar, thinset). In the process of laying due to cavities in the building blocks can be formed integral holes 14 (Fig-11)that form in the masonry entire vertical rows in the form of certain geometrical figures, as one of the pillars on all the walls, which can be empty or filled with any other material on the project. These holes can be used for filling of bulk insulation: expanded clay, vermiculite, crumb foam glass, foam, polystyrene foam, penopropilena etc., sound or other special materials or for strengthening of masonry hollow or reinforcing elements (wood, metal, concrete etc), to connect rigid insulation in the vertical channels of the wall plate without penetrating masonry mortar/glue.
During the laying of the through holes and grooves of the blocks can be formed through vertical channels formed integral holes aligned in rows on the entire height of masonry. These channels can be used for routing communications: electrical wiring, pipes, telephone cables, etc. the Purpose of these channels can be taken into account in the design and construction of the building (for example, there is no need the diamonds in the subsequent operation strapline" walls for concealed wiring communications in the wall, built during the construction of the wall).
To solve the combined problem by creating channels to increase the length of the path of heat flow in the body, weakening the strength of the heat flux and use them as communication paths, the size and shape of the cavities in the construction unit selects, on the basis of the following considerations.
Building blocks in stretcher bond brickwork with overlap less than 1/3 the length of the unit should be positioned so bonder faces of the upper row coincided with the lower side blocks and through holes overlap, forming in the walls of the vertical through the same channels. Each top next row is laid with a turn of the upper block relative to the lower row of blocks laid by rotation about the vertical axis of the block 180 degrees relative to the horizontal plane of the masonry (rotation in the horizontal plane). The thickness "h" of the walls 5 bonder edges (bridges) (figure 4 and figure 5) in this block is always the same and can be either equal to the thickness of the inner wall (the jumper 7) or differ from it in a direction more or less. Considering the fact that the block is specified in the production length L along the stretcher bond side, the internal jumper 7 thickness h1 and the same thickness h of the walls 5 bonder faces, and building the blocks are connected in the masonry by means of the solution in the horizontal and vertical joints (with vertical seams defined by the project the thickness "C", then apply the following three formulas:
1. The jumper 7 is determined by unequal between the lengths "a" and "A1" cavities 9 middle row, and choose the first lower value "and" on the basis of the following formula:
where "L" is specified by the project block length, measured along the stretcher bond side;
"h" is defined by the thickness of the bonder face (wall 5), measured on the surface of the bed faces along an imaginary line drawn parallel to the stretcher bond faces;
"h1" is defined by the thickness of the internal jumpers 7 unit, measured on the surface of the bed faces along an imaginary line drawn parallel to the stretcher bond faces in the middle of the block;
"C" is the desired thickness of the layer of mortar/adhesive between the blocks in a vertical seam in the clutch, depending on the selected material and connection technology building blocks.
2. A larger value extraction "A1" determined on the basis of the following formula:
where "L" is specified by the project block length, measured along the stretcher bond side;
"h1" is defined by the thickness of the internal jumpers 7 unit, measured on the surface of the bed faces along an imaginary line drawn parallel to the stretcher bond faces in the middle of the block;
a smaller cavity 7, measured on the surface of the bed faces along an imaginary line, p is obedennoy parallel stretcher bond faces in the middle of the block.
3. The size of the hole "L1" stretcher bond along the verge determined on the basis of the following formula:
where "a" is the smaller size of the cavity, measured on the surface of the bed faces along an imaginary line drawn parallel to the stretcher bond faces in the middle of the block;
"a1" - the greater the size of the cavity 9, as measured on the surface of the bed faces along an imaginary line drawn parallel to the stretcher bond faces in the middle of the block;
"C" is the desired thickness of the layer of mortar/adhesive between the blocks in a vertical seam in the clutch, depending on the selected material and connection technology building blocks.
