Complex water treatment method
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment and particularly to complex water treatment. Raw water is first passed through a module of centrifugal filters 3 with electromagnetic elements, after which the water is fed into a storage container 4 while simultaneously adding a chlorine-containing preparation obtained an electrolysis cell 15 via electrolysis of table salt; the water is the fed onto an array of hollow-fibre ultrafilters 8, after which the water undergoes final treatment on a photocatalytic column 11 based on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and ultraviolet radiation in a bactericidal module 16.
EFFECT: use of the disclosed method increases efficiency of the complex water treatment equipment one and half times without increasing dimensions thereof and operational life at least two-fold.
The invention relates to water purification, and more specifically to means of complex water treatment.
A method of processing water (see RF patent №0002247078, the registration number of the application of the Russian Federation No. 200318649 from 24.06.2003, CL 7 02F 1/46), including simultaneous water purification, disinfection, neutralization and decontamination.
The disadvantages of this method of water purification is the limited ability of cleaning vysokomernoy water and low reliability of its clearance from the spore forms of microorganisms and neutralization from highly toxic substances (VP).
There is also known a method of integrated water treatment, implemented in the "water treatment plant" (prototype - see RF patent №2430893, the registration number of the application of the Russian Federation No. 2010111954/05 on 29.03.2010, CL 7 02F 9/02, 02F 1/28), comprising a pump source water, the battery hollow fibre ultrafilters, line exhaust concentrate, line drainage of the filtrate, tank leachate pump filtrate, the sorption filter, sterilizing device and the unit.
The shortcoming is the low efficiency of shading ultrafilters and, as a consequence, the short period between regenerations and the progressive reduction of plant capacity, and the lack of a high service life of the sterilizing device.
The claimed invention is directed to solved the e tasks increase mezhregionalnogo cycle ultrafilters and the station as a whole and increase its performance.
The solution of the stated problem is achieved by the fact that the treatment of the water before the battery hollow fibre ultrafilters install the module centrifugal filters with electromagnetic elements, and sterilizing the device replaced photocatalytic column based on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide, ultraviolet germicidal module and the cell.
The use of the proposed method of integrated water treatment will allow without compromising the quality of granted water to increase the period between regenerations and resource work station at least twice and to improve the performance of not less than one and a half times.
The invention is illustrated by the drawing, which shows a schematic diagram of the proposed method of integrated water treatment, including the following key elements:
1 - intake device; 2, 5, 9, 14 centrifugal pumps; 3 - module centrifugal filters with electromagnetic elements; 4, 10, 13 - accumulation vessel; 6 - line wash water discharge; 7 - automatic washing system battery hollow fibre ultrafilters; 8 - battery hollow fibre ultrafilters; 11 - photocatalytic column; 12 - adsorber; 15 - electrolyzer; 16 - ultraviolet germicidal module; 17 - line issue of safe drinking water; 18 - line submission hlorosoderzhashie.
In the proposed method of processing water goes through several stages of refinement.
Water from surface or underground source through the intake device 1 is fed by a pump 2 pressure in the block centrifugal filters 3, rotating in the electromagnetic field due to jets of water. Filter 3 is the water purification from suspended particles, and partial purification from microorganisms and toxic substances (S). Then, water is supplied to the accumulating tank 4, while the flow is supplied chlorine-containing preparation obtained by electrolysis of salt. Next, the pump 5 water is supplied to the battery ultrafilters 8, where the final purification from suspended particles to turbidity not exceeding the requirements for drinking water quality (not more than 1.5 mg/DM3).
At the same time on the battery ultrafilters 8 is a partial disinfection, neutralization and decontamination water. With battery ultrafilters 8 water is supplied to the photocatalytic column 11 and partially the holding tank 10. Water collected in the storage tank 10, is designed for washing battery ultrafilters 8 by means of pump 9 and the automatic washing system 7 battery ultrafilters 8. On photocatalytic column 11 is the final purification of water from organic compounds, bacteria is, viruses and their products, after which the water is supplied to the adsorber 12, where her final cleaning OV, VP and radioactive substances. Clean water flows into the accumulation tank 13 and the pump 14 is fed to ultraviolet germicidal module 16, where her final disinfection. Output stream 18 is injected chlorine-containing preparation from cell to conserve issued by the water.
