Apparatus for determining size-quantitative characteristics of particles suspended in water
SUBSTANCE: apparatus includes a means of generating a parallel stream of optical radiation pulses, a means for optical formation of a reference volume with a rectangular cross-section, a means of moving the reference volume, a means of receiving and converting optical radiation into electrical signals and a means of detecting change in the amplitude of electric pulses, equipped with a means of determining the difference between a signal in the absence of pulses and a signal obtained in the presence of pulses, and a means which forms a time interval during pulse detection. The ratio of the dimensions of the sides of the rectangular cross-section of the reference volume is equal to the ratio of the maximum and minimum boundaries of the dimension range of detected particles. The apparatus includes a hydroacoustic estimation channel which consists of a multibeam echo sounder, parametric profile recorder pumping antennae, parametric profile recorder low-frequency receiving antennae, a probing pulse generator, an echo signal receiver, an acoustic signal processing unit, a control and display panel with an interface unit and a network hub, two side-scanning sonar devices whose antennae are mounted on the right and left sides, respectively.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities.
The invention relates to Oceanographic research in the evaluation of the composition of suspended matter in the aquatic environment by measuring the optical characteristics of the mixture as in the samples, and the immersion of the measuring device directly in the test fluid can be used when determining the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water plankton, namely, when receiving information on the spatial and temporal heterogeneities in the distribution of plankton in the water environment in real time, which can be useful in detecting, for example, fish aggregations.
Currently, the method of complex Oceanographic operations gap has emerged between the wide introduction of modern hydrological probe instrumentation and studies of the plankton of the traditional ways in which to determine the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of a twostage process, according to which first conduct the harvest plankton layers (for example: 0-10, 10-25, 25-50, 50-100 m, etc. to the required depth or sampling by the sampler fixed on the horizon, and then executes processing chamber samples under a microscope. This process is extremely time-consuming and, most importantly, can last for a long time - up to several days on a single sample. In addition, the result may find the Xia, the choice of layers or horizons was done incorrectly and the most important features were missing. Of course, this method is no comparison with the use of probes to obtain real-time estimates of the main hydrophysical and hydrochemical parameters of water for 10-20 min to depths of several thousand meters and a depth resolution to a fraction of a meter.
The use of different designs of automatic planktoniella, modifications plankton recorders, underwater photoautomat, technology, underwater television, as well as laboratory studies of plankton using automatic counters and computer engineering is somewhat reduces this gap, but it cannot eliminate it completely. It should be noted that using all the above methods is in principle impossible to obtain information about the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of plankton in real time.
For operational research of the spatial distribution of plankton necessary equipment that allows you to keep score and classification of organisms directly in the water column. From a technical point of view, automated classification of plankton is most appropriate to use different types of sensors, is providing to define some standard morphological and physical characteristics of organisms. It can be size, shape factor, transparency, luminescence, conductivity, sound-reflecting properties, reactions to different stimuli, etc. Most simply defined dimensional-quantitative characteristics of organisms, and they are directly amenable to automated mathematical treatment; there is a sufficient number of studies to determine the biomass of individual organisms according to their length and shape factor. The lack of accurate species classification of organisms there must be offset by the possibility of obtaining in real time the total volumes of information.
In recent time there have been devices for such measurements, based on the use of conductivity or optical sensors. These devices are used in probing or towed mode. Suspended in water, the plankton will be forced to go and pass through a special flow channel cross-section 1-3 cm2that is part of the design of such sensors. So as to obtain representative data necessary to analyze a large enough volume of water (not less than 0.01-0.005 m3), and the aperture of the channel is small, it is necessary for one sample flow sufficiently long stream of water or the use of special networks for pre-concentration of Planck is it. In the first case does not provide the required depth resolution when working in the mode of sensing, and the second network are easily clogged and not allow you to properly calculate the concentration of plankton. In both cases, the active species of plankton raspugivaya and try to avoid falling in holes for their harvest. All of this allows you to get a real picture of the spatial distribution of plankton (especially at the microscale) and its dimensional-quantitative characteristics.
There is a method of determining the amount of plankton that is implemented in the device containing the flow-through measuring chamber with a photomultiplier and an inductive sensor, a counter, and means for indicating (patent DE No. 2049205, 1973
). This method allows the calculation of plankton at the specified depth, however, despite the simultaneous use of both methods counting system is quite complicated and the reliability of the evidence is low, in addition, it also uses the flow channel.
A known method for determining the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended water particles, which consists in forming a reference measuring volume opto-mechanically in the flow channel due to its crossing perpendicular parallel flow of optical radiation of a rectangular Sech is tion and constant intensity and force the direction of the suspended particles in water in the control volume along the trajectory, perpendicular to the direction of the radiation flux and the larger side of its rectangular cross-section, and registration suspended particles in water (US patent No. 4637719,1987 ).