In the simplest (and best) case h=h1, however, in more complex cases, the implementation of the invention, the dimensions of h1 can be of great value to the thickness h bonder faces, and you can also get matching conditions are holes 14 and cavities 9 for education through vertical channel in the middle of the masonry. The shape of the grooves 8 have to repeat each other at 180 degrees of rotation of the block and partly to repeat the shape of the through hole 14, to ensure the uniformity of the surface of the vertical walls of through channels formed in the clutch.
The peculiarity of the considered block is that in the clutch he can be fitted with liners 15, repeating form form through holes in the body of pramool the CSO of a parallelepiped and is made with height, equal to the height of this through hole (figures 9-11, 13, and 14). Such liners may be inserted into all of the through hole in the body of the block or only part of them. Some liners may have a height exceeding the height equal to the height of the through hole. The liner may be made solid (POS) or hollow (pos.16) in the form of thin membranes or in the form of a tubular element. The liner is of heat-insulating material or insulating material or a structural material.
In the process of laying the holes in the building blocks can be formed in whole (or broken, but communicating), the vertical lines in the form of certain geometric shapes, in a single heat and sound insulating pillars on the entire height of the wall. These holes can be used for filling of bulk insulation: expanded clay, vermiculite, crumb foam glass, foam, polystyrene, penopropilena etc., or for strengthening of masonry reinforcing elements for the connection of rigid insulation in the vertical channels of the wall plate without penetrating masonry mortar/glue.
During the laying of the through holes and grooves of the blocks can be formed through vertical channels 9 to the full height of the wall. These channels can be used for installation of communications wiring, pipes, telephone cables and the like The purpose of these channels can be taken into account in the design and construction of the building (for example, eliminating the need for subsequent operation strapline" walls for concealed wiring communications in the wall, which is laid during construction of the wall).
In the masonry liners may be not all the through-holes of each building block, and in part of them. Two rows of through holes are liners that serve as guides for each of the next stacked series, and the through holes of the third row, for example, on the inner surface of the wall left blank inserts and can remain unused. Or these voids can be filled with mortar 17 (concrete) for forming concrete piles (bearing walls). These pillars can carry the armature 18. Or these voids can be used for laying pipes, cables and other utilities and linearly structured communication systems, and power.
Nothing precludes the use of hollow/thin-walled liner, a void which can be filled with any other material with the required properties: insulation and other insulation, combined acoustic and thermal insulation, reinforcing the masonry of any known construction materials (wood, metal plastic and so on) or reinforced concrete.
Nothing precludes the use of multi-layered liner 19, composed of a set of plates corresponding to (a given construction project) thickness relative to the holes of emptiness the entire height of the liner (Fig) from various heat-insulating, sound - insulating, insulation and other special materials, structural materials (like wood, metal, plastic etc) depending on the requirements of the construction design for masonry.
On the bed sides and/or bonder on the faces of the building block can be formed protrusions to prevent penetration of the solution into the cavities of the joints in the masonry. On Fig-20 shows the execution of the building blocks for a stretcher bond brickwork, made with different types of projections. These protrusions may be different. For example, some of the tabs 20, made of a height equal to the thickness of the mortar seam "C", can function as a limiter to prevent overflow of masonry mortar in the cavity, forming a through hole 14. Other protrusions 21, for example made of a height equal to the thickness of the mortar seam or lesser height, can perform the function of positioning elements of one building block to another (when laying the next row), or positioning in one a number of the building blocks for bonder faces. Those and other protrusions may be present simultaneously in the block. Inside a block of some surfaces of walls in the area of the cavities can have guides 22 for inserts that secure the liner in the cavity. Such guides can be made in the form of a series of ledges. Of course, the liner must also be educated response guide elements positioning. Such guides 23 can be performed on the outer surface bonder faces for forming the masonry hole, which on opposite sides of its bounding walls are made guides.
The application of this invention in the field of construction with masonry exterior walls for civil and industrial buildings and structures and the construction of external walls of buildings up to three storeys can improve the functional properties of the masonry of these building blocks for optimizing the voidness of building blocks to increase the path of bridges and improvement of fire resistance.
