Method of measuring parameters of internal combustion engine exhaust gases
SUBSTANCE: method includes collecting gases in a sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material. The sampler is insulated from the ambient environment and a portion of distilled water is added, wherein a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gas is formed by releasing said particles into said portion of water. Formation of the suspension begins after removing foreign dust and soot particles from the exhaust pipe that have settled there when the internal combustion engine is idle. During sample collection, the suspension is mixed and a sterile syringe is used to collect about 40 ml of liquid, which is then analysed on a laser particle analyser to determine particle size and shape distribution therein. Substance analysis of the suspension is then carried out on a light microscope and electron microscope with an energy-dispersion spectrometer for determining material composition of the solid particles and size and shape distribution of said particles.
EFFECT: determining content of nanodispersed and microdispersed solid particles in exhaust gas.
The invention relates to the instrument and can be used to measure parameters that characterize qualitative, quantitative and dimensional parameters of suspensions of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (ice).
The known method of measuring the opacity of exhaust gases (see SU # 1203410, CL G01N 21/53, 1983), providing for the entry of gases into the opacimeter containing consistently placed on the light source, the measuring channel, a sensor and recording device.
The disadvantage of the prototype is the increased energy consumption in the delivery of the compressed air supply and increased consumption of materials due to the bulkiness of the design (additional connection of the output of the exhaust gas).
According to the ECE Regulations No. 49 introduced rationing in carbon emissions resulting from cracking of the fuel and oils during the cycle combustion in the cylinders of the engine. It is established that these compounds adsorb heavy aromatic hydrocarbons and carcinogenic benzo(a)layer. The rules provide an estimate of the amount of visible (soot) and visually invisible particle emissions. As a means of control toxicity HS engine for analysis WITH the use analyzers non-dispersible type of absorption in the infrared part of the spectrum, hydrocarbons SN - gas flame-Jones the traditional type, nitrogen oxides NOX- the chemiluminescent analyzers type, and to determine visible (soot) and invisible particles used primitive filtering process samples VG through paper or fabric filters that are weighed on a beam balance before and after such "analysis" (Balbas M.M. and other "Transport and environment", Minsk, 2004).
The disadvantage of this technical solution technical complexity and high cost technological equipment for the control of toxic emissions, with the lack of its effectiveness, as determined only four of two or three of the hundreds of components that can accommodate VG, apparently, is a consequence of the metrological incompatibility of values, which are measured, and application of analytical instruments and techniques designed for the analysis of real gases and liquids, not complex physico-chemical environment with the content of colloidal and solevykh particles of different substances contained in the HS engine.
There is also known a method of measuring parameters of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, including a selection of gases in the sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material with the use of technical means (RU # 2326361, G01M 15/10, 2008). However, as the technical means used is an optical device for determining the content of solids in the gas medium and the detector. Tasks of the second known method is the measurement of the opacity and toxicity of exhaust gases of the engine.
The disadvantage of this technical solution is the inability to determine the material composition of the solid particles in the exhaust gases, as well as the inability to determine the distribution of these particles by size and shape.
The objective of the invention is the determination of the possibility of determining the material composition of the solid particles in the exhaust gases, and reliable distribution of particle size and shape.
The technical result, which is manifested when the task is providing the possibility to study the characteristics of the particles contained in the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (automobile suspensions), and new methods of studying solids - laser granulometry and mass spectrometry high resolution. Suspension exhaust is extremely informative object to retrieve the data with high accuracy on particle size distribution and elemental composition of solid nano - and microparticles emitted into the atmosphere during operation of the internal combustion engine, allowing to assess the qualitative composition of the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine to determine the presence of metal cations by the method of mass spectrometry. A particular advantage of this method is the identification and analysis of nano-dispersed and microdispersed solids (widely known that the greatest danger have particles with diameter less than 10 microns), contained in the exhaust gases.
