Method of rendering self-organisation and movement of objects

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: to visually establish movement and determine the trajectory of formed objects in form of particles, the method of rendering self-organisation and movement of objects of dispersed particles employs a preparation object having a limiting closed line with a marked centre. A pattern, in which a dispersed material is placed, is then placed in the marked centre of the limiting circle. The liquid under analysis is then placed within the limiting circle in an amount which provides a layer of liquid over the material under analysis. A capillary containing a surfactant is then guided to the centre. A video camera is turned on to record surface changes. The capillary is lowered until it touches the surface. The video camera is turned off once the process of movement of self-organising objects is complete.

EFFECT: visual establishment of movement and determining the trajectory of formed objects in form of particles.

8 dwg

 

The invention relates to the field of physical and colloid chemistry, nanotechnology, micro-motors, and other areas for analysis and characterization of materials.

There are several ways to create a movement to water bodies.

Known the simplest way to move a drop of water on the surface, changing their hydrophobic-hydrophilic properties due to the cover, consisting of molecules, changing their hydrophilic properties on hydrophobic, while covering the surface of the UV light in molecules chemical reaction occurs, and all the rings on the rod molecules synchronously shifted to one end of the rods. This changes the surface properties and through surface tension sets in motion a drop of water, lying on these nano-machines from the top (see Trillions of nano-machines together pushed a drop of water http://www.membrana.ru/particle/9104), or the introduction into water of magnetic nanoparticles (see Created smart "nano-liquid"). Thanks to nanotechnology, scientists have learned to manipulate water, using an external electromagnetic field. The result is a drop of water when exposed to an external magnetic field modifies the contact angle (wetting angle) (see http://www.nanonewsnet.ru/news/2008/sozdana-umnaya-nano-zhidkost).

However, the known methods are applicable only to create water movement, but not particles in the her.

Known: the method of determining the amount of fluid transported by surface-active substance (see patent No. 2362141), and a device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves on the surface of the liquid layer (see patent No. 2362979). The method is performed as follows. On the table with an adjustable level of a horizontal surface placed the plate of material, surface properties which need to be investigated. For retention on the surface of some liquid, for example, a thickness of 0.1-1 mm, the material is applied to the circumference of the hydrophobic substances, if the liquid is polar, or hydrophilic substances, if the liquid or solutions of various substances, the effect of which should be investigated, not polar. Then set the camcorder or the camera so that the bounding line and the center of the bounding shapes were clearly visible in the viewfinder and occupied the entire area of the frame (to adjust the sharpness of image). After setting the image sharpness set the line with intercept 1 mm and fix the camera for subsequent scaling dimensions. Line set perpendicular to the optical axis of the lens fixing process of the camera exactly to the diameter of the circle. Then the line is removed. In limited hydrophilic or hydrophobic substance okrujno the ü contribute studied the liquid in number, necessary to create a liquid layer selected by the researcher thickness. Just above the center of the bounding shapes such as circle, set calibrated by weight drops and the diameter of the capillary tip of the pipette so that a drop of it fell precisely as possible in the center of the figure. The edge of the tip of the pipette set at an altitude of 4-30 mm Illuminator scattered light with applied luminous surface dark lines in a grid or installed on it (illuminated surface) grid of opaque material or mesh, printed on transparent material, set so that reflected from the surface of the investigated fluid image grids in fixing the camera was clearly visible. The camera includes the image is fixed, at the same time to determine the amount of drops at the time of separation from capillary pipettes include Luggage, locking in an enlarged scale drop, and the drop of surfactant solution or the liquid under study contribute in the center of the circle. The footage, recorded the process of moving fluid, consistently study, determine the distance from the center of fall of the drops before the Foundation of the "waves move" and in accordance with the scale transform in units of length, and the diameter of the droplets at the time of separation from the capillary pipette. If you want to define or map is waista surfactant, you can use the "standard" surface, which can be used hydrophobic heat-resistant film, or writing paper, or paper with a modified surface, for example gelatin. When working with paper on it put a circle with the desired inner diameter of the hydrophobic dye, for example a solution of tar. The line width of the bounding figure 5-6 mm. Paper coated with the bounding shape is soaked in a solvent, for example in water for a certain period of time, such as 10 minutes, and placed on a table or laid on him the plane-parallel plate (thick glass). The paper and straighten out her remove the air squeezing through a glass tube with rounded ends, for example a pipette with a diameter of 10-15 mm or other device, such as a roller for compacting photos for glossing. Square paper, limited printed lines (circle, square), put the investigated liquid in an amount necessary to create a layer thickness determined by the conditions of experience. In the center, set the tip of the pipette include fixing the camera and make the center of the bounding shape drop of a solution of the test surfactant (see patent of Russia №2362141, IPC G01N 13/00, publ. 20.07.2009,, bull. No. 20 and No. 2362979, IPC G01H 900, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21).