1. Building block, based on the formation of which is a rectangular parallelepiped with stretcher bond, stretcher and bed sides, containing parallel to and distant spaced plates, the outermost of which form stretcher bond faces, every two adjacent spaced plates connected by IU is do a single jumper when this jumper between one of the two plates is offset to one bonder faces towards the Col between two other adjacent plates shifted to another bonder faces, wherein every two adjacent spaced plates connected by a crosspiece for the formation of the U-shaped portion, the outer plates which are stretcher bond faces, and the internal interconnected extra jumper, which divides the area between the U-shaped parts on two different volume open cavity, the smaller of which is on the side bonder face, on which there are open cavity of the U-shaped parts.
2. Building block according to claim 1, characterized in that it is provided with an additional two plates arranged in parallel, each of the two outer plates of the U-shaped parts and connected to these outer plates additional jumper, opposite additional jumper between the U-shaped parts.
3. Building block according to claim 1, characterized in that it has at least one U-shaped part connected to one of the interconnected U-shaped parts extra jumper.
4. Building block according to claim 1, characterized in that the angles of the pair of walls forming a cavity in the block, rounded or rounded.
5. P is sustained fashion unit according to claim 1, characterized in that emptiness inside a block can have the same or different shape under the condition of equality of geometric forms voids in the U-shaped parts of the base unit, and forming equal internal voids in the block between adjacent internal jumpers and unequal parts voids considering vertical seam masonry mortar between adjacent blocks.
6. The method of construction stretcher bond brickwork of the building blocks in the form of rectangular parallelepipeds, each of which is made of plates, each two of which are located adjacent are connected by a jumper for the formation of the U-shaped portion, the outer plates which are stretcher bond faces, and the internal interconnected extra jumper, which divides the area between the U-shaped parts on two different volume open cavity, the smaller of which is on the side bonder face, on which there are open cavity of the U-shaped parts, which consists in the connection between the mortar through the bonder verge of building blocks, in which the cavity is smaller volume one building block communicates with the cavity of a larger volume of another building block and is formed more vertically oriented hole, and jumper the U-shaped parts of the same building side C the opening of the open cavity in the same parts of another building block, and in each subsequent row of masonry, stacked on the lower set number of masonry, each building block deploying a relatively lower number of stacked blocks by 180 degrees around the vertical axis of the block relative to the horizontal plane of the masonry and stack with overlapping transverse vertical seam of each row to position and align bonder party jumpers the U-shaped parts of building blocks stacked series on bonder sides of the jumpers of the U-shaped parts of the building blocks below the stacked rows of masonry.
SUBSTANCE: structural formwork block for openings from fine-grained or other material close in properties comprises parallel external face and rear longitudinal walls connected by three partitions. Longitudinal walls and connecting partitions are combined with a common spatial reinforcement frame, at the same time one of extreme partitions is concreted, the middle one is represented in the form of a rectangular wooden spacer shifted to the centre of the block by depth equal to its thickness, and its ends reaching external surfaces of the block are jammed and anchors in longitudinal walls and may serve for fixation of finishing materials.
EFFECT: reduced material and labour inputs for formwork works, increased solidity, earthquake stability, heat and sound insulation properties of walls in buildings and structures, improved quality of works.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: facing hollow-porous ceramic unit is a rectangular parallelepiped containing outer side stretching and binding faces and inner constructive insulating structure made of spaced apart ceramic baffles and bridges of series of through hollows, unit has vertical and horizontal grooves that extend beyond the stretching and bed faces to the width of one hollow and side face thickness, as well as vertical mark extending through the middle of the stretching side. Rows of through cavities are arranged alternately in parallel and perpendicularly with respect to the unit binding faces, besides the unit on the stretching side has a solid facing layer with textured surface imitating the brickwork.
