Method of measuring parameters of internal combustion engine exhaust gases

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting gases in a sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material. The sampler is insulated from the ambient environment and a portion of distilled water is added, wherein a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gas is formed by releasing said particles into said portion of water. Formation of the suspension begins after removing foreign dust and soot particles from the exhaust pipe that have settled there when the internal combustion engine is idle. During sample collection, the suspension is mixed and a sterile syringe is used to collect about 40 ml of liquid, which is then analysed on a laser particle analyser to determine particle size and shape distribution therein. Substance analysis of the suspension is then carried out on a light microscope and electron microscope with an energy-dispersion spectrometer for determining material composition of the solid particles and size and shape distribution of said particles.

EFFECT: determining content of nanodispersed and microdispersed solid particles in exhaust gas.

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The invention relates to the instrument and can be used to measure parameters that characterize qualitative, quantitative and dimensional parameters of suspensions of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (ice).

The known method of measuring the opacity of exhaust gases (see SU # 1203410, CL G01N 21/53, 1983), providing for the entry of gases into the opacimeter containing consistently placed on the light source, the measuring channel, a sensor and recording device.

The disadvantage of the prototype is the increased energy consumption in the delivery of the compressed air supply and increased consumption of materials due to the bulkiness of the design (additional connection of the output of the exhaust gas).

According to the ECE Regulations No. 49 introduced rationing in carbon emissions resulting from cracking of the fuel and oils during the cycle combustion in the cylinders of the engine. It is established that these compounds adsorb heavy aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogenic benzo(a)layer. The rules provide an estimate of the amount of visible (soot) and visually invisible particle emissions. As a means of control toxicity HS engine for analysis WITH the use analyzers non-dispersible type of absorption in the infrared part of the spectrum, hydrocarbons SN - gas flame-Jones the traditional type, nitrogen oxides NOX- the chemiluminescent analyzers type, and to determine visible (soot) and invisible particles used primitive filtering process samples VG through paper or fabric filters that are weighed on a beam balance before and after such "analysis" (Balbas M.M. and other "Transport and environment", Minsk, 2004).

The disadvantage of this technical solution technical complexity and high cost technological equipment for the control of toxic emissions, with the lack of its effectiveness, as determined only four of two or three of the hundreds of components that can accommodate VG, apparently, is a consequence of the metrological incompatibility of values, which are measured, and application of analytical instruments and techniques designed for the analysis of real gases and liquids, not complex physico-chemical environment with the content of colloidal and solevykh particles of different substances contained in the HS engine.

There is also known a method of measuring parameters of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, including a selection of gases in the sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material with the use of technical means (RU # 2326361, G01M 15/10, 2008). However, as the technical means used is an optical device for determining the content of solids in the gas medium and the detector. Tasks of the second known method is the measurement of the opacity and toxicity of exhaust gases of the engine.

The disadvantage of this technical solution is the inability to determine the material composition of the solid particles in the exhaust gases, as well as the inability to determine the distribution of these particles by size and shape.

The objective of the invention is the determination of the possibility of determining the material composition of the solid particles in the exhaust gases, and reliable distribution of particle size and shape.

The technical result, which is manifested when the task is providing the possibility to study the characteristics of the particles contained in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (automobile suspensions), and new methods of studying solids - laser granulometry and mass spectrometry high resolution. Suspension exhaust is extremely informative object to retrieve the data with high accuracy on particle size distribution and elemental composition of solid nano - and microparticles emitted into the atmosphere during operation of the internal combustion engine, allowing to assess the qualitative composition of the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine to determine the presence of metal cations by the method of mass spectrometry. A particular advantage of this method is the identification and analysis of nano-dispersed and microdispersed solids (widely known that the greatest danger have particles with diameter less than 10 microns), contained in the exhaust gases.

The solution of this problem is achieved by a method of measuring parameters of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, including a selection of gases in the sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material with the use of technical means, characterized in that the sampler is isolated from the environment and placed in it a portion of distilled water, thus forming a suspension of solid particles in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, for which they released in named portion of water, and the formation of the suspension begins after removal from the exhaust particles of dust and soot that had settled there during idle of the internal combustion engine in the process of sampling the suspension is stirred and sterile syringe selected volume liquid 40 ml, which research on a laser particle analyzer to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape, in addition, conduct a physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer.