However, the known method and device are applicable only to characterize materials with extended space and dimensions. For materials with small areas of their application is difficult because it must be applied on the surface of the material bounding circle or rim, as well as to find the tool to produce droplets of small size and to indicate its scope.

The technical object of the present invention is to develop a method that allows using simple techniques to animate objects in the form of particles in the water, while watching the self-organization of particles into larger moving objects.

The technical result of the invention consists in the visual setting of the movement and determine the trajectory of the formed objects in the form of particles.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of visualization, self-organization and movement of objects according to the invention, use object-drug coated with a restrictive closed line marked with center marked the center of the bounding circle place the template, which put the dispersed material in the bounding circle contribute studied the liquid in an amount to provide a layer of liquid on the material being studied, down to its center, ka is Iller, containing surfactant include a video camera for recording surface changes, lowering the capillary until it touches the surface, the camera shut down after the completion of the self-organizing process of moving objects.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that the effect of the motion of particles was discovered unexpectedly in the study of the number of floating liquid surface-active substances (surfactants) from the gas phase on the surface of the sand. The important point is that the result of exposure to PAHs was noticeable visually.

A distinctive feature of the proposed method is that for casting objects in the form of particles in motion the necessary direct contact of the dispersed material with a surface-active substance.

Thus, a set of techniques set forth in the claims method, visualization, self-organization and motion of objects ensures the achievement of the technical result consists in the visual setting of the movement and determine the trajectory of the resulting objects and obtain new characteristics that will allow you to find, identify and develop methods of traffic control and self-organization of particles.

Comparison of the invention with other known those the technical solutions of the prior art patent documents and scientific-technical literature has allowed to establish, what the authors have not identified similar and the closest technical solution, including a collection of characteristics that are similar or equivalent to the claimed distinctive features set forth in the claims, which allows to make a conclusion about conformity of the present invention, the criteria of "novelty" and "inventive step".

The proposed method of visualization, self-organization and motion of objects definitions is illustrated by photographs and figures, where:

photo 1 shows the major objects that look just like a UFO;

photo 2 depicts underwater objects;

photo 3 shows the major objects that look just like agglomerates of particles;

photo 4 shows the objects, making a circular motion, and sterjnevye objects;

figure 5 shows a circular trajectory of the motion of particles with photo 4;

figure 6 shows the trajectory of the particle with photo 3;

photo 7 shows the image of the UFO;

photo 8 shows the objects obtained using artificially synthesized Zirconia ceramic balls (compound "OLD").

The Method of visualization, self-organization and movement of objects is as follows. The paper coated with the bounding circle in the form of a closed line with the marked center of the hydrophobic material soaked the water for 10-15 minutes and put on a plane-parallel plate, removing from under the paper the air and moving the paper roller for gluing Wallpaper. At the marked center of the bounding circle of a hydrophobic material, place the template in the inner part of which is placed the study of dispersed material, such as sand, mixed with water, and with a spatula, using it on the edges of the pattern, level the sand in the inner part of the template, comparing the surface of the sand with the surface of the template. Plate located on the sand in the Central part of the template is placed in the device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves (see patent RU No. 2362979, IPC G01H 9/00, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21). The space between the template and the bounding circle is filled with water from a burette device. The quantity of water take that over the template with sand was a layer of water. When using instead of paper cuvette, the template is placed in the center of the cell, spatula load in the center of the template study of dispersed material, such as sand, and compare the surface of the sand with the surface of the template, the cuvette is placed in the device. The space between the template and the side of the cuvette filled with water from a burette device. The quantity of water take that over the template with sand was a layer of water. Capillary dropper device fill surface-active agent by dipping in a surface-active substance, for example of the butyl alcohol. Have capillary above the center of the template, which is filled with sand, include a video camera for fixation of the changes, and then pulling the capillary until it touches the sand. Raise the capillary 2-3 mm Fixing processes continue until the termination of the appearance of moving objects.