The device for implementing the method includes a means for generating a parallel flow of optical radiation, means for forming an optical path of the reference volume of rectangular cross-section, means to force the direction of the suspended particles in water in the control volume, means for moving control volume, means for receiving and converting optical radiation into electrical signals and means for registration of the change of amplitude of electric pulses (US patent No. 4637719,1987) .
This method of determining the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water and a device for its implementation though and provide the ability to determine the size of the quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in the water, but do not allow to scan the water, without disturbing the natural distribution of plankton in the microscale.
In order to avoid the above mentioned difficulties, and the proposed method and device for its implementation, which are with relative ease to provide the operations in determination of dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water, such as plankton, without Nar is deprivation of their natural distribution at the microscale. This is because in the method for determining the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water (patent RU №S, 10.06.1998 ), which lies in the fact that the formation of one or more fiducial volume of the optical path due to transmission in a predetermined direction parallel to the flow rectangular pulse of optical radiation of constant intensity, the moving control volume in a natural environment on a trajectory perpendicular to the direction of the radiation flux and the larger side of its rectangular cross-section, and registration suspended particles in water when their in the reference volume by receiving optical radiation from the reference volume, convert it into electrical signals and the analysis of these signals by the amplitude and duration proposed by the ratio of the size of the sides of the rectangular cross section be equated to the ratio of maximum and minimum bounds of the size range of detected particles and the moving speed of the reference volume to hold at the level not exceeding the length of its lower side section to the time period of the pulse repetition frequency of optical radiation.
In addition, it is proposed to filter the received pulses of optical radiation from the reference volume from the extraneous light rays way the subtraction of signal amplitude, obtained in the absence of pulses, the amplitude of the signal received during the pulse action. The device for determining dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water, comprising means for generating a parallel flow pulse of optical radiation, means for forming an optical path of the reference volume of rectangular cross-section, means for moving control volume, means for receiving and converting optical radiation into electrical signals and means for registration of the change of amplitude of electric pulses, provided with a means for determining the difference between the pulse signal in the absence of particles and a pulse signal obtained during registration of the particles, and means forming a time interval at the time of registration of the particles, while the ratio of the size of the sides of the rectangular control volume choose equal to the ratio of the maximum and minimum bounds of the size range of detected particles.
In addition, the device is further provided with means for registering the magnitude of the signal characterizing the optical properties of the aquatic environment before registration suspended particles, and means for measuring the difference between the value of characterizing the optical properties of the aquatic environment, and the amp is itudou signal for each pulse within the generated time interval. The proposed method and its device for determining dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water are in the formation of the reference volume by passing a stream of rectangular pulse of optical radiation of constant intensity, registration suspended particles in water when their in the reference volume by receiving optical radiation from the reference volume, which is a kind of a light plane with a width of 10-30 mm and a thickness of 0.5-1 mm For the formation of rectangular cross-section may use a diaphragm with a hole corresponding configurations and sizes. The length of the light plane depends on the location of the radiation receiver.
Receiving optical radiation from the reference volume can be at any angle to the direction of the transmitted radiation. When the location of the photodetector under some angle to the direction of radiation is not equal to 180°, the photodetector responds to the reflected particles from the radiation - mode measurement I - "white on black". A great advantage of this method is the lack of optical adjustment and layout features of the entire device in a single rugged package. The location of the emitter and the photodetector opposite each other and on the same axis allows you to get ten is from particles on the sensor and implements the measurement mode II - "black on white background.
In both modes, the photodetector converts the received radiation into electrical signals, and the radiation received in the time interval between transmitted pulses, characterizes the natural light field of the investigated medium (extraneous light, solar light, different kinds of luminescence and other), and the radiation received during transmission of the pulses, optionally overlaps a portion of the transmitted radiation with a variable, the degree of change which characterizes optical properties of the aquatic environment and the possible presence of the suspended particles. The subtraction signal received between the pulses of the signal received during the duration of the pulses allows to select the signal characterizing the optical properties of the aquatic environment and the possible presence of the suspended particles.
Selection monotonically changing component of the pulse signal characterizing the optical properties of the aquatic environment and defines the threshold for registration suspended particles, can detect these particles when they appear in the reference volume by registering hopping amplitude electric pulses with respect to a certain threshold, comparing the two consecutive received pulse transmitted optical radiation is Oia. The known device is intended to determine the size of the quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in the water by moving in the sea or other body of water using a CTD-probe, determining the depth of his immersion in the vertical sounding of drift stations or using the standard towed media on the fly the ship.
The known device to implement the method consists of a transducer and electronic circuit boards arranged in a cylindrical container having at one end a transparent window, and the other contains a thermal connector to which power is supplied and removed information in the form of signals. In a container similar to the container window and Germersheim, installed the sensor and circuit Board with electronic circuits.