Comparative analysis of the essential features of the proposed solution with essential features analogs and prototypes demonstrate compliance of the proposed technical solutions to the criterion "novelty".

While the signs of the distinctive part of the formula of the invention provides a solution to the following functional C the cottages.

Signs "sampler isolated from the environment and placed in it a portion of distilled water do not allow external contamination of the suspension materials not contained in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, and provide the ability to capture a wide size range of solids from the formation of the suspension. Use distilled water eliminates the possibility of distortion of the results contained in mediterranei water substances.

Signs indicating that "form a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, provide material suitable for study on a laser particle analyzer (to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape) and physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer.

Signs indicating that the exhaust gases produced in the said portion of water, ensure the preparation of a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in the water.

Signs indicating that the formation of the suspension begins after removal from the exhaust particles of dust and soot that had settled there during idle engine", exclude hit in the composition of the suspension particles of dust and soot that had settled in the exhaust pipe during engine idle and not included in exhaust gas the engine.

Signs indicating that "in the process of sampling the suspension is stirred and sterile syringe selected fluid volume of about 40 ml"ensure the representativeness of the sample and the quantity of material sufficient for subsequent analysis by technical means.

Signs indicating that the sample is examined for a laser particle analyzer to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape, provide the possibility of obtaining reliable information about the composition of micro - and nano-suspensions.

Signs indicating that "conduct a physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, allow to obtain data on the material composition of the solid particles contained in the exhaust gases of the engine.

The claimed method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows table 2 Morphometric parameters of solid particles in suspension exhaust gas detected by laser granulometry"; figure 2 shows table 3 Results of elemental analysis of the suspension of the exhaust gas; figure 3 shows a Histogram of the particle sizes and their share in the sample exhaust VT 2012 diesel 2.0".

To obtain a suspension exhaust gases and the measurement requires the following equipment and materials: plastic Kanis the RA volume of 20 liters, hose PVC (length 1 m for each measurement), distilled water (volume 10 l for each measurement).

The technical means necessary laser particle analyzer Analysette 22 NanoTech (firm Fritsch), light microscope Zeiss Discovery VI 2 (Germany) and electron microscope Zeiss Ultra Plus with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Mass spectrometer high-resolution inductively coupled plasma Element XR (Thermo Scientific).

The claimed method was implemented in the following order.

1. The engine of the test vehicle was wound up and worked within 1-3 minutes so that the exhaust pipes were removed all foreign particles such as dust and soot that had settled there for a time, brought in from the outside.

2. Then the engine was pusilla and to the exhaust pipe of the test vehicle was connected a flexible hose, the end of which fell in the volume of water (10 l), placed in a plastic canister. To prevent external contamination, the canister top tightly closed plastic wrap, previously washed with distilled water (measured by us of the content of trace elements in distilled water was found to be statistically not significant compared with the measured values of these elements in suspension exhaust gases).

3. After that the car was wound up, and the engine was running in neutral, the speed during the 20 minutes. This time interval was chosen taking into account the fact that warming up of the engine (sensor coolant temperature) was given approximately 10 minutes. Later in the idling engine warmed up and worked the remaining 10 minutes. This time period of operation of the automobile engine was more than enough to study particle size distribution of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines of cars.

At the end of the measurements canister with distilled water, through which was passed by exhaust gases, tightly closed with a lid and then went to the laboratory, where from the container sterile plastic syringe was used to select the sample volume of 40 ml (before sampling the contents of the canister were thoroughly mixed, using a vibrating table. Next, the sample in a known manner were investigated by laser particle analyzer Analysette 22 NanoTech (firm Fritsch). The measurements were carried out in the mode of "nanotec" settings "carbon/water 20°C".

This enabled during one measurement to identify the distribution of particle sizes, and to determine their shape. Physical analysis of sediment produced by a light microscope Zeiss Discovery VI 2 (Germany) and electron microscope (Zeiss Ultra Plus with energy dispersive spectrometer (Germany). The coated samples for electron microscopy were made of gold.

Examples of implementation of the act is both

For experiments according to the classifications HE 025270-66 and classification of the economic Commission for Europe, we have selected the most significant, from the point of view of the environment (emissions), and is widely represented in the urban environment types of cars (see table 1).