Footage is looking at using the standard programs on the computer and measure the travel time of the moving objects in the form of particles in time between frames, determine they traveled distance and calculate the velocity of the particles.

The template can be performed, for example, in the form of a plate, or in the form of a ring, or square, or any closed surface in free space in the center of the template.

Examples of specific execution Method, visualization, self-organization and movement of objects.

Example 1

On the surface of the paper is exposed hydrophobic restrictive line using the printer Hewlett-Packard. The paper is soaked in water for 10 minutes. Place the soaked paper plane-parallel plate of glass with a thickness of 5-10 mm Straighten a paper plane-parallel plate, squeezing out from under her air cushion for gluing Wallpaper. Placed in the marked center of the bounding circle in the form of a closed line pattern zapolnyayut his inner portion of the dispersed material - quarry sand with particle sizes of 0.2-0.05 mm, sifted through a sieve with round holes with a diameter of 1 mm, the surface of the dispersed material is compared with the surface of the template with a spatula. Put a plane-parallel plate with prepared to study the dispersed material in a device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves (see patent RU No. 236297, IPC G01H 9/00, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21). Fill the space between the template and the bounding line of water from a burette device, covering the sand with a layer of water with a glass rod. Fill the capillary tube by dipping in isobutyl alcohol. Down the capillary tube to the center of the template, which is filled with sand and covered with a layer of liquid. Include a video camera on fixing what is happening on the surface of the water changes. Lower the capillary until it touches the surface. Raise the capillary tube 2-3 mm. See on the monitor by moving objects. After stopping the moving objects in the field of view of the video camera off. The footage is looking at in frame mode, measuring elapsed moving objects in the form of particles, the distance and the time at which the particle will pass this distance, then calculate the velocity of the particles (see photo 1). Photo 1 shows the first type of moving objects. Large, resembling a UFO. The beginning of the movement - frame 698. Continued movement of the frames, 708-718. Arrows marked the position of the object. The speed of 10-15 mm/sec. His larger than 5 mm (moving from right to left, up). In the shadows (frame 698) the object appears bright on a dark background. And on a light background dark object (shots 708 and 718). This can be interpreted as the cross section of the object. Similar changes are observed for the other types (see photo 4: frames 178, 189, 198, 273, 276, 281, 292, 328).

Objects in the form of particles, resembling the appearance of plates UFO (photo 1), is larger than 3 mm, the Velocity of the particles of 3-4 mm/sec.

Example 2

On the surface of the paper is exposed hydrophobic restrictive line using the printer Hewlett-Packard. The paper is soaked in water for 10 minutes. Place the soaked paper plane-parallel plate of glass with a thickness of 5-10 mm Straighten a paper plane-parallel plate, squeezing out from under her air cushion for gluing Wallpaper. Placed in the marked center of the bounding circle in the form of a closed line pattern and filling the inner part of the dispersed material - quarry sand with particle sizes of 0.05-0.2 mm, sifted through a sieve with round holes with a diameter of 1 mm, the surface of the dispersed material is compared with the surface of the template with a spatula. Put a plane-parallel plate with prepared to study disperse the m material in a device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves (see patent RU No. 236297, IPC G01H 9/00, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21). Fill the space between the template and the bounding line of water from a burette device, covering the sand with a layer of water with a glass rod. Fill the capillary tube by dipping in isobutyl alcohol. Down the capillary tube to the center of the template, which is filled with sand and covered with a layer of liquid. Include a video camera on fixing what is happening on the surface of the water changes. Lower the capillary until it touches the surface. Raise the capillary tube 2-3 mm. See on the monitor by moving objects. After stopping the moving objects in the field of view of the video camera off. The footage is looking at in frame mode, measuring elapsed moving objects in the form of particles, the distance and the time at which the particle will pass this distance. Then calculate the velocity of the particles (see photo. 2). Photo 2 shows an underwater object. Line indicator grid when passing objects as particles do not change their form (moving from right to left, up). Therefore, we can conclude that the particle motion occurs under the surface of the water. The speed of 10-15 mm/sec. Its size is about 4 mm, And particles larger than 1-2 mm, the Velocity of the particles of 3-4 mm/sec.

