Internal combustion engine with spark ignition

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine comprises compression ratio control mechanism (A) designed to vary compression ratio. Besides, it comprises valve timing control mechanism (B) designed to vary intake valve closing moment wherein preset is the inhibited zone for combination of mechanical compression and intake valve (7) closing moment to inhibit getting of working point in inhibited zone. Said working point represents a combination of mechanical compression degree and intake valve (7) closing moment. Said of mechanical compression degree and intake valve (7) closing moment can vary from current working point in direction towards required one on the side of lower mechanical compression degree without getting in inhibited zone when compression mechanism fails.

EFFECT: required combustion at lower compression ratio at failure of compression control mechanism.

11 cl, 57 dwg

 

The technical FIELD

The invention relates to an internal combustion engine with spark ignition.

The LEVEL of TECHNOLOGY

In the art known internal combustion engine, provided with a gear mechanism, which consists of a hollow sleeve, which can rotate around an axis, and a control rod, which is engaged with the internal thread formed on the inside of a hollow sleeve, and configured to move in the axial direction of a hollow sleeve, if hollow sleeve made with the possibility of rotation in which the spindle is connected with a lever mechanism, which adjusts the stroke uses the electric motor to bring the hollow sleeve into rotation and, thereby, to bring the control rod in motion, and, thus, stroke is made variable, that is made variable degree of mechanical compression (see, for example, Patent Literature 1).

In this internal combustion engine formed gear non-reversible type, so that even when the pressure of the compression or pressure of the combustion stroke is not changed, i.e. the spindle is not moving.

PATENT LITERATURE

Patent Literature 1: patent publication Japan No. 2006-052682 A1.

TECHNICAL TASK

However, if used as per the handout mechanism of the irreversible type, if the motor fails, the spindle gear mechanism will not move, hence, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is held equal to the degree of compression when the motor fails. In this case, if the degree of mechanical compression hold at the level of the high-compression, there is detonation and other problems. In this case, to avoid such issues, the degree of mechanical compression ratio must be reduced. However, in Patent Literature 1 this question is not discussed.

In this regard, while trying to control the moment of closing of the inlet valve in addition to the regulation of the degree of mechanical compression in the engine will be a work area, which should not be exposed to a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve, because of the deterioration in the combustion, that is, Smoking area. Therefore, if the degree of mechanical compression ratio at the time of failure is reduced, it is necessary to prevent the combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve in this restricted area.

The present invention is the creation of an internal combustion engine with spark ignition, which ensures good combustion is nizeyi the degree of mechanical compression, when the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails.

The SOLUTION of the PROBLEM

According to the present invention proposed an internal combustion engine with spark ignition, containing the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression, made with the possibility of changing the degree of mechanical compression, and the mechanism of the camshaft adjustment made to control the closing of the inlet valve, which is used to specify forbidden zone for the combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve to prevent ingress of the operating point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, in a prohibited area and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made variable from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point on the low side the degree of mechanical compression without falling into the forbidden zone, when the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails.

USEFUL EFFECTS of the INVENTION

When the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced, and, thus, prevented from entering the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve in the forbidden zone, owing to what may be the guaranteed good combustion.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

Figure 1 - General view of the internal combustion engine with spark ignition.

Figure 2 is a perspective view with a spatial separation of the parts of the mechanism regulating the degree of compression.

Figure 3 - internal combustion engine at the side in the section.

4 is a mechanism for regulating the valve timing.

5 is a magnitude of lift of the intake valve and the exhaust valve.

6 is a image to explain such concepts as the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual degree of combustion and the degree of the extension.

Fig.7. the ratio between theoretical thermal coefficient of performance (COP) and the degree of the extension.

Fig images for explaining a conventional cycle with that of the ultra-high degree of expansion.

Figure 9 - changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio etc. in accordance with the load on the engine.

Figure 10 is an image showing the forbidden zone and the target line working modes.

11 is an image showing the forbidden zone and the target line working modes.

Fig image, which shows the forbidden zone.

Fig image, which shows the various changes the operating point when fails the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression.

Fig image, which shows different the e changes the operating point then, when it fails, the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression.

Fig - side view in section of an internal combustion engine.

Fig image, showing the worm and worm wheel.

Fig image, which shows the transmission efficiency.

Fig image, which shows the rate of change of the angle of rotation of the Cam shaft.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, showing the changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and opening angle of the throttle.

Fig image, which shows the possible changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio for a fixed period of time.

Fig image, which shows the possible changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio for a fixed period of time.

Fig image, showing the changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and opening angle of the throttle.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the spruce operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig - time chart that shows changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve, the opening angle of the throttle etc.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig - time chart that shows changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve, the opening angle of the throttle etc.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig image, which shows the target slave is tea point and the working point.

Fig image, which shows the target operating point and operating point.

Fig - time chart that shows changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve, the opening angle of the throttle etc.

Fig - time chart that shows changes in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve, the opening angle of the throttle etc.

Fig diagram of the sequence of failure diagnosis of a drive motor.

Fig diagram of the sequence of operations the calculation of the target values.

Fig diagram of the sequence of operations the calculation of the target values.

Fig diagram of the sequence of operations of the drive control mechanism for regulating the degree of compression, etc.

Fig image for explaining the modified version.

Fig - side view in section of another variant implementation of the internal combustion engine.

Fig image, which shows another variant implementation of the worm and worm wheel.

DESCRIPTION of embodiments of the INVENTION

Figure 1 in side view in section showing an internal combustion engine with spark ignition.

With reference to Figure 1, position number 1 indicates as a crankcase, a position number 2 marked block cylinder is in, position number 3 - cylinder head, position number 4 - piston, position number 5 - combustion chamber, the position number 6 is the spark plug located on top in the center of the combustion chamber 5, the position number 7 - inlet valve, the position number 8 is the inlet channel, the position number 9 - exhaust valve and the position number 10 - the discharge channel. The inlet channel 8 is connected through the inlet pipe 11 with a smoothing receiver 12, with each intake branch pipe 11 provided with a fuel injector 13 for fuel injection in the direction of the corresponding inlet channel 8. It should be noted that each fuel injector 13 can be located in each combustion chamber 5, and not attached to each intake branch pipe 11.

Smoothing the receiver 12 is connected through the channel 14 of the air intake with air filter 15. The intake channel 14 is supplied located inside the throttle valve 17, which actuates the drive mechanism 16, and 18 gauge mass flow rate of intake air, which is used, for example, a wire heating element. On the other hand the outlet channel 10 is connected through an exhaust manifold 19, for example, with catalytic Converter 20, containing ternary catalyst. The exhaust manifold 19 is located inside the sensor 21 for monitoring the composition of the fuel mixture.

With the other the hand, in the embodiment of the invention shown in figure 1, the part connecting the crankcase 1 and the motor cylinder block 2 with A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, which can change the relative position of the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2 in the axial direction of the cylinder to change the volume of the combustion chamber 5 when the piston 4 is at top dead center of the compression stroke, and, in addition, provides for a mechanism of B changes the beginning of the actual compression stroke, which can change the beginning of the actual compression stroke. It should be noted that in the embodiment of the invention, which is shown in figure 1, this mechanism B changes the beginning of the actual compression stroke consists of a mechanism for regulating the valve timing, which can regulate the time of closing of the inlet valve 7.

As shown in figure 1, the crankcase 1 and the motor cylinder block 2 are attached to the sensor 22 relative position to register the relative position between the crankshaft 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2. This sensor 22 relative position of the displayed output signal, which shows the change of the distance between the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2. In addition, the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment is attached to the sensor 23 m the ment of opening or closing the valve, which generates an output signal indicating the closing of the intake valve 7. The actuator 16 of the throttle is attached to the sensor 24 of the opening angle of the throttle for generating an output signal indicating the angle of opening of the throttle.

The electronic unit 30 control consists of a digital computer, which is equipped with a read-only memory (ROM) 32, random access memory device (RAM) 33, a Central processing unit (CPU) 34, a port 35 of the input port 36 of the output, which are connected to each other through a bidirectional bus 31. Output signals from the sensor 18 mass flow rate of intake air, a sensor 21 for monitoring the composition of the fuel mixture, the sensor 22 relative position of the sensor 23 of the opening or closing of the valve and the sensor 24 of the opening angle of the throttle is injected through respective analog-to-digital converters 37 to the port 35 of the input. In addition, the pedal 40 of the accelerator is connected to a load sensor 41, which generates an output voltage, proportional to the degree L of the pedal 40 of the accelerator. The output voltage from the load sensor 41 is inserted through a corresponding ad Converter 37 to the port 35 of the input. In addition, the port 35 input connected to the sensor 42 of the angle of rotation of the crankshaft, which generates an output pulse to the gdy times when the crankshaft is rotated, for example, 30°. On the other hand, the port 36 output is connected through the corresponding circuit 38 excitation with candles 6 plugs, fuel injectors 13, the actuator 16 of the throttle, A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression and the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment.

