Method of removing barium from water

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption treatment of waste water. Disclosed is a method of reducing concentration of barium in water. The method includes preparing aqueous manganese oxide and mixing with barium-containing water. At pH higher than 4.8, aqueous manganese oxide acquires a negative charge and barium is adsorbed on the negatively charged surface. Manganese oxide with barium adsorbed on its surface is mixed with a flocculant. A treated output stream of water with low barium concentration is obtained after separating the formed sludge.

EFFECT: invention provides a simple technique of removing barium from waste water.

25 cl, 9 dwg, 5 tbl

 

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a method of reducing the concentration of barium in the water.

The level of technology

Barium is often fed to the waste water in the course of industrial production. The presence of barium in industrial waste waters, as a rule, makes them toxic, so it must be removed from wastewater in order to ensure proper drainage. If the barium is removed from wastewater before they lead, barium can leak into groundwater and soil. Ground water in the Midwestern United States contain soluble barium. Exposure to barium can cause, among other things, gastrointestinal disorders, muscle weakness and high blood pressure.

It is well known that during water treatment due to the presence of barium on the membrane are formed deposits. To protect the membrane from deposits, pre, before water in the membrane device, the processing to remove barium. Developed several ways to reduce the concentration of barium in groundwater and wastewater.

One way to reduce the concentration of barium is a chemical precipitation of barium carbonate by liming water. However, the process of deposition and removal of barium by liming is strongly dependent on pH. That deposition was the effective water should have a pH of 10.0 to 10.5. Another way to reduce the concentration of barium is a chemical precipitation of barium sulfate using coagulants such as aluminum sulfate or iron. However, due to the fact that the reaction of precipitation of barium sulphate is slow for the removal of barium using conventional coagulation desired two-stage precipitation installation.

Another way of reducing the concentration of barium in water involves the use of ion-exchange devices. However, ion-exchange devices require frequent regeneration of the resin by means of additional chemicals. Such processing, manipulation and abstraction regenerating chemicals is the main disadvantage of this method. To reduce the concentration of barium in water also use reverse osmosis reverse osmosis - RO). However, in RO plants often leads to the formation of deposits on the RO membrane when barium reacts with other pollutants, impurities present in the water, with the formation of barium sulfate or barium carbonate. Because this decreases the efficiency of the RO installation, and can be damaged membrane. Finally, removal of barium from the water used a process involving the adsorption of barium on the magnesium hydroxide. However, this process is also highly dependent on pH. To the adsorption and removal of barium was effective, the da should have a pH approximately, 11.

All of the above methods include several process steps are complicated or costly. Therefore, there is a need for simple and cost-effective way to remove barium from the water.

The invention

Disclosed a method of removing barium from the water. This method involves the formation of aqueous manganese oxide and mixing the aqueous manganese oxide containing barium with water, the surface water manganese oxide is negatively charged at pH 5.0. Negatively charged water manganese oxide comes into contact with containing barium water, and barium adsorbed water manganese oxide. Then, water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium is separated from the water and get treated exhaust stream.

In one of the embodiments of the invention the aqueous manganese oxide with adsorbed barium is separated from the water by conventional flocculation and separation. In yet another embodiment of the invention the aqueous manganese oxide with adsorbed barium is separated from the water by flocculation with ballast load and separation.

In yet another embodiment of the invention the method includes the formation of aqueous solution of manganese oxide and submission of this solution in a reactor with a fixed bed of inert medium Fed to the reactor with a fixed layer of the aqueous solution of manganese oxide forms a coating on the surface of the inert medium. Then, in an inert environment with direct coating containing barium water. As the water passes inert medium coated, barium from water adsorbed on the water manganese oxide on the surface of the inert medium.

In addition, during the removal of soluble barium by adsorption on water manganese oxide are removed from the water soluble iron and manganese.

Other objectives and advantages of the present invention will become clear and apparent when considering the following description and the accompanying drawings, which only explain the invention.

Brief description of drawings

In Fig. 1 shows a line graph of the adsorption ability of the CME (water manganese oxide) in relation to the concentration of the barium cation in water.

In Fig. 2 shows a line graph illustrating the effect of pH on the adsorption capacity of the CME (water manganese oxide) with respect to cations of barium in the water.

In Fig. 3 shows a line graph illustrating the rate of removal of barium from the water using the CME.

In Fig. 4 presents a line graph of adsorption capacity solutions CME different concentrations with respect to cations of barium in the presence of competing cations.

In Fig. 5 presents a line graph of the adsorption ability of the CME with respect to cations of barium in water in the absence of jumping the dominant cations.

In Fig. 6 presents a line graph of the adsorption ability of the CME with respect to cations of barium in high concentrations in the presence of competing cations.

In Fig. 7 shows a diagram of the installation and the method of removal of barium from water using flocculation installation with mixed layer.

In Fig. 8 shows a diagram of the installation and the method of removal of barium from water using flocculation installation with mixed layer and the ballast load.

In Fig. 9 shows a diagram of the installation and the method of removal of barium from the water using a setup with a fixed layer.

Description of exemplary embodiments of the invention

The present invention relates to an adsorption process for the removal of the water of dissolved barium. To reduce the concentration of barium in water contaminated water is mixed with the aqueous solution of manganese oxide (hydrous manganese oxide - HMO). CME is amorphous in nature and has a highly reactive surface. When mixing containing barium water with a solution of the CME, dissolved barium adsorbed on the reactive surface of the CME. Then, CME and adsorbed barium is separated from the water and get treated exhaust stream with a reduced concentration of barium.