The containers are mounted on the frame of the towed media or on the fence elements, the design of the probe.
As the emitter is used pulsed semiconductor laser operating in the near infrared range at a wavelength of 910 nm. The pulse frequency of the radiation can be selected in the range of 5-50 kHz. It depends on the minimum size of the recorded particles and the maximum speed of the device. The emitter is located at the focus of the lens, forming a parallel flux, the diameter of which is equal to the diameter of the output Trac is and the lens. Rectangular beam cross section, for example, 1×10 mm aperture is provided with a corresponding hole. The flux passes through the porthole to the environment and then gets on the filter, which cuts off the surrounding light in the visible region. Next, there is a collecting lens, the focus of which is a photodetector, which can be used a silicon photodiode.
Optically generated reference volume for this device will have a value equal to
1 mm × 10 mm × (300-500) mm × 2=6000-10000 mm
With the passage of the device a distance value in 1m researched volume will be 0,006-0,01 m, which is sufficient for a representative estimate the concentration of plankton in most areas of the World ocean. In biologically poor waters of the estimate can be increased by passing the greater distance required for evaluation.
At the intersection of the fiducial volume of the particles on the sensor appears a shadow from her. The signal from the photodiode is proportional to the size of the shadow along the longest side of the rectangular cross section of the reference volume. Crossing time of a particle control volume is proportional to the size of the shadow along the lower side And a rectangular cross-section at constant speed movement of the entire device.
The implementation of this method determined the value of the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water  as follows. After forming the reference volume to be moved along a trajectory perpendicular to the direction of the radiation flux and the larger side of its rectangular cross-section. To view the water space without gaps need to promote reference volume at a rate not exceeding the ratio of the length of the lower side of the cross section (thickness of the light plane) to the time period of the pulse repetition frequency of optical radiation.
Using the optical method of forming fiducial volume allows you to scan a body of water without disturbing the natural distribution of plankton in the microscale (in contrast to systems with a forced selection of the water with plankton or concentration of plankton special network and the direction of the artificially created water plankton in a flow channel with sensor plankton) and without damaging the organisms. The use of radiation in the near infrared region can not only eliminate the possibility of fluorescent illumination and eliminate the effects of all types of luminescence, but also to prevent the violation of the physiological state of the organisms and, as a consequence, unwanted motor responses of organisms, i.e. raspugivaya.
Depending on the design and devices of the photodetector, as well as its location relative to the reference volume and the extent of the falsity of electronic circuits implemented several features of the proposed device. In measurement mode, I offer the device is designed to determine the extreme values in the quantitative distribution of plankton for pickup of standard guns sampling of plankton records only the number of particles, while measuring the displacement speed of the control volume may determine the size of the particle along the trajectory of the device by counting the number of pulses within the time interval registration particles. At the time of registration particles remembered the amount of the registration threshold for determining when the end of the registration.
In mode II and using estimates of the difference between the square of the darkening of the photodetector particle and the total sectional area of the control volume as the difference between the amplitudes of the received signals in the presence of particles and without it you can determine the size of the particles along the perpendicular to the directions of the emission and movement of the device. It is necessary to maintain the level of the threshold at a constant value in a wide range of changes in the transparency of the medium. For this purpose, the feedback circuit that automatically adjusts the sensitivity of the photodetector.
In mode II in the presence of the meter speed reference volume may determine the size of the particles along t is actorii movement of the device is similar to mode I.
Sharing listed constructive solutions for mode II allows you to define the cross-sectional area of the particles, the section plane which is parallel to the plane of the rectangular cross section of optical radiation. Using a one-dimensional matrix, and the number of rows is more than two, it is possible to perform direct classification of particles by size groups, the number of which is equal to the number of rows affected, which, in turn, determine the number of parallel reference volumes. The distance from the first to the movement path of the packs of reference volumes volume, the read signal to each of the following (classification), are the boundaries of the size groups. The measurement result will be to identify senior classification volume, recording the particle at the end of the registration signal volume, the size of the particles will be less than the distance from the signal up to a certain volume and more distance to the previous volume.
However, the search and a comprehensive evaluation of accumulations of plankton in shallow water are one of the most important and difficult task because of the complex hydrological situation. And if the detection of clusters of plankton (or fish aggregations) at great depths encounters special difficulties, the search in shallow sea near the surface and bottom, especially in areas the Ah industrial development of marine mineral resources, is a challenging research problem. It is difficult to create a single model accumulations of plankton or fish clusters with respect to their physiology and their relationship with the environment for algorithm development of the quantification. For the most effective and accurate assessment of biological resources requires a combination of technical means, operating on different physical principles.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is the increased functionality of the method for determining the dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water.