EFFECT: improvement of physical and technical indicators both of the unit and laying method of the building wall, increase of laying precision during wall construction, reduction of deviations from the horizontal and vertical planes, increase of laying resistance of shear due to the use of geometric parameters of the ceramic unit, its rows of through hollows made perpendicularly with respect to each other, its vertical and horizontal slots.
SUBSTANCE: leave-in-place form comprises two oppositely arranged slabs, an external one from heat insulation material and an internal one from concrete, attached to each other and forming a space between each other for filling with a fluid material, capable of hardening. The internal slab of concrete is made as reinforced and comprises reinforcing elements of two types, at the same time reinforcing elements of the first type are made as V-shaped in the cross section from bent mesh and are installed in parallel and at the identical distance from each other and provide for placement of reinforcing elements of the second type at the identical distance from each other and fixation parallel to them, and the reinforcing elements of the second type represent spatial reinforcing elements made of three longitudinal rods and two rods bent with a V-shaped zigzag. Bent rods are simultaneously connected by tops to one longitudinal rod, and by other tops - to two other rods with formation of reinforced frames of prismatic shape. Reinforcing elements of the first type are made as protruding from the concrete slab and providing for connection and fixation of the external slab to it, being made of heat insulation material and pierced by glass plastic rods with fixators providing for connection and fixation of a mesh to the rear surface of the slab from heat insulation material, and the mesh is made as capable of connection of reinforcing elements of the first type to it.
EFFECT: simplified usage of this device in performance of construction works, provided by absence of complicated operations in performance of assembly or facing works, no transfer of temperature effects inside a concrete structure, exclusion of local freezing and formation of dew point on steel reinforcement inside concrete.
3 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to erection of engineering structures with a bearing frame in the form of prefabricated composite structures with a shell, slab or shell and slab bulky structure. A composite bearing block of a prefabricated building structure represents a factory-built assembly element in the form of a spatial polyhedron or its fragments with faces of constant, piecewise-constant and alternate thickness, possibly, with through holes in faces for letting through personnel or communications, including concrete, reinforcement, embedded parts in the form of hollow tubular elements forming also through holes in faces, serving to connect bearing blocks to each other or to other structures of the facility with application of closing elements inserted in process of installation into coaxially arranged embedded hollow elements of touching faces. The block is made with closed or with opened cavities limited by diaphragms or protruding ribs, with opened, fully or partially closed one- and multi-link transverse cross sections or in the form of fragments, at least from one thick-walled shell or slab, and surfaces of external faces, internal cavities, ribs and diaphragms are given geometric shapes from a combination of flat, curvilinear or spherical surfaces, and also it has such geometric dimensions of connecting holes and such coordinates of location of such holes in joined blocks, which as a result of assembly provide for formation of a prefabricated building structure with required dimensions and specified spatial bulky structure of bearing faces, cavities and channels, and embedded tubular elements of faces are rigidly connected to additional reinforcement embedded parts, attached to them at the external side and embedded into concrete in process of factory manufacturing of a bearing block in a curb. Also the field connection of such blocks is described.
EFFECT: increased rates for erection of cost-effective materials of building structures in a bulky, including cellular one, facility with application of rigid and manufacturable field connections of blocks, provision of bearing capacity, durability and, if required, tightness of created structures, and also improvement of technology of assembly of prefabricated reinforced concrete building structures.
11 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building block with through cavities separated by partitions, perpendicular to a longitudinal axis, is made with ledges that frame its cavities on the upper end surface and their responsive mutually penetrating slots on the lower end surface. Also the block comprises a system of holes plugged in their central part by a partition with the possibility of its removal in order to convert them from plugged into through ones, besides, walls and partitions of the block are made with additional stiffening ribs and have a bulge in their central part, and slots are arranged at the side surfaces of the building block.
EFFECT: higher strength and reliability, stable fixation of blocks to each other.
