Strip mining of minerals including working of ore bodies in contact between ore and capping in sub-benches

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling the vertical wells, charging the latter, placing the charges, short-delay blasting of said wells and selective excavation. Blasting of blocks is performed in bulk. Note here that all three dimensions of blasted block, i.e. width, length and height, are set irrespective of the position of contacts and the number of ore bodies. After block blasting, portion of shotpile is dumped over slope roof with working of the first pass over rock on the side of ore body hanging side. Depending on attitude of ore body in blasted block, selective working of productive bench is performed in two sub-benches with mining in layers.

EFFECT: decreased losses of ore and ore dilution.

1 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in the development of steeply dipping ore deposits with complex structure mineralization.

There is a method of development of ore bodies in the contact zones of ore and overburden podstupeni (No. 2398111 published: 08.04.2009), involving separation of the productive layer in the contact areas on pedoscope height, depending on the angle of inclination of the ore body, his power, and mining with drilling from the side lying flank deposits at a distance from a contact in the horizontal direction corresponding to the minimum area lose triangle ore.

The disadvantage of this method is that it is linked to the performance initially large amount of Stripping from the hanging Boca reservoir with a large thickness of the ore body and does not provide a reduction in the loss of ore during the mining of contact with the side lying flank deposits.

A method of processing blasting blocks (No. 2012806 published 15.05.1994), including development of shattered rocks by providing the possibility of their selective development escavation by changing the contact angle on a consistent with the slope of the ledge upon reaching the value of ore losses and contamination such as when the development is consistent drop of the contact.

The disadvantage of this method is the need to create additional what's blastholes, that increases the cost of production blasting.

The known method of surface mining contiguous sloping aquifers mineral (No. 2062879 published 27.06.1996), including elevation opening the top seam split trench from the hanging side excavator, mining rock triangle between Board cutting trench and the roof of the upper reservoir and the refinement of the upper reservoir, midplate and the underlying layer with a lag in time and space to a depth equal to the depth of the cutting trench with a shipment of rock in the vehicle.

The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of technology development due to the attraction of additional mining equipment. The invention relates to the development of contiguous sloping aquifers and least suitable for the development of steeply dipping ore deposits.

A method of processing blasting blocks (No. 2102598 published 20.01.1998), including excavation of minerals by podstupeni practicing the last benches in forward and backward directions consistently top-down and loading it into a vehicle to improve the quality of extracted mineral, reducing losses and reduce fragmentation by tonkosloinoi his milling.

The disadvantage is the procedure is the necessity to involve in the process additional excavation equipment (cable scrapers), which leads to an increase of production costs of excavation works.

The known method the development of the contact zones (Khokhryakov B.C. Open development of mineral deposits. M.: Nedra, 1982. - 280 C.), at which drilling of wells on the height of the ledge and work out the same layer as the side lying flank, and hanging.

The disadvantage of this method is that it fails to account for the influence of any angle of incidence of the ore body, nor his power, which leads to increased ore losses and dilution.

A method of processing blasting blocks (No. 2012806 published 15.05.1994)adopted for the prototype, including the development of shattered rocks by providing the possibility of their selective development escavation by changing the contact angle on a consistent with the slope of the ledge upon reaching the value of ore losses and contamination such as when the development is consistent drop of the contact.

The disadvantage of this method is the need to create additional blastholes, which leads to an increase of the cost of production blasting.

The technical result is the reduction of ore losses and dilution.

The technical result is achieved by the fact that preparing to rock excavation is mostly gross manner; in accordance with the technologist is her gross blasting all three sizes of exploding block (width, the length and height), or some of them set regardless of the position of contacts and the number of ore bodies; originally shipped part of the collapse of the roof ledge with the sinking of the first zagadki on the breed from the hanging side of the ore body; depending on the conditions of occurrence should provide for the development of a 10-metre mining ledge in two pedostop 5 m and with the division of pedostop height of 5 m; to enhance selective excavation in the development of low-power ore bodies 5-meter photostop can be completed excavation layers 2.5 m

The method is illustrated in figure 1.

