Method to produce machine parts with obtaining submicro- and nanostructured state of diffused near-surface layer at nitriding

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building, in particular, to the methods for the improvement of mechanic properties of near-surface layers of machine parts from iron-base alloys with obtaining submicro- or nanostructured state of diffused layers. The method involves assembling a package of alternating steel plates with different chemical composition, vacuumisation and heating of the package, hot deformation of the package in height under the temperature whose value falls between the temperature values of polymorphous transformation of both alloys, after the hot deformation the workpieces of parts are cut out of the package so that the direction of interlayer borders in the part workpiece coincides with the direction of the nitrogen diffusion flux during nitriding that follows, then nitriding is carried out to obtain submicro- and nanostructured state of diffused near-surface layer on the part surface.

EFFECT: method allows for the improvement of mechanical properties of material's near-surface layers formed in the course of nitriding and, respectively, longer service life of parts.

9 dwg, 1 ex

 

The technical field

The invention relates to mechanical engineering, in particular to a method of improving the mechanical properties of the surface layers of machine parts made of alloys based on iron with getting submicro - or nanostructured state diffusion layers.

The level of technology

For acceleration of diffusion processes in the surface layer and create a reasonably effective diffusion surface layer known methods of preliminary processing of the material alloy based on iron. In particular, there is a class of methods of chemical-heat treatment (HTO), based on known patterns, the relationship of the speed of diffusion processes in saturated layers to the nature of their structure and deformation) stated in several sources (see Geguzin AE Diffusion area. M.: Nauka, 1979, 344 C.). For example, in the specified source figures to increase by several orders of magnitude of the diffusion coefficient depending on the condition of dislocation grids and grids grain boundaries of the alloy based on iron (steel). Therefore, to accelerate and increase the diffusion in many ways HTO as a preliminary preparation use the plastic deformation, leading to an increase in the dislocation density and the grinding of grains and increase the total area of grain boundaries in the alloy structure.

T is to, technical solution contained in the patent of Russian Federation №2291227 (IPC C23F 17/00, C23C 8/26, C21D 1/72, publ. 10.01.2007), involves carrying out before saturating process of nitriding (as HTO) pre-treatment consisting of the following operations: normalizing, tempering, quenching, tempering, machining, stabilizing vacation, and then nitriding at a temperature of 530°C for 1.5...30 h and diazotoluene within 0,4 1,5 hours...

This method allows to increase wear resistance and reduce the fragility of the near-surface layers of steel, however, the values of the mechanical properties of the surface have a fairly large scatter (according to the description of the patent it is not less than 15%), and the process of nanostructuring in the diffusion zone does not occur.

However, obtaining submicro - or nanostructured state of the surface layer not only improves the mechanical properties, but also, as mentioned above, due to the increase in the dislocation density and increase the total area of grain boundaries significantly accelerates and facilitates the diffusion, i.e. increases the efficiency of HTO. To obtain submicro - and nano-structured state of the surface layers, there are various kinds of advanced processing.

One of the most effective methods is ultrasonic treatment (RCD), as voltage is emer, this is described in the patent JP 4112952(B2), publ. 02.07.2008 (also publ. in IMS 2009, No. 7, Vol. 47, s-23). In this technical solution in the surface layers of metallic material is formed nanostructured state, but in the future WHO is not performed.

Ouzo as a technique for obtaining nanostructured state before HTO is used in the technical solution, which is a method of surface hardening of steel products (article: Passes O., Panin A.V., siniakova E.A. Peculiarities of the surface hardening 12Cr ferritic-martensitic steel by combination of ion-plasma nitriding and ultrasonic treatment. The journal "Physics and chemistry of materials processing". 2012, No. 3, s.43-50), including hardening (heat treatment), ouzo (machining) and plasma nitriding process (a special case HTO). As a result of experiments it has been observed that in the surface layer of steel subjected to quenching and ouzo (joint thermomechanical processing) prior to nitriding, forming a nanocrystalline structure. However, when after quenching and ouzo was conducted nitriding, the nanostructuring of the surface layers of steel was gone. As the authors state, the temperature of the nitriding apparently has a significant influence on the microstructure and, consequently, on the mechanical properties of not only the surface layer but also the entire volume of the and material, - this is due to the processes of recrystallization, leading to grain growth during prolonged thermal exposure.