9 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction industry, in particular, to one of types of construction equipment - non-detachable curb with lining external surfaces from slabs, for use in monolithic housing construction. A non-detachable construction curb comprises external and internal slabs, installed at a certain distance from each other to from an inner volume for installation of reinforcement and filling with construction filler, and connecting links between the slabs. Links are made as connected pairwise metal brackets, each of which is at one side fixed on the inner surface of one slab, and end parts of brackets have 4 strips with engaged teeth, limiting stops and response windows for teeth, at the same time end parts of engaged strips are made of two types, some of them in the tail part have a stepped site, on which there is an engagement tooth and a limiting stop in the form of stamped ledges, and other engaged strips have response rectangular windows for engaged teeth, at the same time edges of engaged strips, on which there are teeth, have flanging with width of 5-7 mm, bent by 8-10° from the plane of the bracket shelf towards the opposite side from the tooth.
EFFECT: provision of reliable fixation of facing boards and preservation of parameters of a slab-to-slab gap when filled with concrete and other fillers.
6 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of construction includes erection of frame in the form of reinforced concrete monolithic structures, formation of external walls from multi-layer light heat insulation panels with application of glue. The foundation, monolithic reinforced concrete slabs with coaxial holes in them and vertical columns are linked to a standard series of multi-layer universal light heat-moisture-noise-insulating heat-resistant blocks in all planes, and the frame of the facility is formed with account of the loads from physical masses of external walls, internal partitions and other necessary elements. Ends of monolithic slabs along the entire perimetre are closed with rectangular chutes with an insulant, they are rigidly fixed on the monolithic slab, afterwards they start erecting the external walls and internal partitions, at the same time in the beginning they install an angular multi-layer universal light block, the places of adjacency are previously coated with glue, it is fixed to the vertical column with the bracket, the second block is put against it, which has been previously coated with glue in places of adjacency, and into a vertical lock formed as two blocks are joined, a figured rack is inserted so that it enters the coaxial hole in the monolithic slab and so on, and the blocks of the second and subsequent rows are inserted with a ledge on the lower surface, into the slot on the upper surface of the blocks, etc. Blocks are laid row by row, simultaneously window, door and arc openings are formed, at the same time the surfaces of universal light blocks inside the object of construction at both sides may be closed by standard strengthened noise and moisture protective fireproof sheets with high adhesive capacity, which simultaneously cover several blocks. Also a multi-layer universal light block is described.
EFFECT: faster rates of building construction, lower labour inputs.
1 tbl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: building module comprises a base element, formed from silicate bricks, extruded gypsum-based bricks, foam concrete or aerated concrete blocks or ceramic extruded bricks, and having parallel bed surfaces, with at least two pairs of coaxial holes and fixing elements of straight and reverse cones placed in them. Axes of conical parts of fixing elements of straight cones and adjacent surfaces of collars, which determine the gap between layers of masonry, are made at the angle to the axes of seating surfaces of the same elements mounted in holes of the base element. Also the version of the module is described, as well as the versions of the method to erect building walls using the specified building modules.
EFFECT: increased labour efficiency in construction, lower prime cost of modules, higher quality of building module installation.
13 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of monolithic construction of industrial and civil objects erected from the proposed hollow blocks comprising a single universal reinforcement base. The hollow construction block comprises outer and inner walls connected by links, and reinforcement elements, at the same time the walls are made from construction material, and the hollow block is made as capable of formation of the construction object by means of placement of multiple hollow blocks, external peripheral surfaces of outer and inner walls of which are in contact with similar surfaces of adjacent blocks. Reinforcement elements are placed inside the outer and inner walls and form the first frame in every of them, and links are made of reinforcement elements that fix the first frames of the outer and inner walls and in combination with reinforcement elements of the first frames that form the spatial reinforcement frame of the block, having reinforcement fixators, made as capable of connection of spatial reinforcement frames of adjacent blocks to form a single reinforced structure of the construction object, having a single cavity for simultaneous filling with construction material.
EFFECT: possibility to create proposed blocks of different spatial shape, which provides for the possibility to create construction objects of different shape, having a monolithic homogeneous strong and stiff structure, with increased speed of object construction and improvement of its aseismic stability.