Cars of 2012 were kindly provided by one of the dealers (Primorsky Krai), and vehicles with high mileage (over 100,000 miles) provided by the authors and their colleagues. Cars refueled gasoline and diesel fuel of one brand at a gas station the same oil company.

Trace element analysis of samples of the suspension exhaust gases and distilled water were carried out on a mass spectrometer high-resolution inductively coupled plasma Element XR (Thermo Scientific).

Table 1
Cars taken in experiment
Code, year of manufactureThe working volume of the engine, lFuel typeMileage, km
VC 20121,1gasoline44
SJ 1998 1,3gasoline135000
SE 19982,0gasoline108000
IB 19933,1diesel275000
MD 19992,8diesel261000
TS 19983,0gasolinethe 125,000
KS 20122,0gasoline395
VP 20121,8gasolineless than 400
VT 20122,0diesel16,5
VTi 20122,0gasolineless than 400
VQ-20122,0dieselless than 400
VA 2012 2,0dieselless than 400
VC 20122,0gasolineless than 400
VT 20123,0gasolineless than 400
VTo 20123,0dieselless than 400

Morphometric parameters of solid particles in suspension exhaust gas was determined by laser granulometry and presented in figure 1 (table 2).

It is known that the study of solid particle suspensions using samplers, in which filters are applied, necessarily accompanied by loss of nanosized particles fraction (part migrates through the pores of the filter or aggregates, which does not allow to evaluate them separately). The study of the suspension of the exhaust gas, as a way of capturing exhaust fluid (in our case, distilled water), allows you to capture and measure this fraction.

The latest research shows that the exhaust of vehicles running on diesel are more dangerous to human health, including due to the presence of nano - and microparticles.

According to the obtained results (table 3 - IG), cars running on diesel fuel, are also the source of the most dangerous particles of sediment (size of 10 μm or less). For greater clarity, figure 3 shows a histogram of the particle sizes and their share in the exhaust of the vehicle is 2012 release (!), working on the engine (three fractions: from 100 to 500 nm, from 1 to 5 μm and 8 to 16 μm).

The rest of the cars without mileage (release 2012), according to the obtained results, with rare exceptions (table 3), are a source of emissions of hazardous grained fractions (from 500 to 1000 μm).

Particles of metals in the exhaust gases of cars can get as a result:

1) mechanical wear of components and engine

2) chemical (corrosion) of the wear components and engine

3) combustion of fuel and motor oil,

4) avoid the entry of air when the engine is running.

The most significant source of metals is the internal combustion engine and exhaust system exhaust gas and includes a fairly solid list of metals: high - and low-carbon steel, lead, tin, copper, iron, chromium, zinc and others. The above elements and materials (alloys), from which they are made, due to mechanical wear, corrosion damage, under the influence of acids formed during the combustion of fuels and the oxidation of the oils are removed through the exhaust system of amrabat is the R gases enter the atmosphere.

Engine oil, in addition to what is battery products engine wear, itself contains a number of compounds that act as additives and additives to improve performance properties. They contain friction modifiers or anti-friction additives, one of the most common are the so-called "retalliatory"containing ions of soft metals (lead, copper, silver). Particles of metals (ions)contained in the engine oil because of its natural smoke, mixed with exhaust gases and enter the atmosphere.

Fuel, a mixture of hydrocarbons and additives, is one of the most significant sources of metals, as in the production of gasoline and diesel fuel of different brands use different additives containing metal compounds. One of the main types of fuel additives are antiknock additives (Mn(CO)3(C5H5), [Ni(CO)(C5H5)b, Fe(C5H5)2and others). These antiknock additives form hard carbon deposits on the cylinder walls and therefore are together with the exhaust gases into the atmosphere.

The elements of the system muffler and catalytic converters are also sources of metals in the air, since the basic elements of the muffler are made of heat resistant alloys on the basis of the glands is, Nickel, magnesium, zinc and cobalt, and systems catalytic converters are coatings based on silver, platinum and iridium. In addition, the Converter housing made of stainless alloys.

In addition, the source of metal particles and minerals is the air consumed by the engine. For different sizes of the intake air amounts to tens of liters per hour, and the amount of dust entering the engine, can be up to 0.05 g/liter of air, this is due to the fact that the efficiency of the air filter is only 80-90% depending on its durability and quality workmanship. This is important because the air contains a large number of nano - and microparticles of metals, both natural and anthropogenic origins.