Isoelectric point of the CME, that is, the point of zero charge (p pzc), lies between the 4.8 and 5.0. The point of zero charge reflects the pH of the solution in which the total charge of the surface of the CME is equal to zero. Thus, when the CME is dipped in a solution with a pH of from about 4.8 to about 5.0, surface CME is characterized by zero net charge. However, if the pH of the solution is less than approximately 4,8, acidic water is more protons than the number of hydroxyl groups, therefore, the surface of the CME acquires a positive charge. Similarly, when the pH of the solution is greater than about 5.0, surface CME acquires a negative charge attracts positively charged cations.

The typical pH of untreated groundwater and industrial wastewater is in a range from about 6.5 to about 8.5. Therefore, when an unhandled containing barium water goes in contact with the CME in the solution, the surface of the CME becomes negatively charged and attracts the positive ions of barium, BA2+. Described in this document method, typically, allows to reduce the concentration of barium in the water or wastewater to approximately 50 parts per billion, and in some circumstances can lead to a decrease in the concentration of barium to approximately 20 parts per billion or less.

During the tests was prepared p is the target of the CME with pH, equal to 4.0, it was slowly stirred over night. Then, different doses of a solution of the CME mixed with water, the concentration of barium which was 1.00 mg/l No other cations in the water was not present. Each dose of CME was mixed with water for 4 hours. the pH of each reaction mixture ranged from 7.5 to 8.0. Line graph shown in Fig. 1, reflects the adsorption capacity of the CME with respect to cations of barium in the water. As shown in the graph, the preferred concentration of the solution of the CME is from approximately 5 to 10 mg/l when the initial concentration of barium in the raw water, approximately 1 mg/L.

Also we tested different conditions of pH to determine the effect of pH on the adsorption capacity of the CME. Was prepared solution of the CME with a pH of 4.0, it was slowly stirred over night. Then, the solution of the CME with a concentration of 10 mg/l was added into the water with the concentration of barium 1.0 mg/L. No other cations in the water was not present. The solution of the CME was mixed with water for 4 hours under different conditions of pH. Line graph shown in Fig. 2, reflects the optimal conditions of pH from the viewpoint of adsorption capacity of the CME with respect to cations of barium in the water. As shown in Fig. 2, the preferred pH value of about or more than 5.5.

Was also investigated optimal kinetics is eacli adsorption of barium on HMOs. The solution of the CME was mixed with water containing approximately 1 mg/l of barium. As seen on the line graph shown in Fig. 3, the intensity of absorption of barium CME is very high. Adsorption capacity of the CME with respect to barium in the presence of other competing cations shown in Figure 4.

The above tests were carried out with water containing only the barium cations. Therefore, an additional test was carried out to determine the influence of the presence of cations of iron, Fe2+on the adsorption capacity of the CME with respect to cations of barium. Fe2+was aeronavali in solution at pH of 7.5, for 30 minutes. A solution of 1.00 mg/l BA2+and a solution of 10 mg/l CME added to a solution of Fe2+. The mixture was stirred for 10 minutes, then was filtered using 0.45 µm filter. The concentration of barium in the treated water decreased to 15 mcg/L.

In addition, tests were carried out to determine the influence of the conjugated oxidation of iron on the adsorption capacity of the education in relation to ions of barium. Fe2+and VA2+mixed with each other in solution. The concentration of BA2+was 1,00 m/L. Then added a solution of the CME with a concentration of 10 mg/L. the Mixture was aeronavali 30 minutes at pH of 7.5. Then the mixture was filtered on a filter of 0.45 μm. The concentration of barium in the treated water was reduced to 90 µg/L.

The method of adsorption of b the model was also tested in the presence of competing cations. In this example, different doses of the CME was mixed with water containing different cations, for 10 minutes at pH of 7.5. The impurities present in the raw water are listed in table 1, below.

Table 1
Contaminating impurityThe concentration in the original thread
Ba2+1.0 mg/l
Ca2+45 mg/l
Mg2+9.0 mg/l
Sr2+0.21 mg/l
Fe3+0,60 mg/l
Mn2+0.06 mg/l
Alkalinity280 mg/l in the form of caso3

The linear graph shown in figure 4, illustrates the adsorption capacity of the solution of the CME with different concentration with respect to cations of barium in the presence of competing cations.

In the examples described above, when the concentration of the solution of the CME was 40 mg/l, the concentration of cations in obrabotan the th water decreased even more, as shown in table 2.

Table 2
Contaminating impurityConcentration in the exhaust stream
Ba2+0.038 mg/l
Ca2+39 mg/l
Mg2+8.5 mg/l
Sr2+0.15 mg/l
Fe3+< 0.01 mg/l
Mn2+< 0.02 mg/l

The method of adsorption is carried barium on the CME also experienced in water containing barium in high concentrations and do not contain competing cations. CME was mixed with water, the concentration of barium which was 15 mg/L. the Mixture was stirred 10 minutes at a pH of from 7.5 to 8.0. Used different concentrations of HMOs. The linear graph shown in Figure 5, reflects the adsorption capacity of the CME with respect to cations of barium in the absence of competing cations. As shown in the graph, one of the preferred concentrations of the solution of the CME is approximately 100 mg/l for the concentration of barium in the raw water,approximately 15 mg/L.