The method of complex treatment of water comprising passing the water through a battery of hollow fiber ultrafilters and sorption filter, characterized in that the source water previously passed through the module centrifugal filters with electromagnetic elements, and then served in cumulative capacity with simultaneous feed water chlorine-containing preparation obtained in the electrolytic cell by the electrolysis of salt, then the water is fed to the battery hollow fibre ultrafilters, and then perform the final treatment on the photocatalytic column based on nanocrystalline titanium dioxide and ultra-violet radiation in the germicidal module.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for purification of natural waters at production of drinking water. Clarification is made by forcing water through the layer of foam bricks or foamed polystyrene while filtration is performed by forcing this water through quartz sand with grain size of 0.3-1.5 mm and gravel of 2-32 mm grains. Sorption is made on granulated activated carbon with grain size of 0.5-5 mm to decontaminate initial water by primary chlorination with sodium hypochlorite containing up to 19% of active chlorine in amount of 0.9-1.3 mg/l. Then, water is processed by polarisation current of carbon-graphite electrode self-organisation in aluminium oxyhydrate medium for 50 minutes and by aluminium sulphate in amount of 1.8-2.5 mg/l and flocculating agent POLYDADMAX, series FLOQUAT FL 45 in amount of 0.1-0.4 mg/l. Now, secondary chlorination is performed by sodium hypochlorite containing up to 19% of active chlorine in amount of 3-5 mg/l.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of purification and quality of drinking water, non-polluting process.
1 dwg, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied at thermal power plants. Method includes clarification filtration and deep demineralisation of blowdown water flow before utilisation, supply of additional water into circulating system and its preliminary demineralisation by reagent decarbonisation and sodium-cation exchange in alkaline medium, water demineralisation by sodium-cation exchange in the mode of primary and secondary cation exchange, prevention of continuous emission into atmospheric air of phenol from composition of circulating water in the process of its evaporation cooling and bactericidal processing of additional water flow by polyhexamethylene guanidine derivative. Blowdown water after clarification filtration is subjected to short-wave ultraviolet irradiation and is separated into two flows. One flow is processed with lime to pH=9.0-10.5, is demineralised by sodium-cation exchange in the mode of secondary cation exchange and directed to heating system feed. The other flow if successively subjected to deep demineralisation by sodium-cation exchange in the mode of secondary cation exchange, to primary and secondary reverse-osmosis filtering.
EFFECT: method ensures exclusion of uncontrolled emission of phenol into atmosphere in the process of evaporation cooling of blowdown water and growth of its corrosion activity, reduction of consumption of reagents for ensuring safety of blowdown water in circulatory cooling system of thermoelectric power plant and obtaining highly demineralised water.
2 cl, 17 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: inventions can be used in treating water at slaughter houses and meat processing plants. Slaughter house and meant processing plant waste water is subjected to mechanical, chemical and biological treatment. Before each treatment step, the waste water is treated with a pulsed magnetic field. The mechanical treatment step employs a fat trap having a reinforced concrete housing with the shape of a parallelepiped, having a slanting bottom (20) with vertical walls (21, 22), on top of which a detachable ceiling (23) is mounted. A detachable bottom ceiling (24) is mounted under the top ceiling (23) at a distance of at least 30 cm. One of the vertical walls adjoins a box (25) for cleaning the fat trap with hot water, steam or mechanically. A pipe for feeding waste water (28) lies opposite the box (25) on the vertical wall (21). A waste water inlet opening (27) lies in the bottom part of the housing next to an emergency valve (26). Vibrators (30, 31) are mounted on one of the vertical walls and at the bottom of the housing.
EFFECT: inventions increase efficiency of trapping fatty components of slaughter house and meat processing plant waste water, reduce microbe content by 17% and the coliform index by 25%.
2 cl, 2 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used in production of textile materials for fine purification of waste water from dyes. Method is realised by treating dyed waste water, which contains dyes cationic red 2S, direct pure blue, with UV radiation with wavelength 186-254 nm in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in concentration of 1-5 mg/l. Treatment is carried out together with ultrasound with power of 0.2-0.5 W/cm2 at a frequency of 35-47 kHz.
EFFECT: method increases the degree of fine purification of waste water from dyes and cuts the treatment time while reducing the amount of hydrogen peroxide and providing simultaneous purification from surfactants.
1 dwg, 2 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to automatic control multistage water treatment for provision population with adequate drinking water at separate territorial sections, particularly, multistory apartment houses, supermarkets, hospitals, etc. Proposed plant comprises inlet flow gage 2, initial water conductivity transducer 4, pre-filtration unit 5, concentrate circulation pipeline 6, permeate circulation pipeline 7, booster pump 8, magnetic treatment unit 10, reverse osmosis unit 11, permeate conductivity transducer 14, permeate flow gage 12, set 16 of temperature and pressure gages, solenoid valve 17 incorporated with reverse osmosis unit pulsed flushing, electrolytic tank with silver electrodes 13, accumulator tank 19, main pump 23, postfilter unit 24, UV steriliser 25, plant controller 28.