The solution of this problem is achieved by a method of measuring parameters of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, including a selection of gases in the sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material with the use of technical means, characterized in that the sampler is isolated from the environment and placed in it a portion of distilled water, thus forming a suspension of solid particles in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, for which they released in named portion of water, and the formation of the suspension begins after removal from the exhaust particles of dust and soot that had settled there during idle of the internal combustion engine in the process of sampling the suspension is stirred and sterile syringe selected volume liquid 40 ml, which research on a laser particle analyzer to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape, in addition, conduct a physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer.
Comparative analysis of the essential features of the proposed solution with essential features analogs and prototypes demonstrate compliance of the proposed technical solutions to the criterion "novelty".
While the signs of the distinctive part of the formula of the invention provides a solution to the following functional C the cottages.
Signs "sampler isolated from the environment and placed in it a portion of distilled water do not allow external contamination of the suspension materials not contained in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, and provide the ability to capture a wide size range of solids from the formation of the suspension. Use distilled water eliminates the possibility of distortion of the results contained in mediterranei water substances.
Signs indicating that "form a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, provide material suitable for study on a laser particle analyzer (to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape) and physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer.
Signs indicating that the exhaust gases produced in the said portion of water, ensure the preparation of a suspension of solid particles of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines in the water.
Signs indicating that the formation of the suspension begins after removal from the exhaust particles of dust and soot that had settled there during idle engine", exclude hit in the composition of the suspension particles of dust and soot that had settled in the exhaust pipe during engine idle and not included in exhaust gas the engine.
Signs indicating that "in the process of sampling the suspension is stirred and sterile syringe selected fluid volume of about 40 ml"ensure the representativeness of the sample and the quantity of material sufficient for subsequent analysis by technical means.
Signs indicating that the sample is examined for a laser particle analyzer to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape, provide the possibility of obtaining reliable information about the composition of micro - and nano-suspensions.
Signs indicating that "conduct a physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer, allow to obtain data on the material composition of the solid particles contained in the exhaust gases of the engine.
The claimed method is illustrated by drawings, where figure 1 shows table 2 Morphometric parameters of solid particles in suspension exhaust gas detected by laser granulometry"; figure 2 shows table 3 Results of elemental analysis of the suspension of the exhaust gas; figure 3 shows a Histogram of the particle sizes and their share in the sample exhaust VT 2012 diesel 2.0".
To obtain a suspension exhaust gases and the measurement requires the following equipment and materials: plastic Kanis the RA volume of 20 liters, hose PVC (length 1 m for each measurement), distilled water (volume 10 l for each measurement).
The technical means necessary laser particle analyzer Analysette 22 NanoTech (firm Fritsch), light microscope Zeiss Discovery VI 2 (Germany) and electron microscope Zeiss Ultra Plus with an energy dispersive spectrometer. Mass spectrometer high-resolution inductively coupled plasma Element XR (Thermo Scientific).
The claimed method was implemented in the following order.
1. The engine of the test vehicle was wound up and worked within 1-3 minutes so that the exhaust pipes were removed all foreign particles such as dust and soot that had settled there for a time, brought in from the outside.
2. Then the engine was pusilla and to the exhaust pipe of the test vehicle was connected a flexible hose, the end of which fell in the volume of water (10 l), placed in a plastic canister. To prevent external contamination, the canister top tightly closed plastic wrap, previously washed with distilled water (measured by us of the content of trace elements in distilled water was found to be statistically not significant compared with the measured values of these elements in suspension exhaust gases).
3. After that the car was wound up, and the engine was running in neutral, the speed during the 20 minutes. This time interval was chosen taking into account the fact that warming up of the engine (sensor coolant temperature) was given approximately 10 minutes. Later in the idling engine warmed up and worked the remaining 10 minutes. This time period of operation of the automobile engine was more than enough to study particle size distribution of the exhaust gases of internal combustion engines of cars.