Figure 2 view in perspective, with a spatial separation of the parts is shown A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, which is shown in figure 1, and figure 3 illustrates the internal combustion engine shown in the side views in cross section. With reference to Figure 2, in the lower parts of the two side walls of the cylinder block 2 is formed with many protrusions 50, spaced from each other at a certain distance. Each protruding part 50 is formed with a circular opening 51 for insertion of the Cam. On the other hand, on the upper surface of the crankcase 1 of the engine formed many protrusions 52, spaced from each other at a certain distance and inserted between the respective protruding parts 50. In these protruding parts 52 are also made round holes 53 for insertion of Cams.

As shown in figure 2, is provided by the presence of two Cam shafts 54, 55. Each of the camshafts 54, 55 has mounted thereon circular Cams 56, made possible with the TEW insert into the holes 53 for insertion of Cams in every second position with the possibility of rotation. These circular Cams 56 are coaxial with the axes of rotation of the Cam shafts 54, 55. On the other hand, as shown in Figure 3, with the two sides from each of the circular Cams 58 continue eccentric shafts 57, located eccentrically relative to the axis of rotation of the Cam shafts 54, 55. Each eccentric shaft 57 has other circular Cams 56, attached to the eccentricity with the possibility of rotation. As shown in figure 2, these circular Cams 56 are located on two sides of each of the circular Cams 58. These circular Cams 56 are inserted with rotation into the corresponding holes 53 for insertion of Cams. In addition, as shown in figure 2, the Cam shaft 55 is attached to the sensor 25 of the angle of rotation of the Cam shaft, which generates an output signal indicating the rotation angle of the Cam shaft 55.

When the circular Cams 58, mounted on the Cam shafts 54, 55, are rotated in opposite directions of the arrows shown in figure 3(A) from the position shown in Figure 3(A), the eccentric shafts 57 are moving in different from each other directions, resulting in the circular Cams 56 are rotated in directions opposite to the directions of rotation of the circular Cams 58 in the holes 51 for insertion of Cams. As a result, as shown in Figure 3(B), the position eccentric to the gear 57 is changed from high positions to intermediate positions. Then, if all the Cams 58 next turn in the directions shown by the arrows, as shown in Figure 3(C), the eccentric shafts 57 reaches the lower position.

It should be noted that figure 3(A), Fig.3(B) and Fig.3(C) shows the relative positions of the centers "a" round of Cams 58, "b" Cam shafts 5 and centers "c" circular Cams 56 in the respective States.

From the comparison of Figure 3(A) and Fig.3(C) it is clear that the relative position of the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2 are determined by the distance between the centers of the "a" round of Cams 58 and centers "c" circular Cams 56. The greater the distance between the centers of the "a" round of Cams 58 and centers "c" circular Cams 56, how much farther does the unit 2 cylinders from the crankcase 1 of the engine. That is, in A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression using crank-and-lever mechanism that uses a rotating Cams to change the relative positions of the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2. If the cylinder block 2 moves away from the crankcase 1 of the engine, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 when the piston 4 is located at the top dead center of the compression stroke increases, therefore, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 can be changed by turning the camshafts 54, 55 when the piston 4 is located at the top dead center of the compression stroke.

As shown in figure 2, for privedenijami shafts 54, 55 in rotation in opposite directions, the shaft of a drive motor 59 is provided with two worm wheels 61, 62 with opposite directions of thread. Gears 63, 64, incoming engages with these worm wheels 61, 62 attached to the ends of the Cam shafts 54, 55. It is found that if the drive motor 59 is brought into action in accordance with the output signal of the electronic unit 30 of the control, the rotational force of a drive motor 59 is transmitted through the worm 61, 62 and the worm wheel 63, 64 on the Cam shafts 54, 55 and, therefore, the worm 61 and the worm wheel 63 and the worm 62 and the worm wheel 64 form a transmission mechanisms 65, 66 for transmission of rotational effort of a drive motor 59 on the respective Cam shafts 54, 55. In the embodiment of the invention, which is shown in figure 2, due to a drive motor 59, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 when the piston 4 is at top dead center of the compression stroke, is made variable within wide limits.

On the other hand, figure 4 shows the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, attached to the Cam shaft 70 for driving the intake valve 7, which is shown in figure 1. With reference to Figure 4, this mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment fitted with a toothed pulley 71 is made with the possibility of rotation of a cranked shaft of the engine through zu the stage belt drive timing in the direction of the arrow, the cylindrical housing 72, which rotates together with the timing pulley 71, the shaft 73 which has a capability to rotate together with the Cam shaft 70 to rotate relative to the cylindrical housing 72, a lot of walls 74 that extends from the inner circumference of the cylindrical housing 72 to the outer circumference of the shaft 73, and the blades 75, continuing between the partitions 74 from the outer circumference of the shaft 73 to the inner circumference of the cylindrical housing 72, and at the same time, on both sides of the blades 75 are formed hydraulic chamber 76, which is used for timing, and the hydraulic chamber 77, which is used to delay.

The flow of the working oil in the hydraulic chambers 76, 77 adjusts the valve 78 to adjust the flow of the working oil. This valve 78 adjust the flow of the working oil supplied apertures 79, 80 of the hydraulic system, which is connected with the hydraulic chambers 76, 77, bore 82 for supplying the working oil discharged from the hydraulic pump 81, a pair of drainage holes 83, 84 and Bolotnikova valve 85 for controlling the connecting and disconnecting the holes 79, 80, 82, 83, 84.

As shown in figure 4, for changing the phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 that is used to drive the intake valves, side timing spool valve 85 is moved to the right, the working oil supplied from the werste 82 for filing, served through the hole 79 of the hydraulic system to the hydraulic chamber 76, which is used for timing, and the working oil in the hydraulic chambers 77, used to lag, is discharged from the drain port 84. At this point, the shaft 73 is rotated relative to the cylindrical housing 72 in the direction of the arrow.

In contrast, as shown in figure 4, for changing the phase of the Cams of the Cam shaft 70 that is used to drive the intake valves toward the trailing spool valve 85 is moved to the left, the working oil supplied from the holes 82 for filing, serving through the hole 80 of the hydraulic system to the hydraulic chamber 77 used to lag, and the working oil in the hydraulic chambers 76, used for timing, is discharged from the drain port 83. At this point, the shaft 73 is rotated relative to the cylindrical housing 72 in a direction opposite to the arrows.

When the shaft 73 is rotated relative to the cylindrical housing 72, if the spool valve 85 is returned to the neutral position shown in Figure 4, the operation of the relative rotation of the shaft 73 is completed, and at this time, the shaft 73 is held in this relative angular position. Consequently, it is possible to use the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment for the phase offset is Olechka Cam shaft 70, used to drive the intake valves, in the direction of the lead or lag exactly at the desired value.

Figure 5 solid line shows the time when the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment created the greatest ahead of the phase of the Cam of the Cam shaft 70 that is used to drive the intake valves, while the dashed line indicates the point in time when the phase of the Cam of the Cam shaft 70 that is used to drive the intake valves, the maximum is shifted towards lag. Therefore, the period of time during which the intake valve 7 is open, can be freely set in the interval between the boundary shown in Figure 5 by the solid line, and the boundary shown by the dashed line. Therefore, the closing of the intake valve 7 can also be installed appropriate to any angle of rotation of the crankshaft in the interval, which is shown in Figure 5 by the arrow C.

Mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, which is shown in figure 1 and Figure 4, is only one example. For example, this may be a mechanism for regulating the valve timing, which holds the time of opening of the intake valve constant, while changing only the time of closing of the inlet valve, or other mechanisms regulirovanie the timing of various types, etc.

Below will be explained the meaning of the terms used in this application for the invention, with reference to Fig.6. It should be noted that figure 6(A), 6(B) and 6(C) for illustrative purposes shows an engine in which the volume of the combustion chambers is 50 ml (milliliters), and stroke volume is 500 ml per these Fig.6(A)Fig.6(B) and 6(C) volume of the combustion chamber is the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at top dead center of the compression stroke.

Figure 6(A) explain the meaning of the term "degree of mechanical compression. "The degree of mechanical compression ratio" is a value defined by the mechanical displacement of the cylinder during the compression stroke and the volume of the combustion chamber. This degree of mechanical compression ratio is expressed by the following equation: (volume of the combustion chamber + stroke volume)/volume of the combustion chamber. In the example shown in Fig.6(A), the degree of mechanical compression ratio becomes equal to (50 ml + 500 ml)/50 ml = 11.