The method of adsorption is carried barium also experienced in water containing barium in high concentrations, in the presence of competing cations. CME was mixed with water, the concentration of barium which was 15 mg/L. the Mixture was stirred 10 minutes at a pH of from 7.5 to 8.0. Used different concentrations of HMOs. Contaminants present in the wastewater stream are listed in table 3, below.

Table 3
Contaminating impurityThe concentration in the original thread
Ba2+15 mg/l
Ca2+17 mg/l
Mg2+10 mg/l
Sr2+0.20 mg/l
Fe3+0,40 mg/l
Mn2+0.06 mg/l
Alkalinity100 mg/l in the form of caso3

The linear graph shown in Fig.6 illustrates the adsorption capacity of the CME with respect to cations of barium in high koncentraciis the presence of competing cations.

The method of adsorption is carried barium also experienced in water containing barium in high concentrations, in the presence of competing cations, using the solution of the CME with a concentration of 90 mg/L. CME was mixed with water, the concentration of barium which was 15 mg/L. the Mixture was stirred 10 minutes at a pH of from 7.5 to 8.0. Contaminants present in the wastewater stream, and their concentration in the waste stream are shown in table 4.

Table 4
Contaminating impurityConcentration in the exhaust stream
Ba2+0,858 mg/l
Ca2+11,5 mg/l
Mg2+9.0 mg/l
Sr2+0.10 mg/l
Fe3+0.01 mg/l

Mn2+< 0.01 mg/l

The way to remove barium and installation of 1, allowing effective way to reduce the concentration of barium in water, are explained in Fig.7. The solution of the CME is formed in the reactor is HMO 10. Table 5 describes several ways to obtain CME.

Table 5
Methods of obtaining CMERedox reaction
The ion oxidation of divalent manganese (Mn2+) permanganate-ion (MnO4-)3Mn2++ 2MnO4-+ 2H2About → 5MnO2(S)+ 4H+
The ion oxidation of divalent manganese (Mn2+) chlorine (Cl2)Cl2+ Mn2++ 2H2O → MnO2(S)+ 2Cl-+ 4H+
Oxidation of ferrous iron ion (Fe2+) permanganate-ion (MnO4-)3Fe2++ MnO4-+ 7H2O → MnO2(S)+ 3Fe(OH)3+ 5H+

In the embodiment of the invention, illustrated in Fig.7, the CME is prepared by mixing a solution of potassium permanganate (KMnO4and solution of manganese sulfate (MnSO4in the pipe 12 downdraft. In one example, 42,08 g KMnO4served in the reactor 10 through line 14, 61,52 g MnSO4served in the reactor 10 through line 16. These reagents are mixed in the reactor 10 in order to obtain the solution of the CME. In the ode of this reaction is optimal for the formation of CME pH is from, approximately 4.0 to approximately 4,5. After the formation of the CME in the reactor 10 through line 18 serves NaOH to bring the pH of the solution of the CME up to, approximately, 8,0.

After the initial solution of the CME is prepared, a quantity of a solution of the CME is supplied from the reactor 10 obtain CME in the reactor 20 removal of barium on line 28. The dose of the solution of the CME entering the reactor 20 removal of barium, can be adjusted by means of a pump 24. Containing barium water is fed into the reactor 20 removal of barium on line 26 and mixed with a solution of the CME.

In this embodiment of the invention in the reactor 20 removal of barium has a pipe 22 downdraft intended for mixing the solution of the CME and containing barium water. As mixing the solution of the CME with containing barium water, the negatively charged surface of CME attracts positively charged barium ions adsorbed on the surface of the CME. Although the reaction time can vary, the preferred reaction time in the reactor 20 removal of barium is approximately 10 minutes.

To enhance settling and separation of the mixture of water and CME with adsorbed barium send in flocculation tank 30 where it is mixed with occulant to cause the formation of flakes. The occulant add lines 34. In this embodiment of the invention in Flo is colazione tank 30 also includes a pipe 32 downdraft, designed for mixing CME with adsorbed barium with occulant. One example of a occulant is a polymer occulant.

In some embodiments of the invention occulation may not be required. However, in some cases, mixing CME with adsorbed barium with occulant has advantages as a occulant causes accumulation of CME with adsorbed barium around occulant and the formation of flakes. Due to this intensifying advocacy and division of CME with adsorbed barium and water.

The treated water containing cereal derives from flocculating reservoir 30 and into the separator the liquid and solid phases, such as the sump 36. As defending cereals, processed waste stream in the upper part through a series of prefabricated gutters or thin plates 38, and the treated exhaust stream is directed through line 44 for further processing in respect of other contaminants, if necessary. For example, in one of the embodiments of the invention the treated exhaust stream is directed along the line 44 in setting RO 40 for additional clarification. The filtrate from the RO installation 40 away along the line of the filtrate 46, divert waste stream in line 48. Although figure 7 shows the settling tank 36, in which are prefabricated gutters or thin plate 3, professionals in this field should understand that in some lagoons such elements may not be required.