However, there are types of thermo-mechanical processing, the effects of which on the structure of the surface layers is more resistant to HTO compared with the processing of ouzo. The known method of producing metal sheets with a stable submicro - and nano-structure, including dimensional cutting blanks from sheets, processing their surface, the Assembly cut sheets per package, vacuum and heating package, plastic deformation of the joint to hot rolling (hot pressure treatment) package height, where the blanks are often used interchangeably successive sheets of alloys based on a metal having a different structure of the lattices in the temperature range of hot rolling, hot rolling is carried out at a temperature between the temperature values of polymorphic transformations of both alloys, the result is a multilayer metal sheets layered with submicro - and nanoscale structure, stable interlayer boundaries (RF patent No. 2380234, publ. 27.01.2010).

This method allows to obtain a stable structure due to the fact that grain boundaries in the resulting materials are laminar boundary if the tov blanks, join the joint rolling, and individual sheets have different structure of crystal lattices, which continues after thermomechanical processing. However, to use these techniques to further improve the mechanical properties of surface layers of materials necessary additional operations that are used in the proposed new technical solution.

Disclosure of inventions

The task of the invention is a significant enhancement of the mechanical properties of the surface layers of the material resulting from the chemical heat treatment (nitriding or carburizing), and a corresponding increase in durability of parts of the material with the same composition of the surface layer.

The technical effect is achieved by the fact that in the proposed method of improving the mechanical properties of the surface layers of machine parts using thermomechanical and thermochemical processing of obtaining submicro - and nano-structured state diffusion layer as a preliminary (before HTO) thermomechanical processing and harvesting details use methods of obtaining a multilayer metal sheets with a stable submicro - and nano-structure, including dimensional cutting of workpieces sheets, processing their surface, the Assembly cut sheets per package, in coumarouna and heating package, plastic deformation by hot rolling package height, where the blanks are often used interchangeably successive sheets of alloys based on a metal having a different structure of the lattices in the temperature range of hot rolling, hot rolling is carried out at a temperature between the temperature values of polymorphic transformations of both alloys, the next of these multilayer sheets cut parts with such orientation of their working surfaces relative to the direction of diffusion flow in the subsequent final HTO to the direction of this diffusion flux in the surface layer coincides with the direction of laminar interlayer boundaries multilayer material details.

The main difference of the proposed method of treatment is that the formation of the diffusion layer on the surface of the workpiece in the process of HTO is due to the presence of pre-formed oriented multi-layer laminar structure and depending on the thickness of the sub-micron or micron layers.

List of drawings

Figure 1 - scheme of cutting gears of the multilayer sheet.

Figure 2 is a schematic depiction oriented structure of the crown gears (a) and an electronic image of the real structure of laminar the layers of the multilayer metal material composition 08X18H10+08X18 (b).

3 - microstructure of real multilayer material having a laminar structure layers (composition 081810+40H13): (a) optical image of the microstructure; (b) an electronic image of the microstructure.

4 - microstructure of nitrided at HTO surface layer steel 081810 - control sample (limnogeology), the thickness of the nitrided surface layer 130 microns.

5 - microstructure of nitrided at HTO near-surface layer of the multilayer sample composition 081810+H, the thickness of the laminar layer of the multilayer material 100 μm, the thickness of the nitrided surface layer of 150 μm.

6 - microstructure of nitrided at HTO near-surface layer of the multilayer sample composition 08X18H10+08X18, preferential penetration of nitrogen at HTO on borders between the laminar layers of the multilayer material.

7 - microstructure of nitrided at HTO near-surface layer of the multilayer sample composition 08X18H10+08X18, the thickness of the laminar layer of the multilayer material 20 μm, the thickness of the nitrided surface layer 200 microns.

Fig - microstructure of nitrided at HTO near-surface layer of the multilayer sample composition 081810+H, the thickness of the laminar layer laminated material 2 μm, the thickness of the nitrided surface layer 300 microns.

Fig.9 - mi is restructure nitrided at HTO layer in a multilayer sample composition 081810+H, the thickness of the laminar layer laminated material 2 μm, the thickness of the nitrided surface layer of 300 μm. Illustration of the preferential penetration of nitrogen on the boundary between the laminar layers.