At the end of the measurements canister with distilled water, through which was passed by exhaust gases, tightly closed with a lid and then went to the laboratory, where from the container sterile plastic syringe was used to select the sample volume of 40 ml (before sampling the contents of the canister were thoroughly mixed, using a vibrating table. Next, the sample in a known manner were investigated by laser particle analyzer Analysette 22 NanoTech (firm Fritsch). The measurements were carried out in the mode of "nanotec" settings "carbon/water 20°C".
This enabled during one measurement to identify the distribution of particle sizes, and to determine their shape. Physical analysis of sediment produced by a light microscope Zeiss Discovery VI 2 (Germany) and electron microscope (Zeiss Ultra Plus with energy dispersive spectrometer (Germany). The coated samples for electron microscopy were made of gold.
Examples of implementation of the act is both
For experiments according to the classifications HE 025270-66 and classification of the economic Commission for Europe, we have selected the most significant, from the point of view of the environment (emissions), and is widely represented in the urban environment types of cars (see table 1).
Cars of 2012 were kindly provided by one of the dealers (Primorsky Krai), and vehicles with high mileage (over 100,000 miles) provided by the authors and their colleagues. Cars refueled gasoline and diesel fuel of one brand at a gas station the same oil company.
Trace element analysis of samples of the suspension exhaust gases and distilled water were carried out on a mass spectrometer high-resolution inductively coupled plasma Element XR (Thermo Scientific).
|Cars taken in experiment|
|Code, year of manufacture||The working volume of the engine, l||Fuel type||Mileage, km|
|TS 1998||3,0||gasoline||the 125,000|
|VP 2012||1,8||gasoline||less than 400|
|VTi 2012||2,0||gasoline||less than 400|
|VQ-2012||2,0||diesel||less than 400|
|VA 2012||2,0||diesel||less than 400|
|VC 2012||2,0||gasoline||less than 400|
|VT 2012||3,0||gasoline||less than 400|
|VTo 2012||3,0||diesel||less than 400|
Morphometric parameters of solid particles in suspension exhaust gas was determined by laser granulometry and presented in figure 1 (table 2).
It is known that the study of solid particle suspensions using samplers, in which filters are applied, necessarily accompanied by loss of nanosized particles fraction (part migrates through the pores of the filter or aggregates, which does not allow to evaluate them separately). The study of the suspension of the exhaust gas, as a way of capturing exhaust fluid (in our case, distilled water), allows you to capture and measure this fraction.
The latest research shows that the exhaust of vehicles running on diesel are more dangerous to human health, including due to the presence of nano - and microparticles.
According to the obtained results (table 3 - IG), cars running on diesel fuel, are also the source of the most dangerous particles of sediment (size of 10 μm or less). For greater clarity, figure 3 shows a histogram of the particle sizes and their share in the exhaust of the vehicle is 2012 release (!), working on the engine (three fractions: from 100 to 500 nm, from 1 to 5 μm and 8 to 16 μm).
The rest of the cars without mileage (release 2012), according to the obtained results, with rare exceptions (table 3), are a source of emissions of hazardous grained fractions (from 500 to 1000 μm).
Particles of metals in the exhaust gases of cars can get as a result:
1) mechanical wear of components and engine
2) chemical (corrosion) of the wear components and engine
3) combustion of fuel and motor oil,
4) avoid the entry of air when the engine is running.
The most significant source of metals is the internal combustion engine and exhaust system exhaust gas and includes a fairly solid list of metals: high - and low-carbon steel, lead, tin, copper, iron, chromium, zinc and others. The above elements and materials (alloys), from which they are made, due to mechanical wear, corrosion damage, under the influence of acids formed during the combustion of fuels and the oxidation of the oils are removed through the exhaust system of amrabat is the R gases enter the atmosphere.