Example 3

On the surface of the paper is exposed hydrophobic restrictive line with p the power of the printer Hewlett-Packard. The paper is soaked in water for 10 minutes. Place the soaked paper plane-parallel plate of glass with a thickness of 5-10 mm Straighten a paper plane-parallel plate, squeezing out from under her air cushion for gluing Wallpaper. Placed in the marked center of the bounding circle in the form of a closed line pattern and filling the inner part of the dispersed material - quarry sand, with a particle size of 0.05-0.2 mm, sifted through a sieve with round holes with a diameter of 1 mm, the surface of the dispersed material is compared with the surface of the template with a spatula. Put a plane-parallel plate with prepared to study the dispersed material in a device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves (see patent RU No. 236297, IPC G01H 9/00, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21). Fill the space between the template and the bounding line of water from a burette device, covering the sand with a layer of water with a glass rod. Fill the capillary tube by dipping in isobutyl alcohol. Down the capillary tube to the center of the template, which is filled with sand and covered with a layer of liquid. Include a video camera on fixing what is happening on the surface of the water changes. Lower the capillary until it touches the surface. Raise the capillary tube 2-3 mm. See on the monitor by moving objects. After stopping we get the moving objects in the field of view of the video camera off. The footage is looking at in frame mode, measuring elapsed moving objects in the form of particles, the distance and the time at which the particle will pass this distance. Then calculate the velocity of the particles (see photo. 3). Photo 3 shows a third type of moving objects - formless aggregates. The velocity of an object about 35-40 mm/sec. Objects in the form of agglomerates and round particles with a size of 1-2 mm, the Velocity of the particles of 10-15 mm/sec. The figure 6 shows the trajectories of the particles and their direction of movement, from which it is clear that the movement come several particles and they move differently. The arrow marked direction of motion of objects: 1 and 2 - all objects larger than one millimeter; 3 - sinter marked in example 3 (photo 3) ellipse; 4 - the object, the first to start the movement in the form of a dark dot size of about 1 mm; 5 - the object started moving shortly after the merge objects 3 and 4; 6 - the dark dot size of about 1 mm, appeared suddenly and disappeared just as suddenly moved under the surface of the water; 7 - an object moving under the surface of the water and by the end of the movement seized the agglomerate of several small objects in a field of size 4*4 mm.

Example 4

On the surface of the paper is exposed hydrophobic restrictive line through the Yu printer Hewlett-Packard. The paper is soaked in water for 10 minutes. Place the soaked paper plane-parallel plate of glass with a thickness of 5-10 mm Straighten a paper plane-parallel plate, squeezing out from under her air cushion for gluing Wallpaper. Placed in the marked center of the bounding circle in the form of a closed line pattern and filling the inner part of the dispersed material - quarry sand, with a particle size of 0.05-0.2 mm, sifted through a sieve with round holes with a diameter of 1 mm, the surface of the dispersed material is compared with the surface of the template with a spatula. Put a plane-parallel plate with prepared to study the dispersed material in a device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves (see patent RU No. 236297, IPC G01H 9/00, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21). Fill the space between the template and the bounding line of water from a burette device, covering the sand with a layer of water with a glass rod. Fill the capillary tube by dipping in isobutyl alcohol. Down the capillary tube to the center of the template, which is filled with sand and covered with a layer of liquid. Include a video camera on fixing what is happening on the surface of the water changes. Lower the capillary until it touches the surface. Raise the capillary tube 2-3 mm. See on the monitor by moving objects. After stopping we get the moving objects in the field of view of the video camera off. The footage is looking at in frame mode, measuring elapsed moving objects in the form of particles, the distance and the time at which the particle will pass this distance. Then calculate the velocity of the particles (see photo 4). Photo 4 shows a fourth type of moving objects that perform a circular motion. The footage 281, 292, 328 large arrows labeled core objects, which is the fifth type of moving objects, and figure 5 shows the trajectory of the objects in photo 4. Particles larger than 1 mm are moved, as if making a circular motion. Photo 7 shows the trajectory of the moving particle, which shows that repeated movement of particles is almost the same path as the first particles, especially on the descending segment of the trajectory. Moreover, when the second passage on a downward trajectory, there is another particle in the form of a rod (see photo 4 marked thicker arrow). It should also be noted that the particles will probably glow, as if the passage of particles through the shadow, formed from parts of the device, these particles can be seen as lighter than the surrounding shadow (see frames 178, 189, 198, 273, 276, 281, 292, 328 with photo 4). The velocity of the particles of 3-4 mm/sec.