EFFECT: efficient treatment, automated control over water purification, expanded treatment performances.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for purification and disinfection of sewage water of small and medium-size enterprises, municipal organisations, settlements and housing estates with productivity of about 1-10 m3/hour. In order to realise the method processing of continuous water flow is performed with electron ray with energy 300-500 keV, pulse duration 20-50 ns, density of electron pulse current 5-300 A/cm2 and pulse repetition rate from single pulses to 100 pulse/s. In preferable versions of method sewage water is preliminarily saturated with oxygen, or oxygen in mixture with other gases, with formation of aerosol flow. In addition, saturation with oxygen or oxygen in mixture with other gases is carried out by blowing air through water.
EFFECT: method is characterised by increase of power by 103-105 times of absorbed dose without significant increase of electron energy in ray and ensures disinfection and purification of sewage water from inorganic and organic compounds, such as phenols, crude oil products, surface-active substances.
4 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of reused and intake waters, effluents, process fluids, etc, and may be used in metal working and metallurgical plants. Proposed plant comprises mixing tank made up of, at least, three communicated sections. Said sections are equipped with reagent, coagulant and aqueous magnetic fluid feed dispensers. Said tank is communicated with flocculator tank with flow magnetic separator inlet. Proposed plant comprises also vessel for magnetic fluid, cleaned water vessel and extracted product collection vessel. Note here that fluid feed pump is communicated with coarse filter communicated in its turn with mixing tank. Magnetic separator is connected with extracted product collection vessel and that for water suspension of flocculated magnetic slime. Self-cleaning filter is connected with cleaned water tank and extracted product collection vessel. Note also that mixing tank and flocculator tank are furnished with electric mixers.
EFFECT: higher quality of cleaning, power savings.
SUBSTANCE: waste water is treated with pulsed high-voltage discharges with simultaneous saturation of the water with air and subsequent purification on granular filters in the presence of a coagulant. A xanthogenate-containing substance is added to the treated water along with the coagulant. The cobalt xanthogenate residue is extracted by deposition, the obtained water is fed into a plasma-chemical reactor and the elementary bromine formed is separated in a degasifier. Demanganisation of water is carried out by filtering in a rapid electrochemical filter with a natural calcite bed. Manganese hydroxides are extracted from the flush water of the electrochemical filter via deposition. The wet residue containing cobalt xanthogenates, together with the coagulant, is fed the reactor by an air counter current from the degasifier containing elementary bromine. The residue formed in the reactor is taken for dehydration and the purified water is fed into a pure water reservoir, decontaminated with ultraviolet radiation and then fed into the recycled water supply system of an enterprise or for discharge.
EFFECT: increase in degree of purification of water purified from cobalt, manganese and bromine to the required maximum allowable concentration.
3 tbl, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to produce and burn hydrogen from salty water or salt-containing solutions, for evaporation of secondary fuel present in salt-containing solutions, for desalination of sea and salty water, for producing steam and for producing hydrogen from salty water. The method of treating a solution of water and ions involves use of a radio frequency (RF) device to transmit energy of a transmitted RF signal to the treated solution, wherein water is decomposed and combustible hydrogen gas is formed and then burnt. The device has a RF generator (102) configured to generate a RF signal for transmission from a transmitting head (104) to a receiving head (112) and transmitting the RF signal with phase shift from the transmitting head to the receiving head, having sufficient power for burning the combustible gas. The position of the transmitting (104) and receiving (112) heads is regulated relative the solution so that the transmitted RF signal interacts with at least a portion of the solution. The coupling circuit (116) which connects the RF generator (102) and the transmitting head (104) is configured to increase voltage of the RF signal and contains at least one inductance coil meant for shifting the current and voltage phases of the RF signal relative each other. The RF signal is transmitted over a period of time sufficient for decomposition of at least a portion of the solution.
EFFECT: invention enables to use heat from burning volatile components obtained from solutions containing salty water.