Engine oil, in addition to what is battery products engine wear, itself contains a number of compounds that act as additives and additives to improve performance properties. They contain friction modifiers or anti-friction additives, one of the most common are the so-called "retalliatory"containing ions of soft metals (lead, copper, silver). Particles of metals (ions)contained in the engine oil because of its natural smoke, mixed with exhaust gases and enter the atmosphere.
Fuel, a mixture of hydrocarbons and additives, is one of the most significant sources of metals, as in the production of gasoline and diesel fuel of different brands use different additives containing metal compounds. One of the main types of fuel additives are antiknock additives (Mn(CO)3(C5H5), [Ni(CO)(C5H5)b, Fe(C5H5)2and others). These antiknock additives form hard carbon deposits on the cylinder walls and therefore are together with the exhaust gases into the atmosphere.
The elements of the system muffler and catalytic converters are also sources of metals in the air, since the basic elements of the muffler are made of heat resistant alloys on the basis of the glands is, Nickel, magnesium, zinc and cobalt, and systems catalytic converters are coatings based on silver, platinum and iridium. In addition, the Converter housing made of stainless alloys.
In addition, the source of metal particles and minerals is the air consumed by the engine. For different sizes of the intake air amounts to tens of liters per hour, and the amount of dust entering the engine, can be up to 0.05 g/liter of air, this is due to the fact that the efficiency of the air filter is only 80-90% depending on its durability and quality workmanship. This is important because the air contains a large number of nano - and microparticles of metals, both natural and anthropogenic origins.
Thus, the suspension exhaust gases of internal combustion engines (CSAS) is a very informative object to retrieve the data with high accuracy on particle size distribution and elemental composition of solid nano - and microparticles emitted into the atmosphere during operation of the internal combustion engine, allowing to assess the qualitative composition of the exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine to determine the presence of metal cations by the method of mass spectrometry.
The analysis of suspension exhaust gases of the internal combustion engine using laser granulometry allows the t to give environmental assessment of solid particles according to their impact on human health. So it is widely known that the greatest danger have particles with diameter less than 10 microns. We have found particles with average diameter of about 10 μm in CSAS more than 30% of the studied vehicles (5 of 15), which, undoubtedly, can be attributed to petrol and diesel cars to the sources of emissions of hazardous grained fractions.
It can also be noted that the combination of the two methods CSAS allowed to reveal the fact that not only the cars with high mileage due to wear of parts are a great source of microdispersed particles and metals in the atmosphere. New car (unlimited mileage) are also a source no less, and sometimes more heavy metals and particulate matter.
Method of measurements of parameters of exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, including a selection of gases in the sampler and subsequent analysis of the sample material with the use of technical means, wherein the sampler is isolated from the environment and placed in it a portion of distilled water, thus forming a suspension of solid particles in exhaust gases of internal combustion engines, for which they released in named portion of water, and the formation of the suspension begins after removal from the exhaust particles of dust and soot that had settled there during idle of the internal combustion engine in the process of sampling the suspension is stirred and sterilin the m syringe selected fluid volume of about 40 ml, which research on a laser particle analyzer to determine the distribution therein of particle size and shape, in addition, conduct a physical analysis of sediment on a light microscope and electron microscope with energy dispersive spectrometer.