Example 5

On the surface of the paper is exposed hydrophobic restrictive line by printing on p. the inter Hewlett-Packard. The paper is soaked in water for 10 minutes. Place the soaked paper plane-parallel plate of glass with a thickness of 5-10 mm Straighten a paper plane-parallel plate, squeezing out from under her air cushion for gluing Wallpaper. Placed in the marked center of the bounding circle in the form of a closed line pattern and filling the inner part of the compound "OLD" with Teflon coating and particle size of 0.04 to 0.1 mm, sifted through a sieve with round holes with a diameter of 1 mm, the surface of the compound "OLD" with Teflon coating compared with the surface of the template with a spatula. Put a plane-parallel plate with prepared to study compound "OLD" with Teflon coating in a device for determining the distance of propagation of the microwaves (see patent RU No. 236297, IPC G01H 9/00, publ. 27.07.2009,, bull. No. 21). Fill the space between the template and the bounding line of water from a burette device, covering the compound "OLD" with a Teflon coating layer of water with a glass rod. Fill the capillary tube by dipping in isobutyl alcohol. Down the capillary tube to the center of the template, filled compound "OLD" with Teflon coating and covered with a layer of liquid. Include a video camera on fixing what is happening on the surface of the water changes. Lower the capillary until it touches the surface. Nabludaut monitor moving objects. After stopping the moving objects in the field of view of the video camera off. Footage frame-by-frame viewing mode, measuring elapsed moving objects in the form of particles, the distance and the time at which the particle will pass this distance, then calculate the velocity of the particles (see photo 8). Photo 8 shows the motion of objects in the compound "OLD" with Teflon coating. Particle size is about 2 mm, the Velocity of the particles of 30-50 mm/sec.

From the above examples 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 shows that the majority of the particles has a size greater than 1 mm, This suggests that while the interaction of water, sand particles and surfactants is the self-organization of the sand particles into larger particles, and they acquire mobility. This may be caused by chemical interaction of particles of sand (silicon oxide) surfactant. Here the role of the silicon particles may be reduced to the catalysis of the oxidation of organic surfactant molecules with oxygen dissolved in the water. Therefore, the sand particles move and glow. Such luminescence is observed in the seas, lakes and oceans (see lake Baikal is also lit water, what happens ?! http://chudesamag.ru/sverhestestvennoe/v-baykale-svetitsya-voda-chto-tam-proishodit.html; the Waters of lake Baikal glow http://baikaler.ru/news/2012/05/31/676/). It does not exclude the role of surface forces, which may t the train involved in the movement of objects. However, the motion of particles under the surface does not give confidence in the part of the surface forces. Studies have shown that control of the process of self-Assembly of particles can lead to the construction of larger objects and putting them in a controlled motion. Prerequisite about it is the movement along the same path multiple objects (see figure 5, 6).

The proposed method of visualization, self-organization and motion of objects can be used in nanotechnology to move various objects to the creation of more complex constructions. In other areas for analysis and characterization of materials. And will also allow to study the process of self-organization of dispersed particles in the moving objects. To explain some aspects of the occurrence and movement observed UFOs in space, the atmosphere and in water (see Military secret with Igor Prokopenko, ether from 03.09.2011. Ren TV

http://kinovegas.ru/news/voennaja_tajna_s_igorem_prokopenko_ehfir_ot_03_09_2011/2011-09-05-10384 and (Military secret with Igor Prokopenko, ether 02.06.2012. Ren TV

http://www.zoomby.ru/watch/67731-voennaya-taina-s-igorem-prokopenko).

In addition, the possible explanation for the movement of stones in the valley of death in America at the bottom of a dried-up lake Rostrad Playa (http://kaban.tv/archive/ren/2012-11-17/530317). To further develop the engines and the ways to control the movement and Assembly of various large objects.

Therefore, the above re ulitity experiments allow to draw a conclusion on the compliance of the claimed invention, the criterion of "industrial applicability".