Figure 6(B) explained the meaning of the term "actual degree of combustion". "The actual degree of combustion" is a variable determined by the actual displacement of the cylinder since the actual beginning of the compression stroke, until the moment when the piston has reached top dead center and the volume of the combustion chamber. This actual degree of combustion is expressed by the following equation: (volume of the combustion chamber + fact the ical stroke volume)/volume of the combustion chamber. That is, as shown in Fig.6(B), even if the piston begins to rise up in the compression stroke, the compression does not occur until the open inlet valve. In fact, the compression stroke begins after the closing of the inlet valve. Therefore, as follows from the above, the actual degree of combustion is expressed using the actual working volume of the cylinder. In the example shown in Fig.6(B), the actual degree of combustion is equal (50 ml + 450 ml)/50 ml = 10.

Figure 6(C) explain the meaning of the term "expansion ratio". "Expansion ratio" is a value, which is determined based on the working volume of the cylinder during the stroke extension and volume of the combustion chamber. This degree of expansion is expressed as follows: (volume of the combustion chamber + stroke volume)/volume of the combustion chamber. In the example shown in Fig.6(C), this expansion ratio becomes equal to (50 ml + 500 ml)/50 ml = 11.

Below will be explained the cycle with a high degree of expansion, which is used in the present invention, with reference to Fig.7 and 8. It should be noted that figure 7 shows the relationship between theoretical thermal efficiency and the degree of expansion, while Fig shows a comparison between the normal cycle and cycle ultra-high degree of expansion used in the present invention selectively in accordance with the load.

On Figa) shows the normal cycle, when the inlet valve closes near the bottom dead point and the compression stroke of the piston begins, essentially, near the bottom dead point of the compression stroke. In the example shown in this Fig(A), similarly as in the examples shown in Fig.6(A)Fig.6(B) and 6(C), the volume of the combustion chamber, 50 ml, and the working volume of the cylinder of the piston 500 ml. Of Fig(A) it is clear that the usual cycle degree mechanical compression (50 ml + 500 ml)/50 ml = 11, that the actual degree of combustion is also approximately equal to 11, and that the expansion ratio becomes equal to (50 ml + 500 ml)/50 ml = 11. That is, in the conventional internal combustion engine, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual degree of combustion and the expansion rate becomes essentially equal.

7, the solid line shows the variation in theoretical thermal efficiency in the case where the actual degree of combustion and the degree of expansion essentially equal, i.e. in the normal cycle. In this case clarified the following: the greater is the degree of expansion, that is, the higher the actual degree of combustion, the higher is theoretical thermal efficiency. Therefore, in a regular cycle to improve theoretical thermal efficiency it is necessary to increase the actual level of combustion. However, due to limitations associated with the occurrence of detonation during R the botton of the engine under high load, the actual degree of combustion can be increased to a maximum of only up to approximately 12, respectively, in a regular cycle theoretical thermal efficiency cannot be made sufficiently high.

On the other hand, taking into account this situation was investigated ways of improving theoretical thermal efficiency with strong differences between the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the actual degree of combustion, and as a result it was found that theoretical thermal efficiency degree of the expansion is dominant, and the actual degree of combustion in General does not affect greatly theoretical thermal efficiency. That is, when increasing the actual extent of the combustion force of the explosion increases, but the compression requires a lot of energy, respectively, even when the increase in actual degree of combustion of theoretical thermal efficiency will not be greatly increased.

In contrast, if we increase the degree of expansion, the longer the period of time during which the force acts, pressing the piston down during the quantum expansion, the longer is the period of time during which the piston informs the rotational force of the crankshaft. Therefore, the higher is made of the degree of expansion, the higher becomes theoretical thermal efficiency. The dashed line is=10 7 shows theoretical thermal efficiency when setting constant the actual extent of combustion, equal to 10, and the increase in this condition, the degree of expansion. Thus, it is found that the degree of increase of theoretical thermal efficiency with increasing degree of expansion in the state in which the actual degree ε of combustion are kept low, and the rate of increase of theoretical thermal efficiency in the case where the actual degree of combustion increases with increasing degree of expansion, as shown in Fig.7. a solid line, is not very different from each other.

If this way to keep low the actual degree of combustion, detonation will not occur, therefore, the increase of the degree of expansion in that condition, when the actual degree of combustion are kept low, it is possible to prevent detonation and can greatly enhance theoretical thermal efficiency. On Fig(B) shows an example of a case in which use A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression and the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment to maintain a low actual extent of combustion and to increase the degree of the extension.

With reference to Fig(B), used in this example is a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression to reduce the volume of the combustion chamber from 50 ml to 20 ml on the other hand, used the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment to offset the moment of closing of the inlet valve in which the thoron delay until while the actual stroke volume does not change with 500 ml to 200 ml as a result, in this example, the actual degree of combustion is equal to (20 ml + 200 ml)/20 ml = 11, and the expansion rate becomes equal to (20 ml + 500 ml)/20 ml = 26. As explained above, in the conventional cycle, shown in Fig(A), the actual degree of combustion is equal to about 11, and the degree of expansion is equal to 11. Compared with this case, in the case shown in Fig (B), it is clear that only the expansion rate increased to 26. That is why this cycle is called the "cycle ultra high extensions.

Generally speaking, in the internal combustion engine than lower is the load on the engine, the lower thermal efficiency, therefore, to improve thermal efficiency during operation of the vehicle, i.e. to improve fuel efficiency, there is a need to increase thermal efficiency during engine operation with low load. On the other hand, in a loop with a high degree of expansion, shown in Fig(B), the actual working volume of the cylinder during the compression stroke is made smaller, so that the amount of intake air, which may be sassano into the chamber 5, the combustion becomes smaller, therefore, this cycle is an ultra-high degree of expansion can be used only when the load on viatel is relatively low. Therefore, in the present invention during operation of engine low load cycle is used with a high degree of expansion, shown in Fig(B), whereas during operation of engine high load is normal cycle, shown in Fig(A).

Below will be explained the operation in General with reference to Fig.9.

Figure 9 shows the changes of the amount of intake air, the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, degree of expansion, the actual extent of combustion and angle of the throttle valve 17, and the load on the engine at a certain engine speed. It should be noted that figure 9 shows the case in which the average ratio of the components of the fuel mixture in the chamber 5 of the combustion regulate using feedback to achieve the stoichiometric ratio of the fuel mixture on the basis of the output signal from the sensor 21 for monitoring the composition of the fuel mixture to triple the catalyst in the catalytic Converter 20 can simultaneously reduce the unburned HC, CO and NOxin the exhaust gas.

Now, as explained above, during operation of engine high load runs normal cycle, shown in Fig (A). Therefore, as shown in Fig.9, in this point in time, the degree of mehanicheskij the compression ratio is made low, consequently the expansion rate becomes low and, as shown in Figure 9 by the solid line, the time of closing of the inlet valve 7 is shifted in the direction of advance, as shown in Figure 5 by the solid line. In addition, at this point in time, the amount of intake air is large. At this point in time, the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is held so that it is fully open, resulting in pumping losses are equal to zero.

On the other hand, if the load on the engine is reduced, as shown in Fig.9 as a solid line, together with this closing of the intake valve 7 is shifted to the side lag to reduce the amount of intake air. In addition, at this time, as shown in Fig.9, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is increased as the engine load becomes lower, holding the actual degree of combustion is essentially constant. Therefore, when reducing the load on the engine expansion ratio also increases. It should also be noted that at this time the throttle valve 17 is held in the fully open position, therefore, the amount of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 of the combustion regulate the throttle valve 17, and by changing the date of closing of the inlet valve 7.

Thus, when the engine load becomes lower in comparison with the state of engine operation at high load, the degree of mechanical compression ratio increase, because the amount of intake air decreases with essentially constant actual degree of combustion. That is the volume of the combustion chamber 5 when the piston 4 has reached the top dead center of the compression stroke, made decreasing in proportion to the reduction of the amount of intake air. Therefore, the volume of the combustion chamber 5 when the piston 4 has reached the top dead center of the compression stroke, is proportional to the amount of intake air. It should be noted that at this time in the example which is shown in Fig.9, the ratio of the components of the fuel mixture in the chamber 5 of the combustion chamber becomes equal to the stoichiometric ratio of the components of the fuel mixture, resulting in the volume of the combustion chamber 5 when the piston 4 has reached the top dead center of the compression stroke, is proportional to the amount of fuel.

If the engine load becomes lower, the degree of mechanical compression ratio continues to increase. When the engine load falls to an average load L1very close to the low load, the degree of mechanical compression ratio reaches the limit the degree of mechanical compression, which is design is aktivnym limit for the combustion chamber 5. In the field of load lower than the load L1on the engine when the degree of mechanical compression ratio reaches the limit the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the degree of mechanical compression hold equal to the marginal degree of mechanical compression. Therefore, during operation of the engine with the average load on the side of a low load and during operation of engine low load, i.e. when the engine is on the low side of the load, the degree of mechanical compression ratio becomes maximum, and the expansion ratio also becomes maximum. In other words, in the present invention to obtain the maximum degree of expansion during engine operation with low load and the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made maximum.