30 cl, 22 dwg
SUBSTANCE: structural block comprises the first and second element, identical to the above first element, at the same time each of the above elements has, in general, a parallelogram shape with a central hole and a cut in one angle and inner walls formed at least in the above central hole, at the same time the above element rotates relative to the other element approximately at the angle of 180°, and each element has a truncated inner surface, partially formed by the above inner hole; each element is connected with the other element by means of stretching via the central hole of the other element and substantially closing this central hole, and each element has a face surface directed towards the appropriate face surface of the other element; above cuts are arranged along a diagonal axis stretching via the above elements and via the above windows; the above elements may turn along the above diagonal axis between the closed position, in which face surfaces contact with each other, and the open position, in which the above face surfaces are separated, and truncated inner surfaces of elements rest against each other and act as stops to limit movement of the above elements. Also a wall, a window for a building and an architectural structure using the above block are described.
EFFECT: reduced cost for construction of structures.
20 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect brick walls of a multistoried residential building under winter conditions includes masonry assembling works, floor-by-floor laying of stone structures using antifrost chemical additives. The building is divided into process units of 4-5 floors, at the same time the parallel construction process is in progress lagging behind the process of masonry erecting works by one floor and including installation of a stationary heating system of the erected block of floors, sealing of rooms with installation of designed window and door blocks into appropriate openings in building walls and preparation of wall surface to start a plastering cycle, at the same time a heating system is put in service for thermal treatment of a mortar joint in the erected block, the subsequent block is erected only after supply of heat into the internal volume of the erected block.
EFFECT: reduction and removal of possible process outages, and also considerable reduction of duration and cost of construction due to reduction of overhead expenses and power inputs for thermal treatment of masonry.
SUBSTANCE: method for laying of a ceramic stone includes a layerwise laying of stone onto a rolled heat insulation material, on both sides of which there is a composition applied, being coated with a protective film, capable of gluing the ceramic stone. Prior to laying the material is released from a protective film at one side, and is rolled onto the surface prepared for laying for the laying length, afterwards the other side of the material is released from the protective film, and a row of ceramic stone is laid on it.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for performance of laying, accelerated laying process, and also neutralised differences along height of finished items, reduction of cold bridges to zero.
1 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: reinforcement rod fixation device contains a body having a throughhole for the reinforcement rod insertion and embedded parts for installation between the reinforcement rod as inserted into the throughhole and the peripheral inner surface of the body. The peripheral inner surface of the body is shaped as a funnel. Each embedded element has hitching section on its peripheral inner surface coming in a fastening contact with the reinforcement rod and a conic surface formed on at least part of its peripheral outer surface that comes in surfacial contact with the body peripheral inner surface. The hitching section contains a section with female screw thread formed on the peripheral inner surface of the embedded elements designed so that to enable screwing onto the male screw thread section formed on the outer surface of the reinforcement rod. The body contains an insert section having a basically cylindrical shape and a flange section whose outer diametre exceeds that of the insert section. The flange section on the body outer periphery has a couple of flat sections positioned parallel to each other on opposite sides of the body throughhole central axis.
EFFECT: reinforcement rod fixture device can easily be fixed in a position relatively remote from the reinforcement rod end section; it ensures enhanced strength of cohesion to the reinforcement rod.
2 cl, 14 dwg
SUBSTANCE: erection of multi-layered walls is started from laying of protective layer of external walls on ready foundations with simultaneous concreting of columns which are located inside external walls. After external walls and solid columns are erected, there concreted are reinforced-concrete belts along the whole perimeter of building. Casing of columns is made from material of protective layer of external walls and reinforced with "П"-shaped grids through four laying rows. Specific feature of method is that erection of walls of the first floor is performed while construction of walls of ground floor is not finished yet. Besides reinforcement is led out from foundation to be connected to reinforcement of columns. When laying the protective layer, it is reinforced through four rows of laying with grid reinforcement.