As defending flakes they settle to the bottom of the tank 36, which produces a sludge. The sludge by means of a pump 42 is directed in line 50, where at least part of the slurry containing the CME, may be filed in the reactor 20 removal of barium on line 54 and reused in the plant. Recycled HMOs participating in additional adsorption of barium from the wastewater stream due to the engagement of unused centers of adsorption of reactive HMOs. The remaining sludge can be issued directly by the line 52 or first, prior to disposal as waste, subjected to thickening and dehydration.

In some embodiments of the invention, instead of the usual devices for lighting can be used to install flocculation with ballast load. Installation flocculation with ballast load for the formation of flakes used micropeak or other ballast. Additional details for understanding the processes of flocculation with ballast load can be obtained from U.S. patent No. 4927543 and 5730864, the description of which definitely is incorporated herein by reference.

Fig illustrated installation 100 and method of removing barium from the water using the mouth of ovci flocculation with ballast load. In this embodiment of the invention CME get in the reactor 110, which includes a tube 112 downdraft. In this embodiment of the invention KMnO4add in the reactor 110 receive CME on line 114, MnSO4add in the reactor 110 through line 116. In addition, NaOH added to the solution of the CME in the reactor 110 through line 118 to regulate the pH of the CME.

After the initial solution of the CME is prepared, a quantity of a solution of the CME is supplied from the reactor 110 receive CME in the reactor 120 removal of barium on line 128. Dose of the solution of the CME entering the reactor 20 removal of barium, can be adjusted by means of a pump 124. Containing barium water is fed into the reactor 120 removal of barium on line 126 and mixed with a solution of the CME. In this embodiment of the invention in the reactor 120 removal of barium has a pipe 122 downdraft intended for mixing the solution of the CME and containing barium water. As mixing the solution of the CME with containing barium water, the negatively charged surface of CME attracts positively charged barium ions adsorbed on the surface of the CME. Although the reaction time can vary, the preferred reaction time in the reactor 120 removal of barium is approximately 10 minutes.

After that, the mixture of water and CME with adsorbed barium send in reservoirs is 130 flocculation with ballast load, where it is mixed with ballast, such as micropenis, and with occulant in the pipe 132. The occulant add line 134, the ballast serves on line 158. CME with adsorbed barium is collected and accumulated around the ballast, forming flakes.

The treated water containing cereal derives from flocculating tank 130 and enters the separator liquid and solid phases, such as the sump 136. As defending cereals, processed waste stream in the upper part through a series of prefabricated gutters or thin plates 138, then this treated waste stream is sent for further processing in respect of other contaminants, if necessary. For example, in one of the embodiments of the invention the treated exhaust stream is directed to the installation of RO 140 for additional clarification. The filtrate from the RO installation 140 divert along the line of the filtrate 146, divert waste stream in line 148. Although in Fig. 8 shows the sump 136, which has a prefabricated trough or trap 138, specialists in this field should understand that in some lagoons such elements may not be required.

As defending flakes they settle to the bottom of the tank 136, which produce a slurry. Sludge away by means of a pump 142, at least part of the sludge can be directed into the separator 156, such as a hydrocyclone. During the section is of the hydrocyclone sludge with lower density, containing CME with adsorbed barium, is separated from the sludge with higher density, containing ballast. At least part of the ballast can be directed in flocculation tank 130 and reused in the process. Recycled ballast stimulates additional occulation CME with adsorbed barium. Sludge with lower density, containing CME with adsorbed barium, taken at the top of the hydrocyclone, a portion of the sludge with lower density can be directed into the reactor 120 removal of barium on line 154 and reused in the process. Recycled HMOs participating in additional adsorption of barium from the wastewater stream. Part of the sludge with higher density, containing the ballast, can be selected from the hydrocyclone 156 and directed in flocculation tank 130 through line 158. The remaining sludge can be issued directly by line 152 or the first, before disposal as waste, subjected to thickening and dehydration.

Another variant implementation of the invention is illustrated Figure 9. In this embodiment of the invention, the barium is removed from the waste stream in the installation of 200 fixed bed. In this embodiment of the invention KMnO4add in the reactor 210 receive CME on line 214, MnSO4add in the reactor 210 through line 216. In addition, NaOH DOB is given in the solution of the CME in the reactor 210 through line 218 to adjust the pH of the CME. The solution of the CME is prepared in the reactor 210 through the pipe 212 downdraft. The solution of the CME is served in a Packed column 220 fixed bed filled with an inert medium such as sand or carbon. The solution of the CME forms a coating on the surface of the inert environment before the column serves containing barium water. The solution of the CME can be enjoyed in the column 220 on line 224. Excess CME away from the column 220 on line 230. Containing barium water can be enjoyed in the column 220 through line 222 to a specific value of the hydraulic load in either downstream or in the mode of the ascending stream.

As containing barium water comes in contact with HMO coverage inert environment, negatively charged surface CME attracts positively charged ions of barium contained in the water adsorbed on the surface of the CME. Depending on the configuration of the column, with a downward or upward flow of treated waste stream with a reduced concentration of barium selected in the lower or upper part of the column, respectively. The treated exhaust stream away from the column 220, line 232, if necessary, it can be sent for additional processing in respect of other pollutants. For example, in one of the embodiments of the invention the treated waste stream is sent on the line is 232 in the installation of RO 234 for additional clarification. The filtrate from the installation divert along the line of the filtrate 236, divert waste stream through line 238. CME with adsorbed barium can be removed from the column by backwashing. Liquid for backwashing served in the column 220 on line 226. The slurry obtained after backwashing, can be discharged through line 228, it is collected in a storage tank for sludge disposal.