On the other hand, in the embodiment of the invention shown in Figure 9, if the engine load falls to L1the moment of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit closing that provides the ability to adjust the amount of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 of the combustion. If the closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit torque value closing in areas of lower load than the load L1on the engine, when the moment of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit value of the torque is closing, the closing of the intake valve 7 is held equal to the limiting value of the closing.

If the closing of the intake valve 7 is held equal to the marginal value of closing, the amount of intake air can no longer be adjusted by changing the moment of closing of the inlet valve 7. In the embodiment of the invention, shown in Fig.9, in this moment of time, i.e. less load than the load L1on the engine, when the moment of closing of the intake valve 7 reaches the limit torque value closing to regulate the amount of intake air supplied into the chamber 5 combustion, use the throttle 17, and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is reduced when reducing the load on the engine.

On the other hand, as shown in Figure 9 by the dashed line, to adjust the amount of intake air, regardless of the throttle valve 17 is also possible by shifting the moment of closing of the inlet valve 7 in the direction of advance, with less strain on the engine. Therefore, if expressed that this option is the implementation of the present invention covers both cases: the case, which is shown as a solid line and the case, which is shown in Fig.9 dashed line, while reducing the load on the motor, the moment of closures protect the inlet valve 7 is shifted in the direction from the bottom dead center BDC of the suction stroke of up to the limit value of closing when L 1where it is possible to adjust the amount of intake air supplied into the combustion chamber. Thus, the amount of intake air can be adjusted by changing the moment of closing of the inlet valve 7, which is shown in Fig.9 as a solid line and can be adjusted by modifying it as also shown by the dotted line, but below is the example of the present invention will be explained in case of change of the moment of closing of the inlet valve 7, shown in Fig.9 solid line.

In this regard, as explained above, in a loop with a high degree of expansion, which is shown in Fig(B), the degree of expansion is made equal to 26. The higher the degree of expansion, the better, but as is clear from Fig.7, even if suitable for the practical use of the lower limit value of the actual degree of compression ratio ε, is equal to 5, if it is 20 or higher, there can be obtained a significantly higher theoretical thermal efficiency. Therefore, in the present invention, A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression is made with the possibility of increasing the degree of expansion to 20 or higher.

Below, with reference to Figure 10-12, will be explained prohibited zones and the reference line of the operating modes for the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve.

Figure 10 on Asano the amount of intake air, necessary to obtain the required load on the engine, that is, the required amount of intake air, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve. It should be noted that figure 10, the required amount of intake air increases as the distance from the origin 0, whereas the degree of mechanical compression ratio is increased as the distance from the origin 0. In addition, figure 10 the time of closing of the inlet valve is expressed by the angle of rotation of the crankshaft after the bottom dead center (ABDC) quantum intake. Therefore, the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of the lag increases as the distance from the origin 0.

On the other hand, figure 10 Q1, Q2, Q3, Q4and Q5Express plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, while Q6expresses a plane full open throttle, where the throttle valve 17 is fully open. From Figure 10 it is clear that this plane Q6full opening of the throttle consists of a curved up curved surfaces. In the area below this plane Q6full opening of the throttle angle of the throttle valve becomes smaller as you descend.

Areas that are marked on Figure 10 the hatching to depict ablaut a forbidden zone on planes Q 1, Q2, Q3, Q4and Q5an equivalent amount of intake air. On the other hand, figure 11 shows a top view of figure 10, Fig(A) shows the left surface S1depicted in Figure 10, in the direction of the arrow, and Fig(B) shows the right surface S2depicted in Figure 10, in the direction of the arrow. The area marked on these 11, Fig(A) and Fig(B) hatching, are also forbidden zone.

From Figure 10, 11 and Fig(A) and Fig(B) it is clear that the forbidden zone continues in three dimensions, and, moreover, forbidden zone consist of two regions: region X1on the high side of the load and the region X2on the side of a low load. It's important to note from Figure 10, 11, Fig(A) and Fig(B) it is clear that the forbidden zone X1on the side of the high loads generated on the side where the required amount of intake air is large, the time of closing of the inlet valve is on the side where it is shifted in the direction of advance, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio is high, whereas the forbidden zone X2on the low side of the load generated on the side where the required amount of intake air is small, the moment of closing of the inlet valve is on the side where it is shifted in the direction C is Pandiani, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio is low.

So, figure 9 shows the relationship between the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual compression ratio and the angle of opening of a throttle, which give the minimum fuel consumption for the required amount of intake air, and the line W which satisfy these ratios, shown in Figure 10 and 11 as a solid line. From Figure 10 it is clear that this line W continued on the plane Q6fully open the throttle on the side of the larger amount of intake air from the plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air and continues on the right side surface S2from a smaller amount of intake air from the plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air. This plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air that corresponds to the load L1from Fig.9.

That is, figure 9 in the field of higher engine load than the L1the higher the load on the engine, that is, the more increases the required amount of intake air, the greater the offset is the time of intake valve closing in the direction of advance in a state where the throttle valve 17 is held fully open. At this point in time, degree in mechanical the CSO compression reduces, so that the actual compression ratio was constant, the more increases the required amount of intake air. At this point in time, the relationship between the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the intake valve closing is expressed by the line W in the plane Q6wide open throttle, which is shown in Figure 10. That is, as shown in Figure 10, on the side of the larger amount of intake air relative to the plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air, the more increases the required amount of intake air, the greater is the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of advance in the state in which the throttle valve 17 is held wide open. At this point in time, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced due to the increased required amount of intake air, so the actual compression ratio becomes constant.

On the other hand, figure 9 in the region of lower load on the engine than the L1the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is kept constant. Less load on the engine, that is, the more reduced the required amount of intake air, the more reduce the opening angle of throttle valve 17. In this IOM is NT the time correlation between the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the intake valve closing is expressed by the line W on the right-side surface S 2shown in Figure 10. That is, as shown in Figure 10, on the side of a smaller amount of intake air relative to the plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is kept constant, and less load on the engine, that is, the more reduced the required amount of intake air, the more reduce the opening angle of throttle valve 17.

In the present description line, which correspond to the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve when changing the required amount of intake air, is called the "line of the operating modes". In particular, the line W, which is shown in Figure 10, referred to as "reference line working modes. It should be noted the following: as explained above, the reference line operating mode is a line of operating modes with a minimum consumption of fuel, which gives minimum fuel consumption.

As explained above, the reference line W operating modes the actual compression ratio is made constant. The actual compression ratio is not associated with the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 and is determined only by the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the intake valve closing. Accordingly, figure 10, the actual compression ratio is ranovitsa the same on a curved plane, passing through the reference line W operating modes and continuing in the vertical direction. In this case, on the side of a high degree of mechanical compression on this curved plane, the actual compression ratio becomes higher, whereas on the side of the low degree of mechanical compression on this curved plane, the actual compression ratio becomes lower. That is a forbidden zone X1on the high side of the load is located in a region the higher the actual compression ratio, the actual compression ratio at the reference line W operating modes, whereas the forbidden zone X2on the low side of the load is in the lower the actual compression ratio, the actual compression ratio at the reference line W operating modes.

So, when raising the actual compression ratio to save fuel detonation occurs. When the timing offsets in the direction of delay to prevent detonation combustion becomes unstable, and there are fluctuations of torque. Forbidden zone X1on the high side load is a working area, where there are fluctuations of torque. Therefore, during operation of the engine requires that the mode of operation of the engine did not get into the working zone is, which causes these fluctuations of torque. On the other hand, if the amount of intake air is small, and the actual compression ratio becomes low, then it is difficult to combustion. If the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 becomes small, and the pressure at the end of the compression stroke becomes low, the combustion deteriorates, and there are fluctuations of torque. Forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load is a working area in which there are fluctuations of torque. Therefore, during operation of the engine is also necessary to prevent the operation mode of the engine in this workspace.

On the other hand, the higher the actual compression ratio, the more improves fuel economy. Therefore, the line working modes with a minimum consumption of fuel, which gives the best fuel efficiency, without causing detonation or fluctuations of torque continues beyond the forbidden zone X1on the high side of the load along the outer border of the forbidden zone X1on the side of the high load, which is shown by a line W figure 10 and 11. As explained above, in this embodiment, the present invention this line working modes with a minimum consumption of fuel made reference line W work is of Azimov. Essentially, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of throttle valve 17 regulates in accordance with the required amount of intake air to a working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is moved along this main line W operating modes. It should be noted that the current operating point continuously record the sensor 22 relative position, the sensor 23 of the opening or closing of the valve and the sensor 24 of the opening angle of the throttle.

Below, with reference to Fig-18, will be explained a case in which during operation of the engine fails, the drive motor 59 of A mechanism regulating the degree of compression, i.e. the case in which a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression fails. The following should be noted: if the drive motor 59 breaks down, then the drive motor 59 can no longer be used to regulate the degree of mechanical compression, therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, if the drive motor 59 breaks down, then power to the drive motor 59 is stopped.

