Method of treating natural water

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of treating natural water includes oxidation, neutralisation and two-step filtration. Oxidation with simultaneous transfer of impurities into a dissolved state is carried out with carbonic acid solution obtained from saturating raw water with carbon dioxide. Neutralisation of the formed compounds is carried out with calcium hydroxide solution with concentration of 1-1.3 g/l, followed by removal of the precipitate first in a settling tank and on a filter with a neutral charge, and then on a filter with a weakly basic charge.

EFFECT: invention enables to remove iron and manganese compounds, bicarbonates of alkali-earth metals, silicic acid and salts thereof and organic impurities from water, simplifies the water treatment technique and lowers the content of impurities to values which do not exceed the maximum allowable concentration.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl


The invention relates to the field of water purification and can be used to obtain drinking water from surface and underground sources.

A method of processing water in a liquid-gas ejector oxygen fed into the ejector at a pressure of 0.3 to 0.7 ATA, and subsequent processing water mineral acid (Patent RU 2208598 C1 IPC C02F 9/08, publ. 20.07.2003). The disadvantage of this method is the need for the use of mineral acids, salts which in purified water must be removed, which requires a more complex installation.

The known method of purification of drinking water (Patent RU 2238912 C2, IPC C02F 1/64, publ. 20.08.2003), comprising the sequential processing of the treated water with potassium permanganate and hydrogen peroxide, followed by filtration. The disadvantage of this method is the need to use scarce and unstable hydrogen peroxide.

The closest to the technical nature of the claimed is a method of water purification from impurities of iron, manganese, carbon dioxide and organic impurities, including water aeration air, sequential oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and alkalization lime mixers with subsequent two-stage filtration. In the first stage filtering on the lighting filter (quartz sand) delayed hydroxides of iron, manganese, and sulfur, ZAT the clarified water is additionally subjected to oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and is passed through the sorption filter (A.S. SU 1368846, C02F 9/00, publ. 23.01.1988).

The disadvantage of this method is twofold use in the purification of drinking water sodium hypochlorite, incomplete cleaning colloidal organoiron particles, increasing the hardness of the source water and the inability to clean the impurities of anionic character, in particular silicic acid and its soluble salts.

Object of the invention is a comprehensive treatment of water from groundwater and surface (river, lake, wetland) sources due to the removal of the water of compounds of iron, manganese, bicarbonate of alkali-earth metals, of silicic acid and its salts and organic impurities, simplifying purification of water and reduce the impurity content to values not exceeding the maximum allowable concentrations.

The problem is solved in that in the method of purification of natural waters, including oxidation, neutralization and two-stage filtration, oxidation with simultaneous translation impurities in a soluble state was carried out with a solution of carbonic acid, obtained in the initial water saturation with carbon dioxide, and neutralization of the resulting compounds is conducted with a solution of calcium hydroxide with a concentration of 1-1 .3 g/l, followed by the first residue in the sump and the filtrate is neutral, backfilling, and then on the filter with the weakly basic zasypko is.

The initial water saturation with carbon dioxide produced by its filing in the suction pipe of a centrifugal pump when the pressure of carbon dioxide more than 0.1 MPa.

As weakly basic backfill in the second stage of filtering is used brucite Mg(OH)2with a grain size of 3-10 mm

Iron in natural waters may be in the form of bivalent iron ions, in the form of colloidal organic and inorganic compounds in the form of a true solution of the organic compounds of divalent or trivalent iron. In the waters of rivers and lakes, especially wetland origin, the iron may be in the form of organic compounds or colloidal form. Manganese in groundwater is contained in the form of salts of divalent manganese, soluble in water. In the surface waters of the manganese may be in the form of colloidal or complex organic compounds (Handbook of the designer. The water supply of settlements and industrial enterprises - M.: stroiizdat, 1977, s-193).

When aeration is natural waters as a result of oxidation by air oxygen compounds of iron and manganese are transformed into an insoluble state in the form of colloidal Fe(OH)3and mn(OH)4. Similar processes occur at the contact of oxygen with surface waters, accompanied by the processes of adsorption of humic and D. the natives of organic compounds on the surface of colloidal particles of the hydroxide with the formation of very stable complexes nano-size, remove them from the water is a complex technical problem. In the proposed method, instead of aeration is used, the initial water saturation with carbon dioxide, resulting in a solution of carbonic acid with the concentration of CO2in the water within 60-440 mg/l (pH 6,2-4,1) at 20°C. In the interaction of carbonic acid with colloidal organic particles of hydroxides of iron and manganese is the destruction of these particles and formed water-soluble bicarbonates of metals for reactions:


Fe(OH)3+2CO =Fe(HCO3)2+OH-(2)


Technological scheme of initial water saturation with carbon dioxide and clean it etc who dstanley in figure 1.

Source water from the tank 1 via line 2 enters the centrifugal pump 3, the suction pipe from the tank 4 is supplied carbon dioxide at a pressure of 0.05 to 0.15 MPa. During the rotation of the pump impeller gas-liquid mixture under the action of centrifugal force radially discarded to the inner surface of the volute pump where there high blood pressure, which increases the intensity of the saturation of water with carbon dioxide. The pressure in the inlet tube of the pump due to the amount of pressure that must be generated to overcome the flow resistance occurring throughout the path of movement of water. Inside the cochlea pump is not only the dissolution of the gas in the water, but also begin to leak reactions (1-3).