Thus, the suspension exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (CSAS) is a very informative object to retrieve the data with high accuracy on particle size distribution and elemental composition of solid nano - and microparticles emitted into the atmosphere during operation of the internal combustion engine, allowing to assess the qualitative composition of the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine to determine the presence of metal cations by the method of mass spectrometry.

The analysis of suspension exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine using laser granulometry allows the t to give environmental assessment of solid particles according to their impact on human health. So it is widely known that the greatest danger have particles with diameter less than 10 microns. We have found particles with average diameter of about 10 μm in CSAS more than 30% of the studied vehicles (5 of 15), which, undoubtedly, can be attributed to petrol and diesel cars to the sources of emissions of hazardous grained fractions.

It can also be noted that the combination of the two methods CSAS allowed to reveal the fact that not only the cars with high mileage due to wear of parts are a great source of microdispersed particles and metals in the atmosphere. New car (unlimited mileage) are also a source no less, and sometimes more heavy metals and particulate matter.

Method of measurements of parameters of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, including a selection of gases in the sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material with the use of technical means, wherein the sampler is isolated from the environment and placed in it a portion of distilled water, thus forming a suspension of solid particles in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, for which they released in named portion of water, and the formation of the suspension begins after removal from the exhaust particles of dust and soot that had settled there during idle of the internal combustion engine in the process of sampling the suspension is stirred and sterilin the m syringe selected fluid volume of about 40 ml, which research on a laser particle analyzer to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape, in addition, conduct a physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer.



 

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2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: pathomorphological determination of the prescription of myocardial infarction is ensured by fixing a tissue sample and placing it into paraffin. Sections are prepared, de-waxed, heated, washed in a buffer solution, incubated in a moisture chamber and processed with a developing agent, dehydrated and enclosed by a medium. The reagent is presented by matrix metalloprotease 9 antibodies in dilution 1:100-1:250. The sections are incubated with the reagent at a temperature of 25°C and a relative humidity of 100% for 60 minutes. If the microscopy detects the bright-coloured neutrophils in peri-infarction vessels and within the infarction zone, the prescription is stated to be 2 hours to 1 day. If observing the neutrophil degranulation and the bright colour of an extracellular matrix within the infarction, the prescription is 1 to 2 days. If the coloured fibroblasts are found in the infarction border, the prescription is stated to be within 3 to 30 days.

EFFECT: method enables differentiating the prescription of myocardial infarction within 2 hours to 30 days.

1 ex, 3 dwg

FIELD: food industry.

SUBSTANCE: method envisages the sample acid hydrolysis, the hydrolysate filtration and chromatographic separation with subsequent automatic identification and quantitative evaluation of amino acids content using an automatic analyser. The invention allows to determine amino acids in the food product proteins composition with amino acids content equal to nearly 0.1-3.5 g/100 g of the product (1.5-17 g/100 g of protein) with application of sequential elution of amino acids with a buffer solutions mixture and simultaneous detection of the components at two wave lengths being 440 and 570 nm.

EFFECT: acceleration of the process of amino acids isolation from the food product and determination accuracy enhancement due to losses decrease and highly sensitive material application.

2 tbl

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: generator comprises housing with connection pipe and prechamber to accommodate the sleeve made of dielectric to house electrodes. Note here that one electrode is arranged in prechamber axis to make the common electrode. Other electrodes are arranged in circle at equal spacing. Note here that axial electrode is connected with other electrodes by 0.02-0.5 mm diameter metal wires. Electrode other ends are intended for connected to high-voltage sources. Ends of electrodes arranged inside prechamber are bulged, purge nitrogen feed union being connected to said prechamber. With even number of electrodes arranged in circle, axial electrode end, in radial direction towards said electrodes, through radial intercrossing channels can be made to receive metal wires. Note here that ends of every said wire are connected with appropriate pair of opposed electrodes arranged in circle. Blank threaded hole is made at axial electrode end which crosses said through radial channels. Screw is fitted therein to clamp said metal wires to inner edges of axial electrode through channels.

EFFECT: generation of several stable pulses at single test of combustion chamber and gas generator.

5 cl, 3 dwg

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