The problem is solved due to the fact that the device for determining dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water, comprising means for generating a parallel stream of pulses of optical radiation, made in the form of a pulsed semiconductor laser operating in the near infrared range, the means for forming the optical path of the reference volume of rectangular cross-section, means for moving control volume, means for receiving and converting optical radiation into electrical signals and means for registration of the change of amplitude of electric pulses, provided with a means to determine the difference between the signal in the absence of pulses and the signal received during deistvennogo, and means forming a time interval at the time of registration of the particles, while the ratio of the size of the sides of the rectangular control volume is equal to the ratio of the maximum and minimum bounds of the size range of detected particles, added hydroacoustic assessment of the quantitative characteristics of clusters of bioresources, consisting of multibeam sonar antenna pumping parametric profilograph, which is both high-frequency antenna profilograph, low frequency receiving antenna parametric profilograph, generator probe pulses, the receiver of the echo signals, the block processing of acoustic signals, remote control and display interface unit and the network hub, two side-scan sonars, which antennas are installed respectively on the right and the left side of the machine.
The essence of the proposed technical solution is illustrated by the drawing, which is given to the block diagram of the device for measuring dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water.
The block diagram includes channel 1 optical radiation and reception of the reference volume accumulations of bioresources, comprising means for generating a parallel stream of pulses of optical radiation, means for forming an optical path of reprograma rectangular cross-section, means for moving control volume, means to receive and convert optical radiation into electrical signals and means for registration of the change of amplitude of electric pulses, provided with a means to determine the difference between the signal in the absence of pulses and the signal received during the duration of the pulses, and means forming a time interval at the time of registration of the particles, while the ratio of the size of the sides of the rectangular control volume is equal to the ratio of the maximum and minimum bounds of the size range of detected particles, the antenna 2 dual beam sonar 3, the antenna 4, 5 side-scan sonars 6 and 7, the antenna 8 of the pump parametric profilograph, which is at the same time and high-frequency antenna profilograph 9, and a low frequency receiving antenna 10 of the low-frequency parametric profilograph 11, a generator 12 probe pulses, the receiver 13 of the echoes, block 14 processing of acoustic signals, 15 remote control and display interface unit and the network hub, the antenna 16 17 satellite receiver radio communication and GPS navigation, electronic mapping system 18.
As a means to produce a shallow search of clusters of bioresource beneath the boat and away from the vessel, registered in elektronnoy map their location and quantification, features hydroacoustic assessment of the quantitative characteristics of clusters of bioresources, consisting of sonar 3 with two directional characteristics, two of 6,7-scan sonar side-view with switchable directional characteristic, the high-frequency profilograph 9, the low-frequency profilograph 11, electronic mapping system 18, the receiver 17 satellite radio communication and GPS navigation, digital signal processing unit, 15 remote control and display interface unit and the network hub type "EZERNET".
Dual beam sonar 3 is designed to find clusters of bioresources, quantitative stock assessment and profiling of the bottom. Scan power of received signals is carried out in range and angle. Operating frequency 204 kHz, the width of the directivity of 6×10 and 12×20 degrees, pulse duration of 50, 200, 500 μs. The generator 12 pulse contains radiating paths sonar, side-scan sonars, generators, pump parametric profilograph. The receiver 13 of the echo signals includes receiving paths sonar, side-scan sonars, high-frequency profilograph and low-frequency parametric profilograph, four signal processor, designed for converting analog signals into digital form and pervichno the processing of these signals, the communication interface between the various parts of the complex, the control circuit, the driver signals, the circuit time automatic gain control and signal transducer sensors.
Two sonar 6 and 7 side view (HBOT) is designed to capture the topography of the bottom of the left and right sides of the ship and search and quantitative evaluation of accumulations of bioresource and single fish away from a vessel. In a particular implementation used HBOT operating frequencies 286 and 320 kHz with pulse duration of 50 and 100 μs and 1 MS.
High frequency profilograph 9 is designed for accurate profiling of the bottom relief.
Low-frequency profilograph 11 is designed for profiling the bottom of the rain.
The receiver 17 satellite radio communication and navigation, and electronic mapping system 18 are used for navigation purposes and marks on maps of the locations of clusters of bioresources.
The 15 remote control unit includes a processor with software for automatic detection and tracking of targets, which is based on the processor type 80486CPU and digital signal Converter type MS 56001, as well as the color liquid crystal display with the ability to display different modes and their combinations, as well as the electronic card in accordance with the requirements of IMO Resolution A.817/19. The device otobrazheni the information is videoplotter.
High-frequency and low-frequency profilograph when working together form a parametric profilograph.