EFFECT: reducing the construction period, possibility of construction at any period of the year, providing maximum comfort at reducing construction material consumption.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to building, particularly to structures of construction hollow ceramic brick-blocks widely applied at work of homogenous external walls of buildings with specified thermal resistance in various climatic conditions of their operation. There is disclosed the hollow-porous ceramic brick-block for construction of homogenous walls; the brick-block consists of side running and head facets and of an internal structural thermo-insulating structure formed with lengthwise and cross sides and with several rows of through cells situated parallel to running facets; the said cells consist of main slit-like cells arranged with set-off relative to each other in neighbour rows at half of their length and of additional through cells arranged on opposite sides of these rows and separated from each other with partitions along the row length. The brick-block is made out of clay with additives up to 10% of volume; additives correspond to burned-out fine-crumbled charcoal or sifted peat or sawdust and up to 20% of charcoal or TES (thermo-electric stations) cinder. The structural heat-insulating structure is straightened relative to running and head facets at 45° and is divided along length into two equal parts with a ceramic partitions running across running and parallel to head facets. Each part is made out of rows of square main cells separated from one another with ceramic partitions crossing at the angle of 90°. Each square main and additional cell is also separated by depth into two cells with the ceramic partitions set-off relative to partitions of adjacent cells. Internal walls and planes of two parallel pair of facets crossing at 90° are divided with partitions, forming triangle additional cells along internal perimetre of each part in each row; length of hypotenuse of each triangle additional side is equal to diagonal of square of the main cell. All cells are oriented relative to running and head facets of the brick-block so, that diagonals of square cells and hypotenuses of additional cells are arranged across heat flow both from the side of running and head facets, while in the adjacent rows these cells are set off relative to each other at half of their diagonal and they alternate in the following way: one row contains only three main square cells, another row contains two square cells and two additional cells on ends. Three more additional cells are located on the head internal facet and on the wall dividing partitions; while one running head includes two square recesses. Also here is disclosed the work procedure for homogeneous walls out of hollow-porous ceramic brick-block.
EFFECT: upgraded physic-technical indices both of brick-block and work procedure for construction of wall of building due to implementation of available, ecologically safe and reliable homogeneous material; also expanded range of application of hollow-porous ceramic brick-block in building for construction of homogeneous walls of buildings.
6 cl, 12 dwg
SUBSTANCE: inventions are related to the field of construction and may be used in enterprises making construction materials, and also in individual and industrial construction in erection of walls and foundations, and also in arrangement of dams, coffer dams, fortification structures, etc., especially in emergency conditions. Package for packing of dry construction mixes, comprising shell and insert. Shell is made as moisture-proof, and insert - as moisture-permeable, at the same time insert is made with the possibility to take shape of rectangular parallelepiped when filled, ribs of which are preliminarily marked, and one of insert facets has a marking modular grid. Also construction element is described, as well as method for application of construction materials.
EFFECT: improved efficiency of construction due to expansion of functional and technological resources of flexible construction elements.
4 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to the field of construction, namely to methods of walls erection. Method of masonry that stipulates for binding of construction element adjacent sides by masonry mortar and thus shaping lower horizontal row of wall, further formation of other above-located horizontal rows of wall with bonding by means of construction element adjacent facets binding by masonry mortar from the ones laid in every horizontal row located below, and from other construction elements that form the new horizontal row, with the possibility to form heat accumulating hollows between facets of construction elements of neighboring rows. Besides after formation of every horizontal row of wall, at first rows of strings are placed on this row on top along its length, parallel to erected wall, and masonry mortar is applied in strips above every row of strings, thus forming longitudinal channels parallel to wall on surfaces of horizontal rows from construction elements between rows of strings, and the channels form chambers of heat accumulating cavities inside the wall during masonry mortar hardening between joined surfaces of neighboring horizontal rows of construction elements.