Figure 1. Mining slaughter podstupeni. Numbers show the sequence of development.

Split the trench is passed through the ore zone with drilling and blasting operations. The width of the cutting trench H is determined by the parameters used process equipment, as well as the number and consistency of contour ore phone numbers 1-7 (figure 1) shows the sequence of development prepared by the unit, the developing unit in the hanging wall side of the ore body with consistent practice by podstupeni. Projects of massive explosions on Stripping, mining and mining preparatory work developed in accordance with the "Model project for the production of massive explosions".

Blasting ore is x units subject to the minimum disruption of the natural occurrence should be mainly in gross sandwiched environment. When gross blasting all three sizes of exploding block (width, length and height), or some of them set regardless of the position of contacts of different types of rocks based on the total technological considerations. Split blasting is necessary, when it is possible to carry out multi-temporal or selective blasting of ore bodies and rocks.

Multi-row gross short-delay blasting unit can be implemented selected (open) front, sandwiched environment and with a retaining wall of unharvested of blasted rock.

Multi-row blasting in holding environment provides a more complete preservation of the parameters of occurrence of ore bodies after the explosion due to the smaller ratio loosening rocks after the explosion (CR=1,05÷1,2).

At the stage of excavation of ores from jointly exploded complex blocks is accompanied by a separate extraction of the ore for processing at the factory and heap leaching, non-industrial (poor) ore and waste rock. When this ore is carried out under the following main terms:

- blasting rocks and ores are mainly gross way;

- the position of the contact ore-breed" and grades of ore is determined by the geological service by placing pegs on the collapse of the blasted rock;

- excavation of the rock mass in the complex, the bottom is always the direction from the hanging wall side of the ore body to bed, ensuring the lowest losses and dilution of ore. The ore bodies (RT) from lying flank deposits to hanging prohibited;

depending on the conditions of occurrence should provide for the development of the mining ledge in two pedostop 5 m and with the division of pedostop height 5 m To enhance selective excavation in the development of low-power ore bodies 5-meter photostop can be completed excavation layers 2.5 m;

in accordance with the technology of the gross blasting all three sizes of exploding block (width, length and height), or some of them set regardless of the position of contacts and the number of RT based on the required volume of the finished blasted rock;

- originally shipped part of the collapse of the roof ledge, with the sinking of the first zagadki on the breed from the hanging side of RT.

Extraction of ores from jointly exploded complex blocks is accompanied by a separate extraction of the ore for processing at the factory and heap leaching, non-industrial (poor) ore and waste rock.

During separate recess ore-rock sort (separate excavation and loading) is carried out only by the width of the face. During separate recess for the substandard quality of the extracted mineral is achieved: the correct choice of the method, techniques, sorting and mining slaughter, thorough, p is gotowkowy slaughter explosion, installing excavator probably closer to the bottom.

When sorting method with separate drawing of ore and rock, it is advisable to split the bottom to pedoscope height of 4-5 m, the refinement of each of pedostop lead layers height of 2-2,5 meters To ensure regulatory losses and dilution in the given geological conditions, calculate the height of the layer sort.

Separate drawing is achieved by regulation of chip thickness and the degree of filling of the bucket and usually begins with the upper part of the face, provided that the height of the shaft does not exceed the height of the stock of excavator (NC<LF).

Separate seizure is characterized by a distinct notch on the value of the maximum radius decreased excavator width excavation Zachodni with further loading of ores and rocks. The excavation of rock mass can be carried out by EKG or hydraulic, selective extraction can be improved.

The method of open pit mining of mineral deposits, including the development of ore bodies in the contact zones of ore and overburden podstupeni, including the drilling of vertical wells, the loading wells, accommodation charges, short-delay blasting wells, selective development excavator, characterized in that the blasting units produce a gross way, all t and size of exploding block the width, length and height set regardless of the position of contacts and the number of ore bodies, after blasting unit shipped part of the collapse of the roof ledge with the sinking of the first zagadki on the breed from the hanging side of the ore body, depending on the conditions of occurrence of ore bodies exploded in the block selective development of the mining ledge are two pedostop with the subsequent development of their excavation layers.