The visualization of self-organizing and movement of objects dispersed particles, characterized in that use object-drug coated with a restrictive closed line marked by the centre, marked the center of the bounding circle place the template, which put the dispersed material in the bounding circle contribute studied the liquid in an amount to provide a layer of liquid on the material being studied, down to the center of the capillary containing surfactant include a video camera for recording surface changes, lowering the capillary until it touches the surface, the camera shut down after the completion of the self-organizing process of moving objects.



 

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2 cl, 5 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: technologies for testing properties of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method for determining composition of bi-nonary condensed type systems, in case of core sizes in fractions d1>d2>d3>…>d9>d10 and in case of core dimensions relations d2/d1,d3/d2,…,d10/d9 greater than 0.155 fractions volumes are determined from formulas for binary systems V1=1m3, Y1=1-d2/d1, V2=1m3·Y1·Ve1,m3, for ternary systems Vsm2=1m3, Y2=1-d3/d2av, V3=1m3·Y2·Vemp,m3, for quaternary systems Vsm3=1m3, Y3=1-d4/d3av, V4=1m3·Y3·Vemp3,m3, for quinary systems Vsm4=1m3, Y4=1-d5/d4av, V5=1m3·Y4·Vemp4,m3, for senary systems Vsm5=1m3, Y5=1-d6/d5av, V6=1m3·Y5·Vemp5,m, for septenary systems Vsm6=1m3, Y6=1-d7/d6av, V7=1m3·Y6·Vemp6,m3, for octuple systems Vsm7=1m3, Y7=1-d8/d7av, V8=1m3·Y7·Vemp7,m3, for nonary systems Vsm8=1m3, Y8=1-d9/d8av, V9=1m3·Y8·Vemp8,m3, where V1,V2…,V9 - piled up fraction volume with core sizes respectively d1,d2,…,d9,m3,Vsm2,Vsm3,…,Vsm8 - piled up volume of binary, ternary,…,octuple friable condensed type system, m3, Y1,Y2,…,Y8 - coefficient of condensation level of fraction with core size d1 by fraction with core size d2, condensation of binary friable system with average core size d2av by fraction with core size d3,…, condensations of octuple friable systems with average core size d8av by fraction with core size d9, Ve1 - emptiness of fraction with core size d1, Vemt2, Vemt3,…,Vemt8 - emptiness value for binary, ternary,…, octuple friable condensed type system.

EFFECT: lower laboriousness, higher effectiveness, possible optimization by utilizing computer means.

11 ex, 1 tbl

FIELD: technologies for testing properties of materials.

SUBSTANCE: in method for determining compositions of friable bi-quinary systems of filled type with core sizes in fractions d1>d2>d3>d4>d5 and size relations of cores d2/d1,d3/d2,d4/d3,d5/d4 less than 0.155 fractions volume is determined for binary systems V1=1m3,V2=V1·Y1Ve1,m3,Y1=1-d2/d1, for ternary systems V1=1m3,V2=V1·Y1Ve1,m3,V3=V2·Y2Ve2,m3,Y1=1-d2/d1,Y2=1-d3/d2, for quaternary systems V1=1m3,V2=V1·Y1Ve1,m3,V3=V2·Y2Ve2,m3,V4=V3·Y3Ve3, m3,Y1=1-d2/d1,Y2=1-d3/d2,Y3=1-d4/d3, for quinary systems V1=1m3,V2=V1·Y1Ve1,m3, V3=V2·Y2Ve2,m3, V4=V3·Y3Ve3,m3,V5=V4·Y4Ve4, m3,Y1=1-d2/d1,Y2=1-d3/d2,Y3=1-d4/d3,Y4=1-d5/d4, where V1,V2,V3,V4,V5 - fraction volume with core size respectively d1,d2,d3,d4,d5,m3, Y1, Y2, Y3, Y4, - value of level of fill grade of empty space of fractions with greater core sizes by fractions with lesser core sizes, dimensionless quantity, limits of measurement of which are within range 0<Y≤1, Ve1, Ve2, Ve3, Ve4 - fraction emptiness value with core size respectively d1,d2,d3,d4 - dimensionless quantity.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: noble metal metallurgy, in particular method for gold content determination in natural solid organic materials such as divot, state coal, brown coal, and black coal.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes sampling the probe of starting material, grinding, mixing with massicot, smelting to form bullion, parting of gold-silver globule, weighting of gold sinterskin. Probe is sampled from starting natural solid organic material. Before smelting mixture is packaged in lead foil, established in full-hot scorifying dish, and padded with borax and table salt.