First, with reference to Fig and 14, showing images similar to the images shown in Figure 10 and 11, will be on jasney problems and the preferred method of changing the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve when the failure of a drive motor 59. On Fig and 14 show the following two cases: the case in which the drive motor 59 breaks down when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W1on the reference line W operating mode, and a case in which the drive motor 59 breaks down when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W2on the reference line W operating modes, that is, cases in which the drive motor 49 fails when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is high and the time of closing of the inlet valve biased in favour of delay.

Now, assume that the drive motor 59 breaks down when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W1on the reference line W operating modes. If at this time an attempt to retain the degree of mechanical compression ratio is equal to a high compression ratio, as shown by a point W1when increasing the required amount of intake air and, consequently, the moment of closing of the inlet valve is shifted in the direction ahead of the curve, which is shown in Fig and 14 dashed line WX1the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve is, falls in the prohibited area X1on the high side loads. As a result, combustion occurs with a deviation from the norm.

In contrast, if at this time the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is kept in the state shown by points W1, W2to this combustion deviation from the norm has not occurred, i.e. if the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 is adjusted, so that the working point representing a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, is moved along the main line W operating modes between the point W1and the point W2in accordance with the required amount of intake air, this time when restarting the engine, the engine start, in the end, becomes more difficult.

That is, during engine operation, even if the moment of closing of the inlet valve was kept at the points W1, W2even if the moment of closing of the inlet valve is kept in a state of delay, during operation of the engine inertia would cause the supply of a quantity of intake air into the chamber 5 of the combustion and, therefore, continued operation of the engine. However, during startup of the engine inertia has no effect on the inflow of intake air, resulting quantity is the primary objective in the intake air, supplied into the chamber 5, the combustion becomes approximately twice less during operation of the engine. Therefore, if during engine start closing the intake valve is held in a state of delay, the amount of intake air becomes insufficient, and therefore the starting of the engine, in the end, becomes difficult. Therefore, when the drive motor 59 breaks down, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve can't keep the points W1, W2.

On the other hand, if the drive motor 59 breaks down when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W2on the reference line W operating modes, and if at that time provided a rapid decrease in the degree of mechanical compression, as shown in Fig and 14 dashed line WX2the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, enters the forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load. As a result, combustion occurs with a deviation from the norm.

That is, as explained above, if the output of a drive motor 59 of the building after closing the inlet valve is held in a state of lag, then repeat the " engine start engine start becomes difficult. To facilitate starting of the engine when restarting the engine, when the drive motor 59 breaks down, you need to shift the time of intake valve closing in the direction of advance. However, if at this point in time just shift the time of intake valve closing in the direction of advance, the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, in the end, will fall into a prohibited zone X1on the high side loads. In contrast, if there is a rapid decrease in the degree of mechanical compression to the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, do not fall into the prohibited zone X1on the side of the high load, this time working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, in the end, will fall into a prohibited zone X2on the low side of the load.

That is, when the drive motor 59 breaks down, then the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of advance so that the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, do not fall into a different bandgap X1 X2on the other side of the load, as shown in Fig solid lines Z1, Z2you must gradually reduce the degree of mechanical compression ratio with the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of advance. That is, when the drive motor 59 breaks down, the degree of mechanical compression ratio must be reduced to the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, is moved in the direction of the desired operating point that can easily be re-starting the engine without falling into the forbidden zone X1X2. The same regulation of the degree of mechanical compression is also performed when the failure of a drive motor 59 when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is not located on the reference line W operating modes between the point W1and the point W2.

Consequently, the main distinctive feature of the present invention is that a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression that can change the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, which is able to adjust the time of closing of the inlet valve 7, the forbidden zone X1X2for the combination of the degree of mechanical LF the party and the date of closing of the inlet valve, set so that you do not allow the ingress of the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, in the forbidden zone X1X2and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made variable from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point on the side of the low degree of mechanical compression, not getting into the forbidden zone X1X2when the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails.

On the left side Fig shows the same state as in figure 3(C), i.e. the point in time when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made equal to the maximum degree of mechanical compression, whereas on the right side Fig shows the same state as in figure 3(A), i.e. the point in time when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made equal to the minimum degree of mechanical compression. In this embodiment of the present invention a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression is performed so that the output of a drive motor 59 of the system, i.e. when fails a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, the combustion pressure causes a change of state from the state shown on the left side Fig, in the direction of the state shown on the right side Fig. It is here he done so, the combustion pressure causes a gradual decrease in the degree of mechanical compression. As a result, when a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression fails, and the degree of mechanical compression gradually decreases, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made variable from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point, not getting into the forbidden zone X1X2.

Thus, as shown in figure 2, in this embodiment of the present invention, which is explained above, A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression is made with the possibility of changing the relative positions of the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2, located above the crankcase 1 of the engine, due to the rotation of the camshafts 54, 55 to change the degree of mechanical compression. The mechanism of A regulation of the degree of compression, is driven through gearing 65, 66 from the output of a drive motor 59, that is, a drive mechanism with an electric drive. Transmission mechanisms 65, 66 are composed, respectively, of the worm wheels 63, 64 that are attached to the Cam shafts 54, 55, and worms 61, 62, which engages with the worm wheels 63, 64 and executed with the possibility of rotation of the drive mechanism 59.

On Fig shows one gear 65 of these transmission IU is Anisimov 65, 66. On Fig dθ represents the elevation angle of helix of the worm 61. If this angle dθ of the rise of the helix is small, the worm 61, can be used to bring the worm wheel 63 in the rotation, but the worm wheel 63 cannot be used to bring the worm 61 in the rotation. Then gear 65 becomes irreversible. In contrast, if the elevation angle of the helical line dθ is large, then the worm 61 can be used to bring the worm wheel 63 is rotated, the worm wheel 63 can be used to bring the worm 61 in the rotation, and then gear 65 becomes reversible.

On Fig shows the relationship between the angle dθ lifting screw line and transmission efficiency. On Fig efficiency in the forward direction shows the transmission efficiency in the case where the worm 61 is used to drive the worm wheel 63 in the rotation. As shown in Fig, this efficiency in the forward direction increases with increasing angle dθ lifting screw line. In contrast, Fig efficiency in the opposite direction shows the transmission efficiency in the case when the worm wheel 63 is used to drive a worm 61 in the rotation. As shown in Fig, efficiency in the reverse direction is zero when the angle dθ of the rise of the helix is approximately equal to 6° or less. When the angle dθ lifting screw line is ranovitsa approximately equal to 6° or more, the efficiency in the opposite direction increases with increasing angle dθ lifting screw line. In this case, the cap in the reverse direction equal to zero means that the worm wheel 63 cannot be used to bring the worm 61 in rotation.

Thus, during engine operation, the combustion pressure is the fact that on the cylinder block 2 are constantly on the force in such a direction that the cylinder block 2 is lifted. Therefore, the worm wheel 63, 64 gears 65, 66 also operates the rotational force of the lifting unit 2 cylinders. Therefore, if the engine drive motor 59 breaks down, and the power supply to the drive motor 59 is stopped, then the worm wheel 63, 64 also applies rotational force in such a direction that the cylinder block 2 is lifted.

Thus, if the rotational force acts on the worm wheel 63, 64, the worm wheel 63, 64 cannot rotate, even if the cap in the reverse direction is zero. Therefore, in this case, the degree of mechanical compression hold equally mechanical compression ratio at the time when the drive motor 59 is out of order. However, when efficiency is in the opposite direction has a positive value, that is, when the transmission mechanisms 65, 66 are reversible, the worm wheel 3, 64 rotate in such a direction that the cylinder block 2 is lifted, and, consequently, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced. Therefore, in the present invention the cap in the reverse direction is made with a positive value, so that the degree of mechanical compression ratio decreased as the output of a drive motor 59 to fail.

That is, in this embodiment of the present invention a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression has a structure whereby at the termination of the power supply in the drive mechanism with an electric drive, i.e. the drive motor 59, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made gradually decreasing due to the fact that the combustion pressure actuates the transmission mechanisms 65, 66.

On Fig shows a state in which, when the power supply to the drive motor 59 terminate in a particular mode of operation of the engine, the combustion pressure causes the rotation of the camshafts 54, 55 of the angle Sθ1turning to the angle Sθ2turning circle. It should be noted that Fig shows the state of rotation of the camshafts 54, 55 in cases where efficiency in the reverse direction equal to 20%, 50% and 80%. From Fig it is clear that the higher efficiency in the opposite direction, the shorter the time required to rotate the Cam shafts 54, 55 of the angle Sθ1to angle Sθ2.

DL is the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of ahead of time is necessary. If compared with this time the rate of decline in the degree of mechanical compression ratio is too large, as shown in Fig as WX2the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, in the end, falls into a prohibited zone X2on the side of a low load. At this point, it is seen that the efficiency in the reverse direction is preferably 50% or less. On the other hand, when the cap in the opposite direction is 10% or less, the rotational force applied to the worm wheels 63, 64, not higher than the force of static friction acting on the screws 61, 62, therefore, the worm wheel 63, 64 does not rotate. To enable rotation of the worm wheels 63 and 64, the cap in the reverse direction should be made with equal to 10% or higher.

Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention the cap in the reverse direction is made in the range from 10% to 50%. In other words, the transmission mechanisms 65, 66 are made by having the transmission efficiency in the range of from 10 percent to 50 percent, when the transmission mechanisms 65, 66 made with the possibility of putting them into effect by combustion pressure. It should be noted that Fig angle dθ lifting screw line, when the cap in the opposite direction is higher than zero, changes in the threaded depending on the magnitude of the coefficient of dynamic friction between the worm wheel 63, 64 and screws 61, 62. On Fig shows the case in which the coefficient of dynamic friction is 0.1. The following should be noted: even if the coefficient of dynamic friction is different, the preferred interval efficiency in the reverse direction is not changed.

Below will be explained a method of regulating the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and opening angle of throttle valve 17 according to the present invention from the main method of regulation. This basic method of control is shown in Fig-21.

That is Fig shows the case in which the required amount of intake air increases when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is kept equal to their values at the point "m" on the reference line W operating modes. In this regard, in this embodiment of the present invention, for example, calculate the required amount of intake air through each specified period of time, and sequentially calculates the operating point on the reference line W operating modes that satisfy the required amount of intake air through each specified period of time. Examples of operating points that satisfy the required amount of intake air, that is, the required operating points shown in Fig as a1, a2, a3,a 4, a5and a6. That is, in this example, the desired operating point which satisfies the demanded intake air mass, which detects the first after increasing the required amount of intake air is point a1required operating point which satisfies the demanded intake air mass, which reveal the following is dot a2and the desired operating point which satisfies the demanded intake air mass, which are diagnosed after this is point a3.

If the desired operating point changes, the changes and the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, moving towards a new desired operating point. That is, in the example shown in Fig, if desired working point made the point a1the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is changed, moving from point "m" in the direction of point a1whereas, if the desired operating point made the point a2the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is changed, moving in the direction of the point 2. In this case, if the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve reaches the desired operating point to change the desired operating point, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve changes when change tracking is desired operating point without any problems. However, if the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve reaches the desired operating point to change the desired operating point, it sometimes causes problems.

That is, as shown in Fig when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point "m", the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is not changed, when desired operating point becomes point a1. At this point, increase the opening angle of throttle valve 17 to meet the required amount of intake air. The response to the change in the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 drive mechanism 16 is extremely fast. Therefore, if the desired operating point becomes point a1the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve immediately moves from point "m" in point a1.

Then, if desired working visiting th what is the point of a 2the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced only slightly, and the time of closing of the inlet valve is shifted to the side lead only to a small extent, while the throttle valve 17 is held fully open. At this point, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve reaches the area near the desired operating point a2when calculated following the desired working point a3. The degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve, which is achieved at this point in time, shows the working point b2on Fig, which shows a top view of Fig.

If the calculated desired operating point a3the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve starts to move from the operating point b2to the desired operating point a3. That is, in a state where the throttle valve 17 is fully opened, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced, and the time of closing of the inlet valve is shifted in the direction of advance. In this respect, the response to the change in the degree of mechanical compression ratio mechanism for A regulation of the degree of compression and the response to the change of the moment of closing of the inlet valve mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment are not as fast. In particular, the response to the change in the degree mechanical sati is a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression is much slower. Therefore, when the rate of increase of the required amount of intake air is large, the desired operating point and the operating point which shows the actual values of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, gradually moving away from each other. For example, on Fig when the specified operating point is moved to point a6occurs a state in which the working point representing the actual value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, continues to be located near the point b2.

However, in this case, when moving the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve in the direction of the desired operating point without falling into the forbidden zone X1by regulating the feedback time is needed until such time as the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve does not reach the desired operating point. That is, in this case, when there is a probability that the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of advance will result in the release of the working point in the forbidden zone X1the effect on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of the firing ceased, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced by exactly a certain value. If the article is a stump mechanical compression ratio is reduced by exactly a certain value, then the moment of closing of the inlet valve is again shifted in the direction of advance. If there is a likelihood that the operating point in the forbidden zone X1the effect on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of the firing ceased. Then repeat it.

That is, if the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is moved in the direction of the desired operating point by adjusting the feedback, the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve moves zigzag along the outer edge of the forbidden zone X1therefore, time is necessary to ensure that the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve has reached the desired operating point. As a result, good engine response, not even when you change the required amount of intake air.

Therefore, in the present invention, when changing the required amount of intake air, then calculate the target operating point, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is changed from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point which satisfies the demanded kolichestvennogo air, not getting into the forbidden zone X1X2and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made changeable in the direction of the target operating point.

Below will be explained one of the embodiments of the present invention with reference to Fig, showing the plane Q6full open throttle. As explained above, Fig shows a case in which, when the desired operating point becomes point a3then the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is point b2. In this case, the arrow R2expresses the degree of mechanical compression ratio which can be achieved for a given fixed time when the change in the direction of the desired operating point a3while the arrow S2expresses the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be achieved for a given fixed time when the change in the direction of the desired operating point a3. In addition, Fig, point c2target operating point, which can be reached after a fixed period of time when the change from the current operating point b2in the direction of the desired operating point a3satisfying the required amount of intake air, without pop the project in the forbidden zone X 1.

As shown in Fig, when the required amount of intake air increases, and the working point b2and the required operating point a3are on the plane Q6full opening of the throttle, in the example shown in Fig, this target operating point c2located on the reference line W operating modes, that is, on the line W operating modes with minimal fuel consumption. That is, in the example shown in Fig, when the throttle valve 17 is held in the fully open position, the target operating point moves beyond the forbidden zone X1on line W operating modes with minimal fuel consumption, which continues along the outer edge of the forbidden zone X1.

In addition, as shown in Fig when the desired operating point is point a6if we assume that in this case the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, was also a point bithe target operating point made the point cion the reference line W operating modes. It should be noted that Fig arrow Risimilarly depicts the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, whereas the arrow Siizobrazennogo intake valve closing, which can be reached after a fixed period of time.

Thus, in the example shown in Fig, when the operating point is point b2if the calculated target operating point c2the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve reaches the target operating point c2after a fixed period of time. At this point, calculate the following new target operating point, which can be reached after a fixed period of time when the change from the current operating point c2in the direction of the desired operating point which satisfies the demanded intake air mass, without falling into the forbidden zone X1and the working point reaches this new target operating point after a fixed period of time. In this case, in this embodiment of the present invention, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve, and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made such that they reach the target operating point using a proportional-integral-differential (PID) control.

Thus, in the example shown in Fig, the working point that shows the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the moment of closing the Oia inlet valve, moves smoothly along the reference line W operating modes without delay. That is Pig when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is held at the point "m", if the required amount of intake air is increased, as shown by the arrow on Fig, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made gradually changed along the reference line W operating modes without delay. As a result, it is possible to provide rapid acceleration of the engine when changing the required amount of intake air.

In this case, to further improve the throttle response of the engine in response to the required amount of intake air to the target operating point c2cipreferably are removed to the maximum extent possible from their respective current operating points b2bi. Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention, the target working point c2cimade these operating points that are most distant from the current operating points b2biof those operating points that can be reached after a fixed period of time without falling into the forbidden zone X1when changing from the respective current operating points b2bitoward the required operating points, which satisfy the desired values of the amount of intake air.

That is, when the current operating point is point b2then the maximum limit the degree of mechanical compression of the working point b2made the target operating point c2. For the moment of closing of the inlet valve this target operating point c2becomes a point up to the maximum limit of the moment of closing of the inlet valve from the operating point b2. Therefore, at this time, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced as fast as possible, while closing the inlet valve is shifted in the direction of advance at a slower speed than the maximum possible speed. In contrast, when the current operating point is point bithen the maximum limit of the moment of closing of the inlet valve from the operating point bimade the target operating point ci. For the degree of mechanical compression this target operating point cibecomes a point up to the maximum limit of the moment of closing of the inlet valve from the operating point bi. Therefore, in this point in time, the moment of closing of the inlet valve is shifted in the direction of advance as fast as possible, whereas the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced at a slower rate than the maximum possible speed.

<> The mode of operation of the engine never has a strong influence on the maximum possible rate of change of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, that is, the value that can be reached after a fixed period of time. Therefore, the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, becomes constant regardless of the mode of operation of the engine. In contrast, the mode of operation of the engine, etc. has a strong influence on the maximum possible rate of change of the degree of mechanical compression ratio, i.e. the value that can be reached after a fixed period of time. Below it will be explained with reference to Fig and 23.