The implementation of the invention

Method of improving the mechanical properties and increasing the thickness of the diffusion surface layer when conducting HTO nitriding is provided through the use of multi-layer metal blanks with regular laminar microstructure layers for parts subjected to surface saturation HTO (figure 1). The use of such a structure can be illustrated on the example of the crown gears exposed to HTO (figure 2). With this arrangement, large angle boundaries is observed preferential accelerated penetration of the alloying elements at HTO on the interlayer boundary laminar layers of the multilayer material. Note that depending on the thickness of the original sheet workpiece and the intensity of their joint thermomechanical processing (joint hot rolling) is achieved or that the thickness of the laminar layers, including submicron condition (figure 3).

Example

Gas nitriding (view HTO) was carried out on multilayer samples obtained from steels 08X18H10+08X18 having different structure, first of all on the thickness of the laminar who Loew multilayer material.

All samples, including the control (limnogeology) sample steel 08X18H10 with conventional polycrystalline structure, were nitrided in HTO together in one cage (for the 1st time in the same conditions). Mode nitriding: 500°C, the dissociation degree of 20...40% (setting the nitriding gas HTO), the exposure time 45 p.m.

Microstructure and microhardness of the nitrided surface layer was controlled poured into plastic samples after polishing and chemical etching. When this diffusion surface layer was detected, as more dark-colored strip on the border of the sample.

Study of microstructure control (nemegosenda) sample showed (figure 4)that the thickness of the nitrided surface layer corresponds to a known reference and literature and is about 130 μm.

Study of the microstructure of the multilayer samples showed that the depth of surface penetration of nitrogen at HTO depends on the thickness of the laminar layers of the layered structure of the material. It is established that in multilayer samples with an average thickness of the laminar layer is 100 μm, the depth of penetration of the nitrogen is about 150 μm (figure 5). Quite clearly shows the diffusion profile of nitrogen, penetrating both the laminar boundary layer and directly on the core material, the kelp is wow layer. This profile has a different curvature at different layers: steel 08X18H10 - concave meniscus, and steel 08X18 - convex meniscus, which is a consequence of the differing diffusion coefficients of nitrogen in different alloys. Similar diffusion profiles of nitrogen were also found in the study of other compositions, such as compositions, consisting of steel 08X18H10 and u and steel 08X18H10 and 08KP. It should be noted that diffusion on laminar boundary layers goes ahead (6) in comparison with the penetration into the base material of the laminar layer.

Study of microstructure on multilayer samples with an average thickness of the laminar layer of 20 μm, showed that the penetration depth of nitrogen increases and is about 200 μm (Fig.7). Nitriding samples with an average thickness of the laminar layer 0.8 μm leads to a further increase in the nitrided surface layer to the thickness exceeds 300 μm (Fig), and preferential diffusion on laminar boundary layers is maintained (Fig.9).

Measurement of microhardness of the nitrided surface layers of the investigated samples showed that compared with the reference and experimental data, the values increase more than 3 times. If the microhardness of the nitrided surface layer of material with thickness is th 100 μm laminar layers has a value of about 1300 HV, when the average thickness of 0.8 μm laminar layers of the multilayer material, it is from 3000 to 5000 HV.

Research conducted by the method of transmission electron microscopy involving indirect methods of estimating the size, showed that the amount of hardening phases in the surface layer at a given temperature nitriding HTO is from 40 to 70 nm.

Thus, the use of multilayer metallic materials with submicron thickness of the laminar layer, in combination with the nitride nano-particles surface layer, allows for the holding of HTO to increase the values of the mechanical properties (for example, parameter microhardness) of the diffusion surface layer more than 3 times while increasing its thickness more than 2 times.

The method of manufacturing of machine parts with obtaining submicro - and nano-structured state diffusion surface layer by nitriding, including the Assembly of a package of alternating alternating steel plates having different chemical composition, vacuum and heat pack, hot deformation of package height at a temperature between the temperature values of polymorphic transformations of alternating steel plates having different chemical composition, characterized in that after the hot de the information from the package cut billet components with subsequent nitriding direction interlayer boundaries in the procurement of parts, coinciding with the direction of the diffusion flow of nitrogen, followed by nitration with obtaining diffusion surface layer on the workpiece surface with submicro - and nano-structured state.



 

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Method of coating // 2199605
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