Parametric profilograph runs on three fixed frequencies 7; 10, and 14 kHz, which is the difference frequency parametric emitting tract. Radiation probing signals with a duration of 0.5-1 MS is provided by the nonlinear interaction of the pumping signals with a frequency of 154 kHz and signals with frequencies 147; 143,5 and 140 kHz, respectively. The width of the directivity of the radiating parametric antenna 13 is constant over the entire operating frequency range and is 2×4 degrees at -3 dB. The width of the characteristics at the level of -3 dB broadband receiving antenna depending on the operating frequency is changed within a 10×26 degrees at a frequency of 14 kHz to 20×52 degrees at a frequency of 7 kHz). The indication echo is provided in the color scheme.
Unit 14 processing of acoustic signals intended for the classification of underwater targets by their frequency characteristics, as well as to assess the magnitude of objectives for the frequency range between the minimum and maximum values of target strength on the frequency dependency on the background of the bottom topography by known methods (parametric Sonar system. VA Voronin, S. p. Tarasov, V. Tymoshenko. Rostov-on-don. Rostedt, 2004, s-353. Glue K., Medvyn, Structures the practical Oceanography. Fundamentals and applications. -M.: Mir, 1980, 580 S.).
The quantitative characteristics of sparse clusters of bioresources is performed based on the expression for the average density of the sparse clumps of bioresources (Ermoliev VA Echo-counting and echo-integrating system for quantitative assessment of fish aggregations. - M.: Food industry, 1979, s.):
where K1- the number of echoes from fish from layer 1;
S1- section area of the sounder, m;
H - thickness of clusters, m;
Q - repetition frequency of the emitted signals;
T - time of the vessel above the cluster, h;
m is the number of layers.
The practical implementation of the proposed method to the technical complexity is not, because for its implementation are tools that have industrial applicability.
The sources of information.
1. Patent DE No. 2049205, 1973.
2. The US patent No. 4637719,1987.
3. The US patent No. 4637719,1987.
4. Patent RU 2112955C1, 10.06.1998.
The device for definition wide-angle is dimensional-quantitative characteristics of suspended particles in water, including means for generating a parallel stream of pulses of optical radiation, made in the form of a pulsed semiconductor laser operating in the near infrared range, the means for forming the optical path of the reference volume of rectangular cross-section, means for moving control volume, means for receiving and converting optical radiation into electrical signals and means for registration of the change of amplitude of electric pulses, provided with a means to determine the difference between the signal in the absence of pulses and the signal received during the duration of the pulses, and means forming a time interval at the time of registration of the particles, while the ratio of the size of the sides of the rectangular control volume is equal to the ratio the maximum and minimum bounds of the size range of detected particles, characterized in that additionally introduced hydroacoustic assessment of the quantitative characteristics of clusters of bioresources, consisting of multibeam sonar antenna pumping parametric profilograph, which is both high-frequency antenna profilograph, low frequency receiving antenna parametric profilograph, generator probe pulses, the receiver of the echo signals, the processing unit acoustic signal is, remote control and display interface unit and the network hub, two side-scan sonars, which antennas are installed respectively on the left and right sides.
FIELD: radio engineering, communication.
SUBSTANCE: integrated system for navigation and controlling movement of a self-contained unmanned underwater vehicle has a ship-borne post for controlling movement of the self-contained unmanned underwater vehicle with a hydroacoustic remote control unit mounted on a support ship. The self-contained unmanned underwater vehicle is fitted with transceiving units of a hydroacoustic navigation system with a long base, a hydroacoustic remote control and communication system, navigation-piloting sensors, a local area network, a hydroacoustic Doppler log, a gyrocompass and/or an inertial navigation system, a satellite navigation system receiver, a magnetic compass, a depth measuring device, a steering mechanism control system having a computer. The self-contained unmanned underwater vehicle is also fitted with equipment for conducting hydrological investigations. The steering mechanism control system includes channels for generating stabilisation signals for roll, trim, depth and heading, and further includes a multi-beam echo sounder, an acoustic Doppler flow metre; the hydroacoustic Doppler log is configured to operate on volume reverberation signals; the hydroacoustic navigation system with a long base has at least eight bottom transponder beacons.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining coordinates of a self-contained unmanned underwater vehicle and enabling stabilisation of parameters of the vehicle on depth, trim and heading.
SUBSTANCE: method is based on measuring the space-average (with a linear dimension equal to the distance between the emitter and the receiver) vertical profile of sound speed via horizontal pulsed acoustic probing with measurement of the time of arrival of pulses between an emitter and a receiving hydrophone fixed in the measurement region. Field values of sound speed on the depth along the path are determined simultaneously for all measurement levels with frequency ranging from once per second and higher over time periods of more than a year.
EFFECT: high reliability and accuracy of hydrological measurements, simple and high accuracy of the method of monitoring the vertical profile of sound speed in extreme conditions on tested water bodies.
SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a method of measuring second order statistical moments of a water surface wave which is greater than the wavelength of acoustic radiation using an acoustic system comprising an acoustic Doppler emitter and three antennae: two receiving antennae with knife-edge patterns and one transceiving antenna with a symmetrical beam pattern. The acoustic system is placed at the bottom or on a fixed underwater platform and emission is carried out vertically upwards. For such a configuration of the measuring system, there are algorithms for restoring second order statistical moments and the effective reflection coefficient. Additional use in the Doppler acoustic system of an antenna with a narrow symmetrical beam pattern also enables to measure the height of the moderate sea and calculate the elevation spectrum.
EFFECT: broader functional capabilities and high measurement accuracy.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: radio engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method involves arrangement of hydroacoustic equipment in water environment for obtaining the picture of the visible part of the investigated object, production of expositions which are related to topoplans of upper ice surface; obtaining the picture that is visualised on the display in polar coordinate system in the form of graphical files of bmp formats. Removal is performed from several horizons. Hydroacoustic equipment is arranged on the controlled movable sea object, receiving-transmitting device is arranged on traversing platform having three freedom degrees. Picture is obtained in three-dimensional space with visualisation of total volume of ice cover and with division of volumes of ice cover into sectors which are distinguished as per their frequency characteristics. There measured is the size of those sectors and distance between ice field elements located at the distances which are shorter than the range of sounding pulse.
EFFECT: improving reliability of removal of ice cover lower surface.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied to define the azimuth of the detected objects on the guarded line, compute the number of objects in the group target and classify the detected objects; to perform the above function the objects position finding seismic device uses the spread passive location method with the additional seismic detector; the main information feature for the object targeting is the signals cross correlation function in two channels of signals processing. The value of the signal delay defines the decision on value of the azimuth for the object while the azimuth is corrected by means of the seismic detector; the position finding device comprises three seismic detectors, the first seismic signals processing channel with a time delay line and the second processing channel with a set of time delay lines, correlation devices and an azimuth correction unit; the outlets of the correlation devices connected to the input of the decision-making device and the input of the peak signal range selector, its outlet is connected to the input of the classifier. The input of the azimuth correction device is connected to the outlet of the third seismic detector and its outlet is connected to the input of the decision-making device.
EFFECT: enhancement of accuracy of the definition of objects classification.
SUBSTANCE: underwater probe has a container with information-measuring apparatus, consisting of a parametric antenna, a sound detector with a receiving antenna and a sound speed detector, a sensor for measuring water temperature, a sensor for measuring salinity of seawater, a sensor for measuring density of seawater, a device for input/output of picked up signals, which are electrically connected by a conducting rope to a ship-borne computing device for calculating, based on the measured signals, potential temperature, potential temperature gradients, potential density anomalies, conditional relative density, dynamic height, Brunt-Vaisala frequency and salinity gradient. The underwater probe also has a nuclear-magnetic-resonance spectrometer, which is connected by its output to the input of the ship-borne computing device. The container is provided with two water intakes connected by hydraulic channels to a container for collecting seawater.
EFFECT: broader functionalities.
4 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: probe is made in form of a multiple-section container. Sections of the container are connected to each other by a threaded joint (7). The sections house program-control equipment (4), information-measuring equipment (5), a seismic module (2), a magnetotelluric measurement module (6) and a navigation module (3). The container is fitted with two electrical micromachines and horizontal and vertical tunnel propellers which form a propulsion module (1). The information-measuring equipment (5) includes a penetrometre, a spectrum analyser, a methane detector, a unit for hydrochemical measurements, a unit for optical measurements, a unit for detecting radioactive radiations, data coupled with the program-control equipment.
EFFECT: broader functionalities of the device and low labour input when making the device.
SUBSTANCE: for monitoring pipeline 9, sonar location complex exploits carrier ship 1 towed by cable rope 7, underwater apparatus 2 and tethered TV-controlled underwater apparatus 3, self-contained underwater apparatus 4, artificial Earth navigation satellite 10, communication satellite 11, bottom beacons-responders 12, differential station 13, shooting control center 14. Towed underwater apparatus comprises penetrating grid 5 while container lateral wall represents dovetail 8.
EFFECT: expanded performances.
FIELD: instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to hydrosphere sounding systems. The probe comprises pressure shell 1, enclosure 2 made of high-strength polymer, e.g. Macrolon of high impact resistance. Shell 1 carries in-built ballast block 3, data-computing apparatus 4, program-control equipment 5, electric power package 6, and navigation module 7. On enclosure 2, there are rotation gear 8, electric micromachine 9 with a screw propeller in one assembly with a rotor, antenna 10 of the navigation modules of program-control equipment 5. Enclosure 2 represents a lattice frame on the elements of which there are provided receivers of instrumentation sensors. The frame elements are inclined at various angles in vertical and horizontal planes respectively thereby providing higher probe windage in hydrological survey in drift mode, and perform probe stabilisation function in wind forcing and heave on water table, and on undercurrent horizons.