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a means of generating a parallel stream of optical radiation pulses, a means for optical formation of a reference volume with a rectangular cross-section, a means of moving the reference volume, a means of receiving and converting optical radiation into electrical signals and a means of detecting change in the amplitude of electric pulses, equipped with a means of determining the difference between a signal in the absence of pulses and a signal obtained in the presence of pulses, and a means which forms a time interval during pulse detection. The ratio of the dimensions of the sides of the rectangular cross-section of the reference volume is equal to the ratio of the maximum and minimum boundaries of the dimension range of detected particles. The apparatus includes a hydroacoustic estimation channel which consists of a multibeam echo sounder, parametric profile recorder pumping antennae, parametric profile recorder low-frequency receiving antennae, a probing pulse generator, an echo signal receiver, an acoustic signal processing unit, a control and display panel with an interface unit and a network hub, two side-scanning sonar devices whose antennae are mounted on the right and left sides, respectively.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes receipt of water and gas mixture under high pressure, sampling of water and gas mixture and its transfer to a metering tank at the same pressure. Before measurement volume of the metering tank is measured and in measurement process change in free gas pressure, volume of free gas and the respective increment in free gas volume is recorded permanently, total volume of gas is determined for the taken sample; then dependency of free gas volume in the tank ΔP id determined and re-calculated to dependency of pressure change (ΔP) on relative share of the current free gas mass mig/mg, where mg is the total quantity of gas mg in the taken sample, mig is a current value of the free gas mass; then radius is determined for gas bubbles contained in the share of the current free gas mass according to the following formula:
EFFECT: provision of disperse degree measurement for water and gas mixture both in transparent and non-transparent dispersion medium.
4 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the measurement of aerosol particle characteristics by optical methods. The method consists in measuring the optical radiation attenuation in the visible and near infrared regions of spectrum. The maximal size and concentration of aerosol particles are determined according to the formulas:
EFFECT: higher accuracy at the determination of submicron particle characteristics.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for automatic control of particle size in a pulp flow includes periodical feeling of material particles with a micrometer feeler with conversion of particle value fixed by a feeling mechanism, into an electric signal proportionate to their absolute size. For this purpose pulp is sampled, filtered, sent to a conditioning tank. Then sample density is measured in the conditioning tank. At the same time the pulp sample is dissolved by water to the condition providing for getting a single layer of material particles when fixed by the micrometer feeler. Then the dissolved sample is pumped in the circulation mode along the circuit including the conditioning tank and the measurement chamber. After that they measure size of material particles in the circulating flow passing via the measurement chamber during the period of time, duration of which is set by results of preliminary calibration, and the content of controlled class is calculated by results of measurement of contents of intermediate size classes.
EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of measurements of grain composition of material in a pulp flow.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: by recorded pulse light image of cut plane with small thickness of the spray part, they determine parameters of drop spray in this part of the spray by means of a system of dispersion units based on the formula of the volume of ball (sphere) of a drop, for this purpose in the specified image they perform sorting and counting of number of drops of standard classes of ranges of microscopic dimensions in their adjacent sequence. For realisation of the method a double-laser plant is developed with digital devices of image signal processing and a computer.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of the method and the plant due to measurement of speeds of dispersed drops and production of results of assessment of spray parameters by means of analysis of values of reduced integral volumes of drops per unit of area with sorting by sequence of adjacent ranges of drop size.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the measurement equipment, may be used in motor, agricultural, aviation, oil processing and other industries, where it is necessary to perform efficient analysis of motor oil quality. The device to analyse contamination of motor oil of the internal combustion engine by disperse particles includes a laser as a source of probing radiation, a light divider (a semi-transparent mirror), a lens, a photodetector, an analog to digital converter, a computer, an ultrasonic generator and a radiator of ultrasonic oscillations. Also the device comprises a channel to control metal particles located at the bottom of the oil tray of the engine tray, and a channel to control burn particles located at the height of minimum oil level in the tray. At the same time each of channels comprises a photodetector, an amplifier, an analog to digital converter and a radiator of ultrasonic oscillations. Also the device comprises a digital to analog converter and a switchboard for serial switching of radiators of ultrasonic oscillations in control channels. At the same time all ultrasonic radiators are controlled via the digital to analog converter by the computer, in accordance with the mathematical model of oscillations of the particle surface from radiations and with parameters of temperature produced with the help of the temperature sensor, amplifier and analog to digital converter.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of burn and metal particles, higher information value of data for assessment of concentration of weighted metal and burn disperse particles in oil, in particular, makes it possible to control quality of operation of an engine, residual resource of oil operation until its replacement.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, namely, to optical methods for registration of particle aggregation during performance of immunochemical reactions, for instance, using particles of micron size with reagents immobilised on them. During the reaction such particles are aggregated, formation of aggregates is recorded by turbidimetric or nephelometric method. Due to large size of initial particles their mutual approaching due to Brownian motion is slow, and formation of aggregates takes place in a non-uniform manner in the reaction volume, therefore to increase speed of aggregation and accuracy of its supervision the suspension of reagents must be mixed. Mixing is carried out by or at the expense of cyclic movement of magnetic particles placed into the mix, or the mix flow in the mode of flooded jet, or by means of reciprocal movement of the mix along the cuvette.