Installation with a porous layer, such as installation, described above, has advantages, as it can be used as an additional process area of the plant without changing the existing wastewater plant.

In the context of this document, the term "water" refers to any aqueous stream containing barium, including, to the flow of water, wastewater, groundwater and industrial wastewater. In the context of this document, the term "CME" refers to all types of water and oxides of manganese, including water oxide manganese (III) oxide and water manganese (II). However, an aqueous manganese oxide (IV) has a higher adsorption capacity than the other water oxides of manganese, so water manganese oxide (IV) is preferred for the adsorption is carried barium.

Of course, the present invention can be implemented in other ways than those specifically described herein, without octuple what I essential features of the present invention. Presents embodiments of the invention should be considered in all respects as having explanatory and not restrictive, and all changes that do not go beyond sense and series equivalent of this formula are included in the scope of the present invention.

1. Method of removing barium from the water, including:
the formation of water manganese oxide;
mixing water manganese oxide containing barium water so that water manganese oxide was negatively charged at a pH of more than 4.8;
the adsorption is carried barium from the water at the negatively charged aqueous manganese oxide;
mixing occulant with water and aqueous manganese oxide with adsorbed barium;
the formation of sludge, where the slurry contains flakes with water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium; and
Department of flakes with an aqueous manganese oxide with adsorbed barium from the water and obtaining a treated exhaust stream.

2. The method according to claim 1, further comprising receiving water manganese oxide one of the following ways:
the ion oxidation of divalent manganese permanganate-ion, ion oxidation of divalent manganese chlorine or oxidation of ferrous iron ion permanganate-ion.

3. The method according to claim 2, further including:
receiving water manganese oxide by mixing manganese sulfate (II) and VT is Minatom potassium;
the supply of water and manganese oxide in the reactor;
mixing water manganese oxide containing barium water.

4. The method according to claim 3, further including:
the direction of manganese sulfate (II) and potassium permanganate in a pipe with downward flow in the pipe downdraft has a stirrer;
introduction downstream sulfate manganese (II) and potassium permanganate through a pipe with a downward flow; and
the mixing of sulfate manganese (II) and potassium permanganate using a stirrer located in the pipe with a downward flow.

5. The method according to claim 1, further including:
recycling at least part of the sludge; and
the mixing part of the recycled sludge with a water oxide containing manganese and barium water.

6. The method according to claim 1, including feeding the treated exhaust stream into the reverse osmosis unit and receiving flow of filtrate and return flow.

7. The method according to claim 1, including the Department of water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium from water by flocculation with ballast load.

8. The method according to claim 7, in which the occulation with the ballast load comprises:
mixing occulant, ballast and water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium obtaining flakes with ballast load;
defending flakes with ballast load receiving sludge;
the feed slurry is a separator and separating the ballast from the sludge; and
recycling ballast in the installation flocculation with ballast load.

9. The method of claim 8, where receiving the slurry includes:
obtaining a slurry with lower density slurry with higher density, where the sludge with lower density contains water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium, and sludge with higher density contains the ballast; and
separating at least part of the sludge with a lower density of sludge with a higher density.

10. The method according to claim 9, further including:
recycling at least part of the sludge with lower density containing aqueous manganese oxide with adsorbed barium; and
mixing at least part of the recycled sludge with lower density with water oxide containing manganese and barium water.

11. The method according to claim 1, further including:
the formation of inert material in the installation with a fixed coating layer from an aqueous manganese oxide;
feed containing barium water in the installation of fixed bed;
the adsorption is carried barium from the water water manganese oxide covering inert material; and
obtaining a treated exhaust stream.

12. The method according to claim 1, further comprising processing containing barium water water manganese oxide so that the treated exhaust stream has a concentration of barium approximately 50 parts per billion or m is it.

13. The method according to item 12, further comprising processing containing barium water water manganese oxide so that the treated exhaust stream has a concentration of barium, approximately 20 parts per billion or less.

14. The method according to claim 1, which contains barium water is characterized by a pH of from 5.0 to 10.0.

15. The method according to claim 1, in which the water concentration of the oxide of manganese is approximately from 5 to 10 mg/l 1 mg/l of barium in the raw water.

16. Method of removing barium from the water, including:
receiving water solution of manganese oxide in the first reservoir;
the flow of aqueous solution of manganese oxide in the reactor for the removal of barium;
the mix containing barium water with a water solution of manganese oxide in the reactor for the removal of barium with the formation in the reactor, removal of the barium mixture of the aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water, where the pH of the mixture aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water is about 4.8 or more and causes the formation of a negative charge on the surface of the water manganese oxide;
the adsorption is carried barium from the water at the negatively charged surface water manganese oxide in a mixture of aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water;
the flow of the mixture of the aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water in flocculation reservoir;
mixing occulant with a mixture of aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water, containing the her adsorbed barium;
the formation of flakes in the mixture aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water, where the flakes contain water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium and cereals form a slurry;
after mixing of occulant with a mixture of aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water feed mixture solution of an aqueous manganese oxide/water containing cereals in the sump;
the settling of the sludge in the settling tank and receiving the treated exhaust stream; and
disposal of sludge from the clarifier.