26 cl, 26 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water quality improvement processes and may be used for preparation of drinking water or in food industry. Initial from the well is cleaned of suspended particles and dissolved organic substances, and subjected to softening and filtration by system of separate filters with the following media: first filter with medium of clay loam with loamy sand bands, second filter with fine quartz sand, third filter with brown clay with inclusions of gravel and pebble stone, fourth filter with subclay quartz sand, fifth filter with crushed clay siltstone, sixth filter with green-light-gray clay with gravel, seventh filter with crushed green-gray siltstone, and eighth filter with quartz sand. Then, waster is forced through ninth candle ceramic filter, decontaminated in UV steriliser and fed to outlet.
EFFECT: simplified production and higher efficiency.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to applied electrochemistry and can be used in medicine, as well as in cosmetology for sterilisation and disinfection. The method of activating water includes electrolysis thereof between two electrodes - an anode and a cathode, separated by a porous diaphragm, between which voltage is applied. The anode and the cathode are made from fine schungite with particle size of 10-50 mcm, placed in an envelope of fine-pore linen fabric or fabric made of cotton, and a graphite or schungite rod inserted into the fine schungite. Said envelope is attached to the rod, wherein the pore size of said envelope is not greater than the schungite particle size. The graphite or schungite anode rod, which is inserted into the schungite fine powder, is connected output terminals of the positive terminal of the voltage source; the graphite or schungite cathode rod, which is inserted into the schungite fine powder, is connected to the negative terminal of the voltage source, wherein ultrasonic vibrations whose frequency is higher than the cavitation threshold in the range from 20 kHz to 100 kHz are excited in the electrodes and the electrolysis cell, wherein intensity of said ultrasound lies in the stable cavitation range of 1.5 W/cm2 to 2.5 W/cm2.
EFFECT: method intensifies the process of producing schungite-activated water, improves purity thereof and enhances antiseptic properties of the anolyte.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemical industry and power engineering and can be used in treatment of industrial and household wastes. The vortex layer apparatus has a removable cartridge (2) made of nonmagnetic material with inserts of ferromagnetic material, mounted in the active area of a pipe (4). The cartridge (2) is a cylinder whose ends are closed by swirl diffusers with blades (7) which overlap with each other, inside of which there is a rod (9). There are ferromagnetic particles inside the reaction chamber (6). An electromagnetic inductor (1) creates a rotating magnetic field in the working area.
EFFECT: invention improves efficiency and the quality of treating a liquid and simplifies operation of the apparatus.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment at boilers and heat exchangers to remove scaling. Proposed device comprises inductors 4 arranged around pipeline 5 and made of diamagnetic material and connected to electromagnetic pulse generators. Every inductor 4 is composed of turns of electrically isolated wire 6. Electronic control unit 1 comprises two galvanically isolated four-channel electromagnetic pulse generators 2, 3 to generate forward and reverse signals. One end of wire 6 of every inductor 4 is connected to one output 8 of every said generator 2. Second end 9 of wire 6 of every inductor 4 is connected to appropriate outlet 10 of another generator of electromagnetic pulses.
EFFECT: efficient descaling, application at large-diameter pipes.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus for reagentless purification and disinfection of water comprises two hydraulic cyclones 20, 21, a reactor tank 1 with an air-stripping tower 2, in the top part of which there are two ejectors 3, 4, mixing chambers of which are directed towards each other. Over the mixing chambers there is a cupola-shaped reflection shield 5, over which there is a filter cartridge 8. The reactor tank 1 is divided by two vertical perforated partition walls 9, 10 into two compartments. The first compartment 12 of the reactor tank 1 contains a settling tank 15 linked to a drainage system. The second compartment 13 of the reactor tank 1 is equipped with upper 17 and lower 18 water level sensors. The outlet of the reactor tank 1 is connected to the feed line of the water to be treated and a pipe for feeding water to the consumer. The hydraulic cyclones 20, 21 are connected to the feed line of the water to be treated and the drainage system, and through mesh filters 22, 23 to inlets of receiving chambers of the ejectors 3, 4.
EFFECT: invention increases the water/air contact area and provides further dispersion, cavitation, agitation, aeration and degassing of the treated water.
9 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: composition is also used to soften and desalinate process water, in production of synthetic detergents, in the paint industry and industry of polymer materials. The composition for producing cation-exchange fibre material consists of paraphenol sulphonic acid, formalin, basalt wool subjected to preliminary heat treatment for 1 hour at 350-450°C and microwave treatment at radiation power of 750 W for 30 s, and further contains phenol resin - a phenol production waste. The composition contains, wt %: paraphenol sulphonic acid 48.4-54.4, formalin 35.3, heat- and microwave-treated basalt wool 9.1, phenol resin 1.2-7.2.