FIELD: underwater acoustics, applicable for hydrometeorological observations of the sea range water area.
SUBSTANCE: the device has a synchronization and control unit, series-connected hydrophone, preamplifier, communication line, wide-band amplifier, spectrum analyzer unit, spectrum section separation unit, sea noise classification unit, wind speed measuring unit seaway determination unit. The output of the spectrum analyzer unit is connected to the indicator input the output of the spectrum section separation unit is connected to the input of the wind speed measuring unit. The outputs of the sea noise classification unit, wind speed measuring unit and seaway determination unit are connected to the indicator inputs. The controlled input of the synchronization and control unit is connected to the output of the sea noise classification output. The synchrooutputs of the synchronization and control unit are connected to the synchroinputs of the spectrum analyzer, spectrum section separation, sea noise classification, wind speed measuring, seaway determination units. In addition the device has a parametric sound detector, medium nonlinear parameter diagnostics unit, narrow-band filter, acoustic wave spectral analyzer at heterodyne frequencies, logic module. The output of the parametric sound detector is connected to the input of the medium nonlinear parameter diagnostics unit, whose input is connected to the output of the synchronization and control unit, and the output - to the input of the narrow-band filter. The output of the narrow-band filter is connected to the input of the acoustic wave spectral analyzer at heterodyne frequencies. The outputs of the logic module are connected to inputs of the indicator and the dispatcher station.
EFFECT: enhanced truth of the obtained results, expanded functional potentials of the device.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes receipt of water and gas mixture under high pressure, sampling of water and gas mixture and its transfer to a metering tank at the same pressure. Before measurement volume of the metering tank is measured and in measurement process change in free gas pressure, volume of free gas and the respective increment in free gas volume is recorded permanently, total volume of gas is determined for the taken sample; then dependency of free gas volume in the tank ΔP id determined and re-calculated to dependency of pressure change (ΔP) on relative share of the current free gas mass mig/mg, where mg is the total quantity of gas mg in the taken sample, mig is a current value of the free gas mass; then radius is determined for gas bubbles contained in the share of the current free gas mass according to the following formula:
EFFECT: provision of disperse degree measurement for water and gas mixture both in transparent and non-transparent dispersion medium.
4 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the measurement of aerosol particle characteristics by optical methods. The method consists in measuring the optical radiation attenuation in the visible and near infrared regions of spectrum. The maximal size and concentration of aerosol particles are determined according to the formulas:
EFFECT: higher accuracy at the determination of submicron particle characteristics.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: method for automatic control of particle size in a pulp flow includes periodical feeling of material particles with a micrometer feeler with conversion of particle value fixed by a feeling mechanism, into an electric signal proportionate to their absolute size. For this purpose pulp is sampled, filtered, sent to a conditioning tank. Then sample density is measured in the conditioning tank. At the same time the pulp sample is dissolved by water to the condition providing for getting a single layer of material particles when fixed by the micrometer feeler. Then the dissolved sample is pumped in the circulation mode along the circuit including the conditioning tank and the measurement chamber. After that they measure size of material particles in the circulating flow passing via the measurement chamber during the period of time, duration of which is set by results of preliminary calibration, and the content of controlled class is calculated by results of measurement of contents of intermediate size classes.
EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of measurements of grain composition of material in a pulp flow.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: by recorded pulse light image of cut plane with small thickness of the spray part, they determine parameters of drop spray in this part of the spray by means of a system of dispersion units based on the formula of the volume of ball (sphere) of a drop, for this purpose in the specified image they perform sorting and counting of number of drops of standard classes of ranges of microscopic dimensions in their adjacent sequence. For realisation of the method a double-laser plant is developed with digital devices of image signal processing and a computer.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of the method and the plant due to measurement of speeds of dispersed drops and production of results of assessment of spray parameters by means of analysis of values of reduced integral volumes of drops per unit of area with sorting by sequence of adjacent ranges of drop size.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the measurement equipment, may be used in motor, agricultural, aviation, oil processing and other industries, where it is necessary to perform efficient analysis of motor oil quality. The device to analyse contamination of motor oil of the internal combustion engine by disperse particles includes a laser as a source of probing radiation, a light divider (a semi-transparent mirror), a lens, a photodetector, an analog to digital converter, a computer, an ultrasonic generator and a radiator of ultrasonic oscillations. Also the device comprises a channel to control metal particles located at the bottom of the oil tray of the engine tray, and a channel to control burn particles located at the height of minimum oil level in the tray. At the same time each of channels comprises a photodetector, an amplifier, an analog to digital converter and a radiator of ultrasonic oscillations. Also the device comprises a digital to analog converter and a switchboard for serial switching of radiators of ultrasonic oscillations in control channels. At the same time all ultrasonic radiators are controlled via the digital to analog converter by the computer, in accordance with the mathematical model of oscillations of the particle surface from radiations and with parameters of temperature produced with the help of the temperature sensor, amplifier and analog to digital converter.
EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of burn and metal particles, higher information value of data for assessment of concentration of weighted metal and burn disperse particles in oil, in particular, makes it possible to control quality of operation of an engine, residual resource of oil operation until its replacement.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, namely, to optical methods for registration of particle aggregation during performance of immunochemical reactions, for instance, using particles of micron size with reagents immobilised on them. During the reaction such particles are aggregated, formation of aggregates is recorded by turbidimetric or nephelometric method. Due to large size of initial particles their mutual approaching due to Brownian motion is slow, and formation of aggregates takes place in a non-uniform manner in the reaction volume, therefore to increase speed of aggregation and accuracy of its supervision the suspension of reagents must be mixed. Mixing is carried out by or at the expense of cyclic movement of magnetic particles placed into the mix, or the mix flow in the mode of flooded jet, or by means of reciprocal movement of the mix along the cuvette.
EFFECT: method accelerates the reaction and increases accuracy of measured kinetics.
5 cl, 6 dwg
FIELD: physics, atomic power.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering and can be used in making fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The method involves scanning the image of spherical particles with a circular optical spot and determining the area of projections thereof. The diameter of the spot is selected to be less than the lower bound of the range of diameters of the image of the particles. Regions where the area of intersection of the scanning spot with images of particles is equal to the area of the scanning spot are selected. The area of the projection of each particle is defined as the area of the circle whose diameter is equal to the sum of the diameter of the scanning spot and the diameter of the region selected in said particle.
EFFECT: elimination of the operator and automation of image processing.
SUBSTANCE: system and method for ground material characterisation in a grinding system use an irradiation section through which at least a part of the ground material stream is fed and with irradiation means for irradiating the particles in the part of the stream with electromagnetic radiation; and a detection section for passage, having a detection means for detecting electromagnetic radiation emitted from the particles of the part of the ground material stream fed through the irradiation section The detection means comprises an imaging system and a colour image sensor for imaging the particles thereon using the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the particles. The colour image sensor comprises image elements for spectrally selective detection of the electromagnetic radiation imaged on the sensor image elements. The detection section comprises a luminous means or is made and arranged to detect particles of the ground material using a combination of transmitted and incident light.
EFFECT: high rate and accuracy of detecting properties of a stream of a grinding product.
26 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises conversion of pulse voltage into light flux for analysed medium area to be probed therewith. Measuring channel containing analysed medium and extra channel filled with gas mix cleaned of gas mix are used. Said light flux is splitted in said channels to wide and narrow fluxes to be converted into electric signals while signal proportional to reference channel narrow light flux is subtracted from measuring channel narrow light flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller. Besides, signal proportional to reference channel wide light flux is subtracted from signal proportional to measuring channel wide flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller to define total concentration of dust and dust particle size.
EFFECT: higher precision of measurement.
SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of dielectric particle geometrical size comprises radiation source, detector and amplifier and, additionally, it incorporates circulator, horn receiving antenna, low-pass filter and microcontroller. Radiation source output is connected with circulator first arm. Circulator second arm is connected to transceiver horn antenna. Circulator third arm is connected to detector input. Detector output is connected via low-pass filter to amplifier input. Amplifier output is connected with microcontroller input.
EFFECT: higher precision.
FIELD: measurement of concentration of non-conducting particles, for example particles of therapeutical breathing mixture.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method includes preliminary charge of particles of aerosol flow in first charging chamber of DC corona discharge which is performed before saturation charge of opposite sign in second charging chamber of unipolar pulse corona discharge. Flow of alternating aerosol of alternating sign from outlet of second chamber passes area of supplied external permanent magnetic field whose magnetic induction vector is perpendicular to flow. Particles of opposite charge passing the area of action of external permanent magnetic field shift to opposite sides relative to initial axis of flow under action of Lorentz force. Areas of volumetric positive and negative charges separated in space induce emf of different signs, each in its measuring electrode. Each measuring electrode is connected with its input of instrumental amplifier whose output signal is proportional to total surface concentration of aerosol particles. Electromagnetic radiation from pulse corona unipolar discharge induce similar emf at measuring electrodes which are co-phasing signals for instrumental amplifier suppressed by it.
EFFECT: enhanced accuracy of measurement due to compensation of induction on measuring electrode.
3 cl, 1 dwg