 

Same patents:
Coal strip mining // 2523246

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises opening of deposit by galleries at quarry unworked edge, working of deposit in blocks with excavation of minerals by chambers, release of crushed mineral to underground openings and bringing it to grass. Note here that deposit is developed by galleries at dividing unworked edge to horizons equal to height of production bench. Charges are laid in gallery blast-holes and wells. Cut opening is produced by blasting blast-hole and well charges of the gallery central group. Rock is excavated and loaded to carries via loading funnels. Blast-hole and well charges are blasted to force the deposit of the gallery flank groups to cut opening. Conical bank of blasted rock is formed, loaded and transported. Deposits of central and two flank directions are developed to isolate prior development zones by quality of mineral stock.

EFFECT: creation of working zone in central and two flank directions at unworked edge at selective working of deposits.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining particularly to openworking of rocks. Zoning is adjusted by registration of changes in thrust and lift engine performances to tie the latter via bucket spatial position in digging cycle for registration of bench bottom quality, granulometric composition and shape of cut rock bulk at transition from near well space to gotten well space. Characteristics of bench bottom working are allowed for by changes in performances of thrust engine at the level of bench bottom. Rock granulometric composition is defined by changes in performances of lift engines at filling and retention of filled bucket. Bulk compactness is defined by changes in performances of lift engine at scooping height registration at transition from gotten near well space to gotten well space.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of zoning and quality of blasting.

4 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: access ramp for trucks in open-pit mine combined with inclined safety berm of open-pit mine includes empty and loaded branches and additional ramps to safety berms of open-pit mine located on side slopes of ramp for trucks. Herewith, empty and loaded branches of access ramp for trucks are separated and located in different half-trenches the bases of which are inclined safety berms of open-pit mine replacing sections of horizontal safety berms of open-pit mine along path of ramp for trucks and interconnected by additional ramps for auxiliary equipment located on side slopes of half-trenches, and additional ramps connecting access ramp for trucks with safety berms of open-pit mine are located at both sides of it.

EFFECT: reduction of quarring costs due to simplification of works for final pit edge formation and reducing volume of excavation removal caused by its through cut for berm of ramp for trucks.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises erection of sludge pond, opening and mining of quarry field. At quarry nonworking board bench located on the side of maximum ground water mark in quarry field contour erected is buttress anti-filtration shield, under the level of ground waters beyond the boundaries the prism of possible collapse of underlying bench, over the entire length of ground water layer. Note here that buttress shield height is defined from mathematical relationship.

EFFECT: lower capital and operating costs.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises excavation of working trench, mounting of transport communications, working of quarry field, excavation of minerals and access rock by benches. Note here that quarry field development is varied out from centre to its flanks while after development of quarry field for angle α between working trench and transport communications to be defined from mathematical relationship. Access rock is dumped into internal dumps located between working trench and transport communications. After complete development of quarry field working trench is elongated and transport communications are installed, cycle being reiterated several times.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises stockpile filling of dumping site stages. Note here that dumping site stage comprising rocks of capping and pasty tails are laid separately towards each other. Note also that pasty tails are laid on slope side Note that stockpile filling of dumping site stages and pasty tails I performed to one horizontal level.

EFFECT: filling of dumping sire stages in single turn, pilling of pasty tails after ore dressing redistribution at inclined base.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves stripping operations performed by longitudinal stripping cuts along the direct system with laying of overburden rock into external dump arranged on upper platform of a non-working open-pit side, at stock-piling of overburden rock to external dump in tiers that are formed along dumping front. Dumping front is arranged at a right angle to an upper edge of a non-working side of the open pit and aligned with movement direction of overburden rock from the working face of longitudinal stripping cut to their dumping place.