EFFECT: composition enables synthesis of cation-exchange fibre material with an improved set of properties, particularly higher static exchange capacity and low filtrate oxidation susceptibility, and solves the problem of recycling phenol resin.
2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption treatment of waste water. Disclosed is a method of reducing concentration of barium in water. The method includes preparing aqueous manganese oxide and mixing with barium-containing water. At pH higher than 4.8, aqueous manganese oxide acquires a negative charge and barium is adsorbed on the negatively charged surface. Manganese oxide with barium adsorbed on its surface is mixed with a flocculant. A treated output stream of water with low barium concentration is obtained after separating the formed sludge.
EFFECT: invention provides a simple technique of removing barium from waste water.
25 cl, 9 dwg, 5 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial waste water treatment. Modified natural zeolite is used for treatment. The natural zeolite is modified with a solution of hexamethyldisilazane in toluene. The modified zeolite is dried successively in open air and in a muffle furnace at temperature of 110°C.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain modified zeolite having zinc sorption capacity of 95 mg/g and nickel sorption capacity of 94 mg/g.
3 cl, 4 ex
FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to removal of spilled oil products from sea or lake surfaces. Absorbent, for example, peat-moss is delivered by whatever transport facility to oil spillage. Said absorbent is sprayed thereto and there above. Said peat-moss absorbs oil phase and separates it from water phase. Obtained with oil encapsulated in peat pores is collected and processed. Absorbent delivery package is composed by bag wherein said peat-moss is compacted and twisted. Said package comprises blast charge intended for its breaking to release absorbent therefrom. Absorbed oil products are collected by means of partially immersed ship drag-net, or slick bars, or oil collectors or pumps. Then, peat-moss with absorbed oil is processed to separate water mechanically or said peat is placed in bags and stored for delivery to shore for further processing.
EFFECT: perfected procedure, improved and simplified processing.
14 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: physics, acoustics.
SUBSTANCE: invention is used to protect underwater structures and equipment from biofouling. The method includes, at the output of a bypass channel, generating and emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals which act on fish and change their behavioural characteristics; simultaneously emitting noise signals and creating a dense air-bubble screen which rises on the surface of biofouling and impurities. The air-bubble screen and the noise acoustic waves are additional barriers for aggregation of fish near the output of the bypass channel with superheated water. A floating boom is turned on the water surface to form a continuous barrier for biofouling and impurities rising to the surface, which are then collected in form of dirty foam. A mobile system equipped with acoustic radiators is used to forcefully move the aggregation of fish - natural predators for biofouling, from a remote part of a water body to a region adjacent to a supply channel by continuously emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals. Simultaneously, a second acoustic module and a second acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for fish - natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield in the narrowest part of the water body. Recycled water being cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities and fish are not released from this part of the water body. Simultaneously, a third acoustic module and a third acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for juvenile fish- natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield at the input of the supply channel of the facility of the power system. As a result, recycled water cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities. Simultaneously, intense ultrasonic waves and low-frequency electromagnetic waves act on the biofouling at the input of a water-intake window, with simultaneous removal of biofouling from the mechanical protective screen, and at the output of the inlet pipe of the underwater structure. Simultaneously, an acoustic filter mounted at the input of the equipment of the facility of the power system performs fine purification of water from biofouling, as well as biological and mechanical impurities.
EFFECT: high quality of purification and reliability of protecting underwater structures and equipment from biofouling.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption extraction of caesium radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The method of extracting caesium radionuclides includes filtering an aqueous solution through a selective sorbent which is iron-potassium ferrocyanide on a support, desorption of caesium from the sorbent with an alkaline solution containing Trilon B and potassium oxalate. The eluate obtained from desorption is further filtered through a sorbent which is nickel-potassium ferrocyanide.
EFFECT: faster caesium extraction and minimal volume of obtained concentrate containing caesium radionuclides.
1 tbl, 2 ex
FIELD: devices for purification of household and industrial sewage.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with devices for purification of household and industrial sewage and intended for electrical and cavitational treatment of sewage containing a large quantity of organic compounds. The device for purification of sewage consists of a body made out of a dielectric material partitioned by diaphragms for two electrode chambers and one working chamber, that contains a filtering material. The electrode chambers have cavitational field sources installed and the working chamber is supplied with a the bubbler installed in it. The technical result consists in an increase of recuperation of the filtering material at the expense of application of a cavitational field to it, decrease of the microbiological semination, and an increase of cavitational effect on particles.
EFFECT: the invention ensures an increase of the filtering material recuperation, decreased microbiological semination and increased the cavitational effect on particles.