On Fig shows the relationship between a possible change in the degree of mechanical compression ratio for a fixed period of time, i.e. the difference in compression ratio between the current value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, and the load on the engine. It should be noted that Fig shows the possible change of the compression ratio when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made equal to a certain degree of mechanical compression. On Fig dash-dotted line F0the show is however possible to change the degree of compression then when the engine is stopped. In addition, Fig dashed line shows the torque applied due to the combustion pressure to A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression. This torque acts in the direction of the lifting unit 2 cylinders from the crankcase 1 of the engine, i.e. in the direction of reducing the compression ratio. This torque shown in dotted lines, becomes the greater, the higher is the pressure of combustion, that is, the higher is the load on the engine.

Thus, this torque acts on a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression in a direction that causes a decrease in the degree of compression, thus, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made reduce, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is easily reduced, and therefore, in this case, a possible change of the compression ratio increases. On Fig solid line F1shows the possible change of the compression ratio in this case. Possible change of the compression ratio in this case becomes the greater, the higher the load on the engine. In contrast, this torque is counteracted by the increase in the degree of mechanical compression, therefore increasing the degree of mechanical compression as compared with the case where the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced, the potential of the ISM the imposition of the compression ratio becomes smaller. On Fig solid line F2shows the possible change of the compression ratio in the case of increasing the degree of mechanical compression. In this case, the possible change of the compression ratio becomes the smaller, the higher is the load on the engine.

In one of the embodiments of the present invention possible change of the compression ratio, which serves as the support shown by the line F0on Fig stored in advance. This support possible changes in the degree of compression adjust using the relationships are shown by lines F1and F2on Fig, on what basis, calculate the possible change of the compression ratio in accordance with the load. Then, on the basis of the calculated possible change of the compression ratio, calculate the maximum value of the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. That is, in this embodiment of the invention, when changing the required amount of intake air, the maximum value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio which can be reached after a fixed period of time, change in accordance with the load on the engine.

On Fig shows the relationship between torque and a possible change in the degree mechanical sati is for a fixed period of time and the rotation angles of the camshafts 54, 55, that is, the rotation angle of the circular Cams 58. It should be noted that Fig, the left end of the abscissa shows the time of the lowest state the degree of mechanical compression ratio, which is shown in Figure 3(A), while Fig right end of the abscissa shows the time of the highest state the degree of mechanical compression ratio, which is shown in Figure 3(C). In addition, Fig shows a possible variation in the degree of compression when the load on the engine is made equal to a certain load. On Fig dashed line Ta shows the torque imparted by the combustion pressure to A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression.

So, Fig dash-and-dot line G0shows the possible change of the compression ratio when the engine is stopped. From Fig.3(A)Fig.3(B) and Figure 3(C) understand the following: when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is intermediate, that is, in that moment of time, which is shown in Figure 3(B), the change in the degree of compression per unit angle of rotation of the camshafts 54, 55, becomes the greatest. Therefore, as shown in phantom line G0on Fig when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is intermediate, it is possible to change the compression ratio becomes maximum.

In addition, as shown in Fig dashed line Ta, torque, attached to A mechanism controlling the level with the Atiyah due to combustion pressure, becomes maximum at that point in time, which is shown in Figure 3(B), i.e. at the point in time when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is intermediate. On the other hand, Fig solid line G1the case illustrated reduce the degree of mechanical compression, whereas the solid line G2shows the case of increasing the degree of mechanical compression. As shown in Fig, possible changes in the degree of G1compression while reducing the degree of mechanical compression ratio becomes greater than the possible change of the compression G2when increasing the degree of mechanical compression. In addition, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is intermediate, torque, based on the combustion pressure becomes highest, so in this point in time, possible changes in the degree of compression G1becomes higher, and the possible change of the compression G2reduced.

In one of the embodiments of the present invention possible change of the compression ratio, which serves as the support shown by the line G0on Fig stored in advance. This support possible changes in the degree of compression adjust using the relationships are shown by lines G1and G2on Fig, on the basis of which to calculate possible changes in the degree of compression in compliance and with the rotation angles of the camshafts 54, 55. In addition, it is possible to change the degree of compression adjust using the relationships shown on Fig lines F1and F2to calculate the rotation angles of the camshafts 54, 55 and possible change of the compression ratio in accordance with the load on the engine. Then, on the basis of the calculated possible change of the compression ratio, calculate the maximum value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio which can be reached after a fixed period of time.

That is, in this embodiment of the invention, when changing the required amount of intake air, the maximum value of the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, is made variable in accordance with the rotation angle of the rotating Cam 58 and the load on the engine.

It should be noted that Fig dashed line Gr additionally shows the change in the degree of compression in the direction of low compression rate for a fixed period of time, when stopped, the power supply to the drive motor 59. This change Gr compression, shown in Fig becomes the greater, the greater becomes the torque Ta. So this change Gr compression becomes the largest at the time, which show the figure 3(B), that is, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is intermediate. In addition, this change Gr compression increases with increasing engine load. In this embodiment, the present invention this change Gr compression pre-stored in the ROM 32 as a function of engine load and rotation angles of the camshafts 54, 55. Based on this saved Gr compression, calculate the maximum value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio which can be reached after a fixed period of time.

Below, with reference to Fig-39, will be explained a case in which the required amount of intake air is reduced. It should be noted that from Fig-39 Fig and 25 shows the case in which the required amount of intake air is reduced slowly, Fig-33 shows the case in which the required amount of intake air is reduced relatively quickly, and Fig-39 shows the case in which the required amount of intake reduce quickly. It should be noted that Fig-39 shows the case in which the action is to reduce the required amount of intake air start when the operating point which shows the combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, is located at the point "n" in the reference line W working re is imow.

First, with reference to Fig and 25, will be explained a case in which the required amount of intake air is reduced slowly. It should be noted that Fig shows the plane Q6fully open the throttle, as well as Fig.

On Fig shows the relationship between the current operating point and the desired operating point in this case. That is Fig specified operating point, when the current operating point is point eishown by point di. At this point in time, the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, shown as Riand at this point in time the time of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, shown as Si. In addition, Fig specified operating point, when the current operating point is point ejshown by point dj. At this point in time, the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, shown as Rjand at this point in time the time of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, shown as Sj.

In this case, the desired operating point diis just before the ed peak limit the degree of mechanical compression and just before the maximum limit of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, thus, the desired operating point dibecomes the target operating point. In the same way, at the specified operating point djbecomes located immediately before the maximum limit the degree of mechanical compression and just before the maximum limit of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, thus, the desired operating point djbecomes the target operating point. Therefore, in this case, the operating point moves along the reference line W operating modes. That is, when the required amount of intake air is slowly reduced in a state where the throttle valve 17 is held fully open, the closing of the intake valve is gradually shifting towards the lag, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio is gradually increased, so that the actual compression ratio was constant.

Below, with reference to Fig-33, will be explained a case in which the required amount of intake air is reduced relatively quickly. As explained above, in this embodiment of the present invention the required amount of intake air is calculated, for example, for each specified time period. The desired operating point on the reference line W operating modes that satisfy successively calculated values of the quantity required in asiaeuro air, shown in Fig points d1d2d3d4and d5.

It should be noted that to enable easy understanding of the regulation according to the present invention Fig shows the case in which the required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d1is Q5required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d2equal to the intermediate value between the Q5and Q4required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d3is Q4required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d4equal to the intermediate value between the Q4and Q3and the required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d5is Q3. That is, a case is shown, in which successively calculated values of the required amount of intake air is changed from Q6(point n) to Q5intermediate values between Q5and Q4, Q4intermediate values between Q4and Q3and Q3.

In addition, Fig shows the plane Q6full open throttle on Fig shows the case in which the amount of intake air is the same as Q5on Fig shows the plane equivalent if the ESCWA intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to the intermediate value between the Q5and Q4on Fig shows the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to Q4on Fig shows the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to the intermediate value between the Q4and Q3and on Fig shows the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to Q3.

So, if we assume that, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is held at the working point "n"which is shown on Fig, then the required amount of intake air varies with Q6to Q5and, as a result, the desired operating point is point d1first, as shown in Fig, calculate the target operating point e1on the plane Q6full open throttle. The method of calculating the target operating point e1is the same as the calculation method, which was explained above. The target operating point e1that is closest to the desired operating point d1that does not fall within the prohibited zone X1calculate on the basis of the degree of mechanical compression ratio which can be achieved by the combination of a fixed period of time and after closing the inlet valve, which can be achieved for a fixed period of time. In the example shown in Fig, this target operating point e1located on the reference line W operating modes.

In this respect, the amount of intake air to the target operating point e1equal to the intermediate value between the Q6and Q5in the state in which it exceeds the required number Q5intake air. However, the amount of intake air is preferably made corresponding to a required amount of intake air to the maximum extent possible. In this regard, if the required amount of intake air is reduced, the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 may be made adjustable to regulate the amount of intake air. Therefore, when the amount of intake air to the target operating point e1is in a state in which it exceeds the required number Q5the intake air throttle valve 17 is made with the possibility of prekrivanja to the target opening angle, which is necessary for the intake air mass was equal to the desired number of Q5intake air without causing a change in the target value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve.