EFFECT: precise method for gold content determination in natural solid organic materials.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: medicine, gastroenterology.

SUBSTANCE: it has been suggested a new method to detect pharmacological sensitivity to preparations as acidosuppressors. After the intake of the preparation a patient should undergo fibrogastroduodenoscopy 3 h later, then, through endoscopic catheter one should introduce 0.3%-Congo red solution intragastrically and the test is considered to be positive at keeping red color that indicates good sensitivity to the given preparation, and in case of dark-blue or black color the test is considered to be negative that indicates resistance to this preparation. The suggested innovation widens the number of diagnostic techniques of mentioned indication.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of diagnostics.

2 ex

FIELD: wood-working industry.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises measuring variations of pulse loading of the conical head during its penetration into the wood in radial direction. The wood quality can be judged by relative force pulse duration.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability.

4 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: timber industry and may be used at through sequence certification of wood from growing trees to half-finished products in conditions of timber industry, logging, woodworking and also in engineering ecology and ecological wood-control at ecological valuation of territories.

SUBSTANCE: for testing they make with the help of a bore samples of cylindrical form of larger diameter then the largest transverse size of standard samples of rectangle form which are prepared from cylindrical samples and with the length of o less then the length of standard samples.

EFFECT: simplifies process of strengthening testing of wood with using cylindrical samples.

6 cl, 8 dwg

FIELD: measurement engineering.

SUBSTANCE: method is based upon introduction of preliminary prepared gas sample, ionization of components of sample and mass-spectral registration of ions. Ionization is completed by means of combination of glow discharge and electron impact when using ionizer which has to be assemblage made of high-melting capillary and thin-walled metal hollow cathode. Sample together with flow of microcavity discharge gas-suppressor is introduced into hollow cathode through capillary. Device is provided with electron gun mounted directly behind skimmer on the axis of supersonic gas jet. Hollow cathode is connected with capillary intended for introducing sample. Port of gas-discharge camera intends for introduction of ballast gas. There is ionizer inside the gas-discharge camera.

EFFECT: widened analytical abilities of gas mass-spectrometry.

7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: toxicology, in particular determination of water flea sensibility to toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes detection of water flea death time (min) caused by water-soluble chemicals, wherein concentration (C, mol/l) of chemical under consideration fluctuates according to logarithmic scale with interval of 0.1. Plot of Y versus X is made, wherein Y-axis represents average death time with scale of 1 point = 1 min; X-axis represents reverse concentration (1/C) of chemical under consideration; and scale is proportional to log increasing by 0.1. Water flea sensibility to toxic effect (tgα) is calculated according to equation: tgα = TL(min):1/KL = TL(min)xKl (I), wherein α is inclination of straight line to X-axis; TL(min) is death time (min) being determined according to point of hypothetical crosspoint of straight line with Y-axis; KL is lethality constant (mol/l) defined as chemical concentration wherein water flea death time is equal to 2TL(min).

EFFECT: Method allowing evaluation of toxic effect evolution dynamics and comparison of toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals in equal concentration ranges.

2 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg

FIELD: medical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: test sample material has sintered polycrystalline hydroxyapatite having potassium to phosphorus content ratio within the limits of 1.50 to 1.67, apparent density being from 3 to 3.1 g/cm3 and the sample for testing tooth cream is manufactured as spatial body having test surface from sample material showing the above referenced properties. Test surface purity is of tenth precision class. The sample is manufactured as pill.

EFFECT: high reproducibility of test results.

4 cl

FIELD: ecology, in particular, evaluation of atmospheric air quality by morphologic state of epiphytic lichens.

SUBSTANCE: method involves providing at least 10 test plots of 25x25 m size on land; determining outer features of lichens on trees; providing statistic processing of observation results; calculating bioindicator state factor and comparing with standard criteria of habitat state, with value of fractal size of lichen thallus being used as bioindicator activity factor, said value being determined by computer processing of scanned lichen thallus pictures; determining extent of atmosphere contamination by taking into account that fractal size of lichen thallus is reducing as extent of atmospheric air contamination in growing sites is increased.

EFFECT: simplified lichenoindication method, elimination of influence of subjective evaluation by investigator owing to usage of quantitative factor of lichen thallus state.

2 dwg, 1 tbl, 1 ex

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