17. The method according to clause 16, including:
separation from the slurry, at least part of the water manganese oxide with adsorbed barium; and
recycling the separated aqueous manganese oxide with adsorbed barium by mixing the aqueous solution of manganese oxide and containing barium water separated from water by manganese oxide with adsorbed barium.

18. The method according to item 16, further comprising the formation of aqueous solution of manganese oxide, characterized by a pH of about 4,0.

19. The method according to p, further comprising mixing an aqueous manganese oxide containing barium with water so that the pH of the mixture is approximately 5,5 or more.

20. The method according to item 16, further comprising removing iron and manganese from water by adsorption is carried iron and manganese from water by a negatively charged surface water manganese oxide.

21. Method of removing Bari is out of the water, including:
the formation of aqueous solution of manganese oxide in the first reservoir;
the flow of aqueous solution of manganese oxide in the reactor for the removal of barium;
the mix containing barium water with a water solution of manganese oxide in the reactor for the removal of barium with the formation of a mixture of an aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water, where the pH of the mixture aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water is about 4.8 or more and leads to an increase of negative charge on the surface of the water manganese oxide;
the adsorption is carried barium from the water at the negatively charged surface water manganese oxide;
the flow of the mixture of the aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water in flocculation reservoir;
mixing occulant and ballast with a mixture of aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water;
the formation of flakes, where the flakes contain ballast and manganese oxide with adsorbed barium;
after mixing of occulant and ballast with a mixture of aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water feed mixture solution of an aqueous manganese oxide/water in the sump;
settling floc in the clarifier sludge formation and the treated exhaust stream;
the flow of sludge from the sedimentation tank to the separator and separation from the slurry, at least part of the ballast; and
the recirculation of the separated ballast and mixing the separated ballast with a mixture of aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water.

22. The method according to item 21, including:
separation from the slurry, at least part of the manganese oxide with adsorbed barium;
the recirculation of the separated manganese oxide with adsorbed barium; and
the mixing of the separated manganese oxide with adsorbed barium and mixtures of the aqueous solution of manganese oxide/water.

23. The method according to item 22, which includes feeding the treated exhaust stream into the reverse osmosis and filtration of the treated exhaust stream with the formation of flow of the filtrate and return flow.

24. The method according to item 21, in which the reactor removal of barium includes pipe downdraft stop it with a mixer, and the method includes:
the flow of aqueous solution of manganese oxide and containing barium water in the upper part of the pipe with a downward flow; and
enter in the pipe downstream of the water solution of manganese oxide and containing barium water;
mixing of the aqueous solution of manganese oxide and containing barium water as it moves aqueous solution of manganese oxide and containing barium water down the pipe with downward flow.

25. The method according to item 22, in which flocculation tank includes a pipe downdraft stop it with a mixer, and the method includes the use of a mixer in the pipe with a downward flow for mixing the occulant and ballast with a mixture of plants is EO water manganese oxide/water.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial waste water treatment. Modified natural zeolite is used for treatment. The natural zeolite is modified with a solution of hexamethyldisilazane in toluene. The modified zeolite is dried successively in open air and in a muffle furnace at temperature of 110°C.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain modified zeolite having zinc sorption capacity of 95 mg/g and nickel sorption capacity of 94 mg/g.

3 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: oil-and-gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to environmental protection, particularly, to removal of spilled oil products from sea or lake surfaces. Absorbent, for example, peat-moss is delivered by whatever transport facility to oil spillage. Said absorbent is sprayed thereto and there above. Said peat-moss absorbs oil phase and separates it from water phase. Obtained with oil encapsulated in peat pores is collected and processed. Absorbent delivery package is composed by bag wherein said peat-moss is compacted and twisted. Said package comprises blast charge intended for its breaking to release absorbent therefrom. Absorbed oil products are collected by means of partially immersed ship drag-net, or slick bars, or oil collectors or pumps. Then, peat-moss with absorbed oil is processed to separate water mechanically or said peat is placed in bags and stored for delivery to shore for further processing.

EFFECT: perfected procedure, improved and simplified processing.

14 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: physics, acoustics.

SUBSTANCE: invention is used to protect underwater structures and equipment from biofouling. The method includes, at the output of a bypass channel, generating and emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals which act on fish and change their behavioural characteristics; simultaneously emitting noise signals and creating a dense air-bubble screen which rises on the surface of biofouling and impurities. The air-bubble screen and the noise acoustic waves are additional barriers for aggregation of fish near the output of the bypass channel with superheated water. A floating boom is turned on the water surface to form a continuous barrier for biofouling and impurities rising to the surface, which are then collected in form of dirty foam. A mobile system equipped with acoustic radiators is used to forcefully move the aggregation of fish - natural predators for biofouling, from a remote part of a water body to a region adjacent to a supply channel by continuously emitting energy, information, high-gradient and bioresonance signals. Simultaneously, a second acoustic module and a second acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for fish - natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield in the narrowest part of the water body. Recycled water being cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities and fish are not released from this part of the water body. Simultaneously, a third acoustic module and a third acoustic-bubble module are used to form an acoustic barrier for juvenile fish- natural predators of biofouling, as well as an acoustic-bubble shield at the input of the supply channel of the facility of the power system. As a result, recycled water cooled in the water body is further purified from biofouling and impurities. Simultaneously, intense ultrasonic waves and low-frequency electromagnetic waves act on the biofouling at the input of a water-intake window, with simultaneous removal of biofouling from the mechanical protective screen, and at the output of the inlet pipe of the underwater structure. Simultaneously, an acoustic filter mounted at the input of the equipment of the facility of the power system performs fine purification of water from biofouling, as well as biological and mechanical impurities.