EFFECT: method accelerates the reaction and increases accuracy of measured kinetics.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering and can be used in making fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The method involves scanning the image of spherical particles with a circular optical spot and determining the area of projections thereof. The diameter of the spot is selected to be less than the lower bound of the range of diameters of the image of the particles. Regions where the area of intersection of the scanning spot with images of particles is equal to the area of the scanning spot are selected. The area of the projection of each particle is defined as the area of the circle whose diameter is equal to the sum of the diameter of the scanning spot and the diameter of the region selected in said particle.
EFFECT: elimination of the operator and automation of image processing.
SUBSTANCE: system and method for ground material characterisation in a grinding system use an irradiation section through which at least a part of the ground material stream is fed and with irradiation means for irradiating the particles in the part of the stream with electromagnetic radiation; and a detection section for passage, having a detection means for detecting electromagnetic radiation emitted from the particles of the part of the ground material stream fed through the irradiation section The detection means comprises an imaging system and a colour image sensor for imaging the particles thereon using the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the particles. The colour image sensor comprises image elements for spectrally selective detection of the electromagnetic radiation imaged on the sensor image elements. The detection section comprises a luminous means or is made and arranged to detect particles of the ground material using a combination of transmitted and incident light.
EFFECT: high rate and accuracy of detecting properties of a stream of a grinding product.
26 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises conversion of pulse voltage into light flux for analysed medium area to be probed therewith. Measuring channel containing analysed medium and extra channel filled with gas mix cleaned of gas mix are used. Said light flux is splitted in said channels to wide and narrow fluxes to be converted into electric signals while signal proportional to reference channel narrow light flux is subtracted from measuring channel narrow light flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller. Besides, signal proportional to reference channel wide light flux is subtracted from signal proportional to measuring channel wide flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller to define total concentration of dust and dust particle size.
EFFECT: higher precision of measurement.
SUBSTANCE: first, selected are directions for elastic wave propagation directions uniformly distributed over the entire volume of specimen to measure propagation speed and to define the length of every direction. Ultrasound pulses excited in specimen are radiated therein at the start of every direction. Elastic wave travel time is defined for every direction to define the means propagation speed in every direction using obtained elastic wave length and travel time. Then, said specimen is deformed to preset magnitude in stepwise manner, via preset time intervals. At every deformation step, said mean propagation speeds are defined for every directed as described above to define mean propagation speeds for separated part of specimen volume by the method of nuclear Gaussian functions with averaging radius of at least 5 mm. Calculations at every deformation step are displayed as the projection of the specimen vertical section with at least 5 mm deep layer with dyeing of projection sections by different colours proportional with calculated speed difference for said sections between current and previous deformation steps to make conclusion of specimen density variation.
EFFECT: higher-quality and more detailed picture of compaction and destruction zones.
4 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wings of ilium are punctured in an anterior and posterior one-third of the wings with two trocars being inserted into each wing. The bone marrow (BM) is collected by simple aspiration, aspiration irrigation or a combination thereof at an underpressure of 0.6 Atm with using a device. The bone marrow preparation device comprises a disposable multi-channel closed system, an aspiration collection unit and a perfusion unit. The group of inventions also refers to a method for assessing the prepared bone marrow. The effect is ensured by automatic control of myeloaspiration by preparing a biological material with using a special designed device for the bone marrow collection.