EFFECT: provision of heat-shielding properties of erected wall and masonry manufacturability, reduction of erected wall thickness and lower consumption of masonry mortar.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention pertains to the sphere of construction and may be employed in brick work of walls of small cellular-concrete blocks performed on thin layer mortar (adhesive mixture) with 1-3 mm seam thickness. Brickwork of walls of small cellular-concrete blocks is made on thin layer mortar (adhesive mixture) with seam thickness of 1-3 mm. Brickwork includes also reinforcing rods set in the slots. Slots are arranged in the blocks in the level of horizontal seams of the brickwork and are filled in with concrete or mortar. Reinforcing rods press glass-net to the bottom of the slots. Glass-net is set in the thin layer mortar and covers the entire horizontal surface of the brickwork seams.
EFFECT: increased bearing capacity of the brickwork of the walls of small cellular-concrete blocks.
SUBSTANCE: external wall of cottage that contains protective layer from fine-sized blocks, medium layer of aerated concrete and internal layer of sheet materials joined to protective layer. It is provided with monolithic reinforced concrete frame arranged in the form of columns row inside the wall on building foundation, which are connected to each other with monolithic reinforced concrete belt along building perimeter in the form of flat plates that embrace columns and have reinforcing projections passing through column reinforcing carcass, and having cavities of diamond and triangle shape filled with thermal inserts from heat insulating material, at that width of plates is equal to the total thickness of the wall.
EFFECT: increase of strength, provision of possibility to erect buildings directly in construction site, reduction of costs with simultaneous provision of strength and convenience.
4 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention is related to low-rise and cottage construction with application of multi-layer construction blocks that meet the highest requirements to decorative outside lining of buildings, heat and sound insulation of premises, for instance, prefabricated residential buildings, cottages and other structures. Building wall assembled from set of different construction blocks that consists of row, angular and intermediate blocks that are installed in rows, joined to each other in a certain manner and fixed between each other. Every block consists of decorative layer, bearing layer and heat insulating layer provided in between, which are fixed to each other with polymer rods. Angular blocks are provided of two types, at that the first type is arranged with L-shaped location of decorative and heat insulating layers that project with their one end to the side facet of the block, and with its other end - to the back facet of the block, at that bearing layer is made as shortened with one end that projects to side facet of the block, and the other end that joins to short shelf of heat insulating layer, and length of front layer of angular block short shelf is selected as equal to block thickness. The second type of angular unit is arranged with L-shaped location of bearing and heat insulating layers that project with their one end to the side facet of the block, and with its other end - to the front facet of the block, at that decorative layer is shortened with one end that projects to the side facet of the block, and the other end that joins to the short shelf of heat insulating layer, and length of bearing layer of the angular block short shelf is selected as equal to the block thickness. Intermediate blocks are installed in the zone of window and door openings of the wall and are provided of three types, at that the first type of intermediate blocks is arranged with stepped side facet formed with projecting decorative layer, and side link that connects bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them in stepped side facet, and the second type of intermediate blocks is arranged as shortened in length that is multiple to half of block length from the side of its front facet, and the third type of intermediate blocks is arranged with stepped side facets that are formed by projecting decorative layer, and side links that connect bearing and decorative layers perpendicular to them on both stepped side facets. Method is also described for erection of building wall.
EFFECT: simplification of construction blocks design in set and technology of wall erection with observance of all required technical and technological parameters, optimisation of number of blocks in set, increase of masonry strength characteristics and reduction of construction cost.
2 cl, 9 dwg
FIELD: construction, particularly outer load-bearing walling structures of buildings and building structures.
SUBSTANCE: building wall formed of small building members comprises outer and inner layers and metal inserts. The wall additionally has vertical stiffening diaphragm plates. Metal inserts have Z-shaped cross-sections and are periodically spaced along wall plane. Flanges of the inserts are arranged in inner and outer wall layers correspondingly so that vertical middle face works in shear and folded flanges located on masonry plate work in crush. Metal inserts unite inner and outer wall layers along stiffening diaphragm plates in single structure.
EFFECT: increased wall maintainability and reliability of cooperation between masonry members.
2 cl, 15 dwg