EFFECT: high quality of purification and reliability of protecting underwater structures and equipment from biofouling.

9 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorption extraction of caesium radionuclides from aqueous solutions. The method of extracting caesium radionuclides includes filtering an aqueous solution through a selective sorbent which is iron-potassium ferrocyanide on a support, desorption of caesium from the sorbent with an alkaline solution containing Trilon B and potassium oxalate. The eluate obtained from desorption is further filtered through a sorbent which is nickel-potassium ferrocyanide.

EFFECT: faster caesium extraction and minimal volume of obtained concentrate containing caesium radionuclides.

1 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment by combination of processes including coagulation, sedimentation, flocculation and ballast flocculation additionally perfected by simplified circulation of sediment. Sediment circulation system allows operation at higher density of sediment and with less notable losses of water. Here, sediment accumulated in sedimentation zone bottom part is forced through hydraulic cyclone definite number of times in periodic cycles to increase the density of extracted sediment of solid particles. This system can be controlled also with the help of suspended solid product analyser, flow metre and/or timer.

EFFECT: control over fluid flow behaviour with the help of above described method.

21 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: recycling water system for auto washing comprises technological equipment associated with a system of pipelines with a waste-water purifying apparatus, and includes a storage tank 47, into which waste water flows by gravity, a pump 48 for supplying water from the storage tank 47 into ta reactor 49, a compressor 52 for mixing a medium in the reactor 49, a metering pump 51 of a working solution of a coagulant, a flotation plant 54, a storage tank 59 for collecting the purified water after the flotation plant 54, course 61 and fine 66 mesh filters, a storage tank 63 for collecting the purified water after course mesh filters, a diaphragm pump 55 and a receiving tank of sludge 56.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of waste-water treatment and the overall system performance.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: bacterial strain Exiguobacterium mexicanum RNCIM B-11011 is proposed, having the ability to dispose quickly of oil, diesel fuel, motor oil, gas condensate.

EFFECT: strain can be used to clean soil and water reservoirs contaminated by crude oil and petroleum products in a wide temperature range.

3 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of contaminated water. This method comprises bringing of water in contact with at least one adsorbent powder in zone (2) of preliminary interaction with mixing. Then, follow flocculation with weighted flakes and deposition. Mix of sediment, ballast and adsorbent powder is removed from sedimentation zone bottom (5). Said mix is fed into hydraulic cyclone (11) to displace hydrocyclone (11) top product containing the mix of sediment and adsorbent powder into transition zone (14). Mix of sediment and adsorbent powder are returned from transition zone (14) to zone (2) of preliminary interaction. Process incorporates the step whereat at least one index of adsorbent powder in preliminary interaction zone (2) is obtained. Suspension of green adsorbent powder in water is fed upstream of zone (2) when concentration of said powder in this zone is lower than preset threshold value and the step of acidification of said sorbent.

EFFECT: production of water suitable for drinking.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sorbent is obtained by thermal processing of sapropel with content of mineral component 54-85%. Thermal processing is carried out at a temperature of 300-350°C in an air medium. The obtained sorbent is bifunctional.

EFFECT: obtaining the sorbent suitable for simultaneous extraction of non-polar substances and heavy metals from water solutions.

5 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of zinc extraction from bottom sediments with an ionic liquid includes preparation of an analytic sample. Extraction of zinc from the solid sample is performed with application of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaphosphate with additives of ammonium thiocyanate and potassium iodide with further quantitative determination of zinc (II) ions in a concentrate of an organic phase of the ionic liquid.

EFFECT: providing degree of element extraction close to one hundred percent.

1 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sorbents are obtained by interaction of ferrous sulphate and calcium hydroxide in a water medium, which contains fibrillated cellulose fibres. Particles of iron hydroxide and calcium sulphate formed as a result of the interaction are immobilised on the fibres with formation of a sorbent.

EFFECT: increased content of an active phase in the sorbent.

2 cl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorbents for purification of water from arsenic. A sorbent contains substances, selected from polyvinyl alcohol, polyacrylamide, methycellulose, polyethylene glycol as a water-soluble polymer. A method of the sorbent obtaining includes mixing wastes of deironing plants, containing 10-12% of iron oxyhydroxide with a water solution of a polymer and glycerol. A mixture is processed by ultrasound, kept for 24 hours. The formed sediment is dried at 50-60°C.

EFFECT: obtaining the sorbent for purification of water media from arsenic contains nanophase oxyhydroxide, separated from the wastes of plants for underground water deironing, the water-soluble polymer and glycerol.

3 cl, 1 tbl, 4 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sorbent is obtained by mixing iron-containing wastes of metallurgical production with wastes of production of mineral fertilisers and anionic SAS, representing derivatives of fatty acids. Mixing is performed at temperature 60°C. Mixture is homogenised until homogenous state is achieved. Sorbent, containing, counted per element composition, wt %: calcium - 34, oxygen - 44, carbon - 13, iron - 8, hydrogen - 0.6, sodium - 0.4.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to use iron-containing wastes of metallurgical production and mineral fertilisers to obtain sorbent with higher sorption ability and lower water absorption.