EFFECT: using the given method for preparing the bone marrow provides preparing the sterile bone marrow rich in viable multipotent mesenchymal stromal and hemopoietic progenitor cells.
7 cl, 1 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of zinc extraction from bottom sediments with an ionic liquid includes preparation of an analytic sample. Extraction of zinc from the solid sample is performed with application of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaphosphate with additives of ammonium thiocyanate and potassium iodide with further quantitative determination of zinc (II) ions in a concentrate of an organic phase of the ionic liquid.
EFFECT: providing degree of element extraction close to one hundred percent.
1 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a cartridge for a bioanalytical reaction device. The cartridge contains at least one chamber for a sample, which has a wall, through which the said sample can be processed or analysed by the bioanalytical reaction device. The cartridge also contains a case and a platform, and the platform contains the said at least one chamber for the sample and is connected with a possibility of travel with the case in such a way that the platform is able to move between the removed position, in which the wall is protected by the case, and the protruded position, in which the wall is outside the case, by putting operating means in action. The bioanalytical reaction device has a slot for reception of the cartridge, and contains an operating device for moving out and removal of the platform.
EFFECT: technical result which is achieved lies in provision of protection of the sample from contamination and damage without excessive complication of the cartridge construction.
15 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system comprises at least two samplers installed in the holes of a bearing element set on a vessel casing. Every sampler is fitted by a tubular lead-in part on the inner installation side of the bearing element and a discharge part on the upper side of the bearing element having sections for hydraulic or pneumatic valves to be connected. Lead-in parts are of different length. The bearing element is made as a removable flange with the holes in it being connecting ports. Each tubular lead-in and discharge parts are made as separate elements. The discharge part is coupled with the connecting port permanently and the tubular lead-in part is coupled with the said port by a detachable joint. Tubular lead-in part of each sampler is made as tubes of lower, middle and upper levels installed in the flange hole on the flange installation side by means of a detachable joint.
EFFECT: universality of a unit due to the possibility of its usage in vessels for fluid products of different types.
10 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to supervision of vehicle operating conditions and estimation of harmful emissions. Sampling device comprises sampler connected with exhaust pipe via inlet pipe, sampling resilient chamber arranged in portable appliance and checkout hardware. Said sampling resilient detachable chamber is equipped with remote control shutoff element. Detachable appliance is equipped with the branch pipe with outlet located in one plane with sampler end. Inlet pipe has rotary mechanism for connection with the next sampling resilient chamber and valve to shut off the ICE off-gas ingress into inlet valve. Note here that every sampling resilient chamber has a contact mechanism of sampling outage at filling the entire volume of said chamber. Besides, portable appliance has inner cooling shell and cooled duct for off-gas passage from vehicle exhaust pipe. Said checkout hardware is composed of processor connected with rotary mechanism. The latter connected the next sampling chamber with the device inlet pipe and valve that shuts off ICE off-gas flow into inlet pipe.
EFFECT: off-gas sampling under whatever operating conditions, ruled out occurrence of secondary chemical reactions.
SUBSTANCE: device for preparation, storage and transportation of dry objects of liquids comprises a dry container with an adsorption element whereon a liquid aliquot containing analysed components can be applied and dried. An adsorption element is made of a moisture absorbing porous material having the adsorption capacity not less than 40 mg per cm2 and an ability for reversible desorption of dry components in an immersible sample solution of at least a working area of the adsorption element with the dry sample in the sample solution with an effectiveness of 30% at the end of no more than 300 sec after the contact of the dry sample with the sample solution.
EFFECT: invention enables obtaining the reproducible results of the analysis of biological liquids, facilitates the structure of the sorbent element.