EFFECT: reducing overburden rock re-excavation volumes.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of parallel rows of wells, charging them with explosives and their short-delay blasting. This short-delay blasting of radially arranged charges in membrane layers is performed as follows. First row of wells is blasted, the third one from the bench edge. Then, 1 row of wells is blasted with 25 ms delay while 2 rows of wells are last blasted with 50 ms delay. To locate the membrane layers, rock mass is photographed to define the radius of curvature of bench mining block slope by relationship with due allowance for acoustic stiffness of rocks. Weighted average layer-by-layer quantity of systematic fractures per the width of mining block coverage Wc is defined. Weighted average spacing between two adjacent systematic fractures is defined. Degree of crushing and line of resistance at bench bottom are defined. Sums of rock bed depths and strength factor (by Protodyakonov scale) are calculated. Rock strain rate, clamp factor, explosive potential energy and blast efficiency are defined.

EFFECT: maximum development of rock mass, decreased consumption of explosives, higher yield.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: rock loosened by wheel-type miner is dumped by miner discharge arm belt conveyor onto that of self-propelled two-section hopper turn bar. Then, it is dumped into hopper sections rock from under which, with no outage of hopper and miner displacing in synchronism and in parallel, it is dumped cyclically into dump-trucks. Said dump-trucks move along with said hopper at loading.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of mining due to decreased downtime of miners and dump tricks.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes dividing quarry on rows, of which first one is extracted to planned depth with external dump-forming, and extraction of following rows is performed with use of internal dump-forming, placing dug rocks to extracted space of adjacent row with common displacement of dump front with development of mining operations. Second and following rows of quarry are divided on basis of height on extraction levels, extraction of uppermost level is performed with placement of dug rocks in upper dump level of extracted space of adjacent row, using surface transporting communication lines, and during extraction of second extractive level dumping of dump level of inner dump is primarily performed by forming pioneer dump at longitudinal processed edge of quarry, on upper area of which transporting lines are placed and dumping of dump level is performed from there, with descent of mining operations in working area of extractive level profile of upper dump area is altered to provided necessary cargo communications of working horizons of extractive level to dump level, after extraction of extractive level remaining pioneer dump is dug to upper mark of following extractive level, and extraction of following extractive levels is performed analogically, using reformed upper area of pioneer dump.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes cutting steps with varying angles. Angles of double step slopes, different on basis of quarry depth, are formed with consideration of decrease of irregularity parameters with deposit depth, with natural block level of upper horizons and influence from mass explosions and wind erosion of rocks with gradual increase of their steepness until forming of vertical slopes of double steps during additional operations in quarry, while angles of slopes and edge portions on upper horizons in highly fractured rocks may be 50-55°, in rocks of average and non-specific fracture levels - 70-60° and in low-fractured rocks may be 80-85°, and edge portions 60-90 m high in deep portion of quarry with vertical double steps and preventive berms 10 m have slant angle 80-85°.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

6 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth with use of quarry ore chutes with accumulating bunkers, cutting ore chutes with deepening of mining in quarry, crushing ore blocks and pieces from face from bunker walls by explosives, loading ore to railway vehicles, cutting and shutting upper portion of ore chutes at each level when mining approaches there is performed by division on beds and semi-shelves with charges in wells, providing for crushing of rock to needed dimensions and safety of mine walls, and further decrease of pieces size and increasing efficiency of ore chute operation by excluding ore suspension is achieved by use of crushing assembly in form of bowl with plate at base, working as anvil under layer of rock, from where ore mass is self-propelled to bunker, and from there by feeder is sent to crusher and further through intermediate conveyer to main conveyer.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

4 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extracting quarry to planned depth by ore and rocks extraction by displacement of shelves along horizons with transferring to crushing plants, crushing rocks and then delivering them by lifting device to the surface, during extraction of quarry to planned depth at first stage during construction of board at the end of quarry in zone of decrease of power of deposit in stable rocks conveyer rope system is constructed, connected to hoisting machine, to bed with recesses, allowing to raise crushed material to large height at steep angle and with deepening of mining and displacement of crushers to lower horizons conveyer system is extended to provide for optimal transport shoulder for gathering vehicles.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, higher productiveness.