2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes contact of ferromagnetic carbon sorbent with water and extraction of pollutant-saturated sorbent by magnetic separation, and as ferromagnetic carbon sorbent applied is iron-carbon composite, which contains 30-60 wt % of iron, milled in presence of surface-active substance to particle size 0.1-1 mcm, obtained mass is suspended in water by ultrasonic processing in mode of cavitation until obtaining aggregative- and sedimentation- stable suspension, which contains 10-30 wt % of composite, which is introduced into water to be purified in such quantity that weight concentration of composite in water to be purified 2-40 times exceeds weight concentration of pollutant.

EFFECT: increase of water purification degree.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to sorbents for extraction of metabolic waste products from dialytic fluid. Sorbent includes first layer, consisting of mixture of particles of immobilised enzyme, which splits uremic toxins, and particles of cation exchanger. Size of cation exchanger particles constitutes from 10 to 1000 microns. Sorbent can additionally contain second layer, which consists of cation exchanger particles, and third layer, consisting of anion exchanger particles, mixed with particles of activated carbon.

EFFECT: possibility of regulating loss of dialysate pressure in first layer of sorbent depending on size of cation exchanger particles in said layer.

17 cl, 4 dwg, 15 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to removal of contaminants from gas flow by contact with recyclable sorbent. Proposed method comprises a) bringing gas flow containing H2S in contact with chlorine-bearing compound to form mixed gas flow; b) bringing said mixed flow in contact with sorbent in sorption zone to produce first product gas flow and sulfur-saturated sorbent wherein the latter includes zinc, silicon dioxide and promoter metal; c) drying of said sulfur-saturated sorbent to obtain sulfur-saturated dried sorbent; d) bringing said dried sorbent in contact with regeneration gas flow in regeneration zone to obtain regenerated sorbent including zinc-containing compound, silicate and promoter metal and off-gas flow; e) returning regenerated sorbent in sorption zone to produce renewed sorbent including zinc, silicon dioxide and promoter metal; f) bringing renewed sorbent in contact with said mixed gas flow in sorption zone to produce second product gas flow and sulfur-bearing sorbent.

EFFECT: limited silicate formation.

20 cl, 2 dwg, 4 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to desulfurisation. Adsorbent for removal of sulfur from cracked gasoline or diesel fuel comprises carrier consisting of silica source, inorganic oxide-based binder, metal oxide selected from IIB-group and catalyst metal suitable for recovery of sulfur reduced to hydrogen sulphide. Adsorbent features magnitude "з"<0.5, where "з" is ratio between the crystalline catalyst metal amount to that of adsorbent (in percentage). Reduced catalyst metal in adsorbent is preferably uniformly dispersed over carrier surface to make a monolayer. Invention covers also the adsorbent production process and its application for removal of sulfur from fluid flow.

EFFECT: higher activity of adsorbent.

20 cl, 1 dwg, 2 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of modifying the surface of an inorganic oxide. The method involves treating an inorganic oxide with a water-soluble nickel (II) salt to form nickel (II) oxide nanoparticles on the surface of the inorganic oxide. The inorganic oxide and an alkali are successively added to the aqueous nickel (II) salt solution preheated to 50-90°C. When the obtained mixture cools down, a solution of sodium tetrahydroborate in an aliphatic alcohol is then added. An "aliphatic alcohol - water" azeotropic mixture is then distilled from the obtained product. The product is held at 70-90°C and then successively washed in water and twice in aliphatic alcohol. The separated precipitate is held in air until nickel is completely oxidised to nickel (II). The inorganic oxide used is aluminium oxide or silicon oxide.

EFFECT: low power consumption of the process.

3 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to production of inorganic sorbents. Proposed method comprises treatment of titanium dioxide consisting of crystalline phases of anatase and rutile by ultrasound in 2n-solution of NaOH or HCl for 10 min. Obtained sorbent is flushed in decantation at least three times and dried at 110°C.

EFFECT: 6-4 times decrease in concentration of iron and manganese in water.

1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to adsorption separation of gases. Proposed carbon dioxide absorber containing potassium carbonate applied on porous matrix of yttrium oxide. Invention covers two methods of absorber production. Method of carbon dioxide removal from gas mixes in implemented at 20-200°C. Proposed method can be used for adsorption separation of carbon dioxide from atmospheric air in cyclic processes under conditions of thermal regeneration or shot-cycle heatless adsorption.

EFFECT: high dynamic capacity and carbon dioxide absorption rate.

4 cl, 4 ex, 2 dwg

FIELD: sorbents.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to developing porous materials and adsorbents, including medicine-destination ones, as effective agents for hemo-, entero-, and vulneosorption, cosmetics, environment-oriented materials, enzyme and cell carriers, biologically active substances, and drugs. Alumina-based sorbent of invention is characterized by meso- and macroporous structure and contains modifying component: polyvinylpyrrolidone-silver complex with 0.05 to 0.3 wt % Ag.

EFFECT: increased adsorption capacity regarding toxins with different molecular weights and acquired bactericidal properties.

3 tbl, 5 ex

Up!