10 cl, 4 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to the field of technology of cyclic taking of plant samples from clamps, pits, trenches, haystacks, mows and other repositories in agriculture in determining quality indicators of feed and can also be used when taking samples of other non-free-flowing materials, such as peat, soil and snow. The method of taking plant samples is that during rotation of the device of taking the plant samples the auger retraction of the cutting crown into the feed monolith and the auger feeding of the cut-out feed in the storage unit are provided. At that the recording by the fluid content gage of the volume of the taken plant sample is provided, as well as its removal from the moving storage unit. The device of taking the plant samples comprises a shaft with a cylindrical part of the auger and a lower conical auger tip. In the area of the base of the tip the cutting crown is installed and secured with at least one pin, with mortices-hooks at the upper part, by which it docks with projections of the storage unit when turning its projections in the mortices-hooks of the crown in the opposite direction with respect to rotation in cutting the monolith of the feed. The storage unit has free rotation and movement along the shaft with the cylindrical part of the auger for releasing the crown from the hook and extracting the sample taken. In addition, the storage unit is equipped with a mechanical fluid content gage of the volume of the sample taken in the form of a plate resting on the cylindrical part of the auger, connected to the recording tube, sliding along the smooth part of the shaft with the cylindrical part of the auger.
EFFECT: monitoring the filling of the storage unit, which enables to provide the accuracy of determining the volume of the sample taken at a given depth.
2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: pathomorphological determination of the prescription of myocardial infarction is ensured by fixing a tissue sample and placing it into paraffin. Sections are prepared, de-waxed, heated, washed in a buffer solution, incubated in a moisture chamber and processed with a developing agent, dehydrated and enclosed by a medium. The reagent is presented by matrix metalloprotease 9 antibodies in dilution 1:100-1:250. The sections are incubated with the reagent at a temperature of 25°C and a relative humidity of 100% for 60 minutes. If the microscopy detects the bright-coloured neutrophils in peri-infarction vessels and within the infarction zone, the prescription is stated to be 2 hours to 1 day. If observing the neutrophil degranulation and the bright colour of an extracellular matrix within the infarction, the prescription is 1 to 2 days. If the coloured fibroblasts are found in the infarction border, the prescription is stated to be within 3 to 30 days.
EFFECT: method enables differentiating the prescription of myocardial infarction within 2 hours to 30 days.
1 ex, 3 dwg
FIELD: food industry.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages the sample acid hydrolysis, the hydrolysate filtration and chromatographic separation with subsequent automatic identification and quantitative evaluation of amino acids content using an automatic analyser. The invention allows to determine amino acids in the food product proteins composition with amino acids content equal to nearly 0.1-3.5 g/100 g of the product (1.5-17 g/100 g of protein) with application of sequential elution of amino acids with a buffer solutions mixture and simultaneous detection of the components at two wave lengths being 440 and 570 nm.
EFFECT: acceleration of the process of amino acids isolation from the food product and determination accuracy enhancement due to losses decrease and highly sensitive material application.
FIELD: engines and pumps.
SUBSTANCE: generator comprises housing with connection pipe and prechamber to accommodate the sleeve made of dielectric to house electrodes. Note here that one electrode is arranged in prechamber axis to make the common electrode. Other electrodes are arranged in circle at equal spacing. Note here that axial electrode is connected with other electrodes by 0.02-0.5 mm diameter metal wires. Electrode other ends are intended for connected to high-voltage sources. Ends of electrodes arranged inside prechamber are bulged, purge nitrogen feed union being connected to said prechamber. With even number of electrodes arranged in circle, axial electrode end, in radial direction towards said electrodes, through radial intercrossing channels can be made to receive metal wires. Note here that ends of every said wire are connected with appropriate pair of opposed electrodes arranged in circle. Blank threaded hole is made at axial electrode end which crosses said through radial channels. Screw is fitted therein to clamp said metal wires to inner edges of axial electrode through channels.
EFFECT: generation of several stable pulses at single test of combustion chamber and gas generator.
5 cl, 3 dwg