2 cl, 6 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit of mineral resource along its length, extraction of opened rocks in shelves, forming on one of the portions of deposit of forward extracted space reaching planned bottom, moving rocks to external dumps and into extracted space, processing and transporting of mineral resource. Deposit extraction is performed in two directions - perpendicularly to length of deposit with deepening and along length to quarry bottom, while volume of extraction of mineral resource along length is increased and volume of extraction of resources perpendicularly to length is proportionally decreased.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes serial extraction of drifts with placement of opened rocks of drifts in extracted space of previous drifts, continuous combined processes of softening, extraction and movement of rock to dump. Drifts are positioned along cut trench, extraction is performed by adjacent horizontal shavings of face area, rock of each drift is moved by throwing directly to extracted space and compacted in range by realization of kinetic energy of rock.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining industry, applicable for slanting of high benches at development of magmatic deposits of mineral resources by open pit.

SUBSTANCE: the method includes drilling of contour holes for formation of a screening peephole, buffer and breaking holes to a depth corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill, the middle row of breaking holes is made with an incomplete drill, charging of the openings and their blasting, dispatch of the rock, after blasting first of outline openings, for formation of the screening peephole, and then of breaking holes and mucking of the rock, similar operations are performed on the underlying subbench of the lower high bench, at the development of the lower high bench, the development of the upper and lower benches is conducted by doubling of the working subbenches, at the development of the lower subbench of the upper high bench the outline openings are drilled to the whole height of the doubled bench, the buffer openings are drilled at a distance of 12 to 13 diameters of the charge from the outline openings and to a depth at least corresponding to the height of one working subbench with a redrill equal to 6-8 diameters of the charge, the first and last rows of the breaking holes are drilled with a redrill, equal to 4-5 diameters of the charge, and the incomplete drill of the middle row of the breaking holes makes up 7-8 diameters of the charge, after blasting of the buffer and breaking opening and mucking of the rock a crest is formed, from whose surface on the side of the slope outline and buffer openings are drilled, the first ones - to the height of doubled subbenches, and the second ones - to the height at least of one lower working subbench, then the breaking openings to the same height as in the above - and underlying subbenches and for production of a natural protective bank on the upper section of the lower high bench in the section of the berm the formed ridge is liquidated by drilling, charging and blasting of the openings of small diameter and depth.

EFFECT: enhanced stability of high benches on the outline of the open pit.

2 cl, 3 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes opening deposit at distance 150 meters from river and forming of natural filtering wall between river and trench, pumping of water from trench into river, extraction of mineral resource, revegetation of dumps, filling of trench with water, accomplishment of formed water body. Mineral resource is extracted from two serially opened trenches - auxiliary, revegetated as water body, and main, positioned at opposite side of river, and soil from opening of which is used for revegetation of auxiliary trench, while in main trench along whole board on the side of river right beyond mining operations inner dump is formed with width not less than 250 meters and with height at same level with earth surface, water from trenches is fed into river, and then into water body through intermediate collectors, while after forming of water body currents of soil waters between trenches and river are made balanced, balance level is estimated on basis of water levels in auxiliary trench and river.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: mining industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes extraction of quarry to planned depth in stages with construction f boards with parameters, allowed from stability condition, shutting boards, finishing mineral resource massif. Building and shutting of temporary boards during extraction of steep layers of next level after change of order of extraction of opening and ore zones is started after construction and spacing in center of cut of well-like mine with vertical shelves, with parameters, which are provided for by minimal radiuses of rounded edges enough for movement of rock via spiral chutes to surface to outer dumps, with narrowing space towards bottom at level of opened level of deep portion of deposit with lesser total coefficient of opening of stage and finally board is constructed by steep vertical shelves in deep zone.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

1 ex, 10 dwg

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