Under the action of the pressure generated by the pump 3, the water via a regulating valve 5 flows into the intermediate tank 6 to complete the process of dissolving carbon dioxide in water and then in a conical reactor 7 with a nozzle made of inert aggregate (gravel, expanded clay) with a grain size of 10-20 mm In the lower part of the reactor 7 by a pump 8 from the tank 9 is supplied lime water with the concentration of calcium hydroxide at 1.17-1.22 g/l (Avivamiento. Mineral binders. - M.: stroiizdat, 1986, pp.92). In the preparation of lime water is used or the source in the well, any water supplied from the filter treatment stage 10 centrifugal pump 11, which enters the bottom of the tank 9 and passing through the layer of backfill (cassette) of calcium hydroxide, saturated with them. Contact lime water with water saturated with carbon dioxide, the reactor 7 the following reactions occur:


Mg(HCO3)2+Ca(OH) 2=CaCO3MgCO3+2H2O;(5)

Fe(HCO3)2+Ca(OH)2=CaCO3+FeCO3+2H2O; (6)


H2SiO3+Ca(OH)2=CaOSiO22H2 O.(8)

When the reactions (4-8) are formed practically insoluble in water connection: calcite CaCO3dolomite CaCO3·MgCO3, siderite FeCO3, manganese carbonate MPMs3and hydrosilicate calcium CaO·SiO2·2H2O. In the same way, the formation of other metal ions which are present in the source water.

Water from the reactor 7 enters the settling tank 12, in which the result of the process of spontaneous coagulation (autocomplete), is the clarification of water. The clarified water flows to the filter treatment stage 10 filled with a neutral nozzle (quartz sand, shale, polypropylene wool, crushed burnt and zeolitic rocks), and then filter the second stage of filtration 13 filled with a weakly basic nozzle, which is used to draw the green strip brucite Mg(OH) 2with a grain size of 3-10 mm Purified water enters the tank 14, where the centrifugal pump 15 is fed into the water system clean drinking water.

An example of execution.

The proposed method is tested when cleaning well water iron concentration of 5.6 mg/l, manganese 0.18 mg/l, organic humic substances 3,8 MgO2/l and silica 20 mg/l at pH 7.5 ą 0.2. 200 ml of water with a temperature of 15°C were placed in a glass beaker with a tight lid, equipped with a stirrer (500 rpm) and a pipe for feeding directly into the water of carbon dioxide from a cylinder at 0.05 to 0.15 MPa. The saturation of water with gas was carried out for 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes After water saturation with carbon dioxide, water was poured from the mixer into the glass, which was primevals lime water in the ratio 2:1. After prilipanie lime water to water saturated with carbon dioxide, was observed in all cases, the formation of turbidity, which in 5-10 min were combined into flakes due to autocomplete, and after additional mixing, sedimentation sediment and sedimentation filtration on a single-layer paper filter. The resulting filtrate was determined the content of impurities of iron, manganese, silicon, and organic matter. All data on the initial water saturation with carbon dioxide and impurities after neutralization with lime water are presented in the table, the analysis to the second allows to draw the following conclusions:

the concentration of carbon dioxide dissolved in water depends on the pressure of the injected gas and the time of contact of water with carbon dioxide;

satisfactory results for the saturation water CO2obtained by pressure of CO2more than 0.1 MPa for 5-10 min;

- the contents of the designated impurities in the water after treatment does not exceed the MPC values.

Great value in the proposed method of water treatment has pre-saturation of the water with carbon dioxide, causing the water becomes acidic properties, which are dissolved colloidal organic particles and due to this there is the destruction of these particles. The neutralization process such water lime water is accompanied by the formation of first nano-particles are then combined into flakes, which are not soluble in water and have high adsorption ability. All these facts confirm the high effectiveness of the proposed method of water purification, which cannot be achieved by using a number of known ways. The proposed method of water purification is simple to implement, does not require the use of scarce reagents, and the resulting precipitates are environmentally friendly carbonates of various metals. The method can be used to supply drinking water to a small inhabited the s points, camps in Siberia and the Far North.

The method of purification of natural waters
The pressure of CO2, MPaThe time of saturation of water with CO2, minThe concentration of CO2in water, mg/lThe pH of the waterThe content of impurities after cleansing water, mg/l
Iron (MPC=0.3 mg/l)Manganese (MCL=0.1 mg/l)Silicon (MCL=10 mg/l)Organics (TLV=5 mg O2/l)
31605,80,80,11of 17.52,9
0,0552505,1 0,250,0712,52,7
103404,60,220,05to 12.02,5
the 11405,80,820,1216,22,8
5340the 4.70,180,059,82,0

1. The method of purification of natural waters, including oxidation, neutralization and the two-stage filtering, characterized in that the oxidation with simultaneous translation impurities in a soluble state was carried out with a solution of carbonic acid, obtained in the initial water saturation with carbon dioxide, and neutralization of the resulting compounds is conducted with a solution of calcium hydroxide with the concentration is on 1-1,3 g/l, followed by the first residue in the sump and filter with neutral backfilling, and then on the filter with weakly basic filling.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the initial water saturation with carbon dioxide produced by its filing in the suction pipe of a centrifugal pump when the pressure of carbon dioxide more than 0.1 MPa.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as the base of the backfill in the second stage filtering is used brucite Mg(OH)2with a grain size of 3-10 mm


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