That is,as shown in Fig, the final target operating point e1made the point on the plane Q5an equivalent amount of intake air, which is located directly under the target operating point e1on the plane Q6full opening of the throttle valve, which is shown in Fig. The final target operating point e1on this plane Q5an equivalent amount of intake air is shown in Fig and 28. The degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made changeable in direction of the final target operating point e1. That is, at this point in time, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is increased, the moment of closing of the inlet valve biased in favour of delay, and the open angle of the throttle valve 17 is made smaller than in the fully open position.

Then, if the required amount of intake air becomes equal to the intermediate value between the Q5and Q4and the desired operating point is point d2then, as shown in Fig, calculate the target operating point e2on the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air when the current value of Q5the amount of intake air. This method of calculating the target operating point e2also is the same as the way wikis is to be placed, which was explained above. The target operating point e2that is closest to the desired operating point d2that does not fall within the prohibited zone X1calculate on the basis of the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time and closing the intake valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. In the example shown in Fig, this target operating point e2located on the reference line W operating modes in the plane of Q5an equivalent amount of intake air.

In this respect, in this case also the amount of intake air to the target operating point e2is in a state in which it exceeds the required amount of intake air. Therefore, as shown in Fig, in this case, the final target operating point e2also made the point in the plane is equivalent to the amount of intake air (an intermediate value between Q5and Q4), located directly under the target operating point e2on the plane Q5an equivalent amount of intake air, which is shown in Fig. This final target operating point e2on the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air (an intermediate value between the at Q 5and Q4shown in Fig and 9. The degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made changeable in the direction of the final target operating point e2. At this point in time also increased the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of an inlet valve biased in favour of delay, and the open angle of the throttle valve 17 is made smaller than in the fully open position.

Then the same procedure is sequentially repeated, i.e. the required amount of intake air becomes equal to Q4that then becomes equal to the intermediate value between the Q4and Q3that then becomes equal to Q3. That is, if the required amount of intake air becomes equal to Q4as shown in Fig, then calculate the final target operating point e3on the plane Q4an equivalent amount of intake air, if the required amount of intake air becomes equal to the intermediate value between the Q4and Q3as shown in Fig, then calculate the final target operating point e4on the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air (an intermediate value between Q4and Q3and then, if the required amount of intake air becomes Q 3as shown in Fig, then calculate the final target operating point e5on the plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air.

During this period of time, i.e. until the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made sequentially changed in the direction of the target operating points of e3e4and e5the degree of mechanical compression ratio is increased, the moment of closing of the inlet valve biased towards delay and angle of the throttle valve 17 is made smaller.

If the required amount of intake air becomes equal to Q3as shown in Fig, serial calculate the final target operating point e6e7e8e9and e10on the plane Q3an equivalent amount of intake air and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of throttle valve 17 sequentially change when passing through these final target operating point e6e7e8e9and e10to the desired operating point d5. During this period the degree of mechanical compression ratio increase, closing the inlet valve is shifted to the side lag before reaching point e8/sub> and the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 is gradually increased, and its fully open upon reaching point e8.

On Fig shows the changes of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual compression ratio and angle of the throttle valve in the case shown in Fig in which a target amount of intake air is reduced relatively quickly with Q6(point n) to Q3(target operating point d5). From Fig it is clear that in this case, after the required amount of intake air becomes equal to the target value (the working point e4), acting on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of delay complete (working point e8), then complete the action to increase the degree of mechanical compression (target operating point d5). On the other hand, the actual compression ratio is gradually reduced until, until you have completed action on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of the lag (the working point of the d8), and then gradually increases. In addition, the opening angle of the throttle valve is gradually reduced relative to the fully open position up until the working point will not be operating point e5on the plane Q3an equivalent amount of suction is by air, and then it gradually opened to its fully open position until you have completed action on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of the lag (operating point e8).

As shown in Fig-33, when the required amount of intake air is reduced relatively quickly, in addition to the regulation of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, then adjust the angle of opening of a throttle. Thus, in the present invention defined three-dimensional bandgap X1X2for the combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and opening angle of the throttle. Prohibited from entering the operating point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and opening angle of the throttle, in these three-dimensional bandgap X1X2.

Below, with reference to Fig-39, will be explained a case in which the required amount of intake air quickly reduce to the minimum number of Q1intake air. As explained above, in this embodiment of the present invention, for example, the required amount of intake air is calculated through each specified period of time. The desired operating point on the reference line W RA is ocij modes, which satisfy successively calculated values of the required quantity of intake air, shown by dots d1d2and d3on Fig.

It should be noted that in this case to allow easy understanding of the regulation according to the present invention Fig also shows a case in which the required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d1is Q4required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d2equal to the intermediate value between the Q2and Q3and the required amount of intake air in the desired operating point d3is Q1. That is, a case is shown, in which the sequentially calculated the required amount of intake air changes from Q6(point n) to Q4intermediate values between Q3and Q2and Q1.

In addition, Fig shows the plane Q6full open throttle on Fig shows the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to Q4on Fig shows the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to the intermediate value between the Q3and Q2and Fig shows the plane equivalentes the amount of intake air, where the amount of intake air is equal to Q1.

So, if, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is held at the working point "n"which is shown on Fig, then the required amount of intake air varies with Q6to Q4and, as a result, the desired operating point is point d1first, as shown in Fig, calculate the target operating point e1on the plane Q6full open throttle. The method of calculating the target operating point e1is the same as the calculation method shown in Fig. The target operating point e1which is closest to the desired operating point d1not getting into the forbidden zone X1calculate on the basis of the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time and closing the intake valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. In the example shown in Fig, this target operating point e1located on the reference line W operating modes.

On the other hand, at this point in time is exactly the same as that shown in Fig, the throttle 17 to cover the target opening angle, which is required to ensure that the number in asiaeuro air was equal to the desired number of Q 4intake air without changing the target value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve.

That is, as shown in Fig, the final target operating point e1made the point on the plane Q4an equivalent amount of intake air, which is located directly under the target operating point e1on the plane Q6full opening of the throttle valve, which is shown in Fig. The final target operating point e1on this plane Q4an equivalent amount of intake air is shown in Fig and 36. The degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made changeable in the direction of the final target operating point e1. At this point in time, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is increased, the moment of closing of the inlet valve biased in favour of delay, and the open angle of the throttle valve 17 is made smaller than in the fully open position.

Then, if the required amount of intake air becomes equal to the intermediate value between the Q3and Q2and the desired operating point is point d2in this case, as shown in Fig, calculate the target operating point e2on the plane of an equivalent amount of suction without the ha when the current value of Q 4the amount of intake air. The method of calculating the target operating point e2also is the same as the calculation method, which was explained above. The target operating point e2which is closest to the desired operating point d2not getting into the forbidden zone X1calculate on the basis of the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, and after closing the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. In this case, which is shown in Fig, the final target operating point e2also made the point in the plane is equivalent to the amount of intake air (an intermediate value between Q3 and Q2), which is located directly under the target operating point e2on the plane Q4an equivalent amount of intake air, which is shown in Fig. The final target operating point e2on this plane of an equivalent amount of intake air (an intermediate value between Q3and Q2shown in Fig and 7.

Then, if the required amount of intake air becomes equal to Q1and the desired operating point is point d3shown in Fig, then calculate the target operating point e3on PLO the bones of an equivalent amount of intake air (an intermediate value between Q 3and Q2), then, as shown in Fig, calculate the final target operating point e3on the plane Q1an equivalent amount of intake air. If the calculated final target operating point e3the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made changeable in direction of the final target operating point e3. At this point in time also increased the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of an inlet valve biased in favour of delay, and the open angle of the throttle valve 17 is made smaller than the fully open position.

In this regard, if so, the required amount of intake air is small, on the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air appears forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load. Forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load, which appears inside this plane is equivalent to the amount of intake air increases with a decrease in the amount of intake air, and forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load, which appears inside this plane is equivalent to the amount of intake air becomes maximum when, as shown in Fig required number of SUSY aerogo air becomes minimum, equal to Q1. It should be noted that in this embodiment of the present invention around this forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load preset plane to prevent the intake, a short distance from the forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load, which prevents the ingress of the working point inside forbidden zone X2for low loads. The line of intersection of this plane, preventing the ingress, and the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air, that is the line that prevents the ingress shown in Fig as WX.

Thus, in this embodiment of the present invention, if the amount of intake air becomes equal to the desired number of Q1intake air, as shown in Fig, sequentially calculates the target operating point e4e5e6e7e8e9e10e11and e12that is closest to the desired operating point d3on the basis of the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, and the time of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, on the plane Q1an equivalent amount of intake air. In this case, to the Yes, like the target operating point e4calculated target operating point which is closest to the desired operating point d3located on the opposite side of forbidden zone X2the line WX prevent the intake, then the determined target operating point is made the target operating point e4. In contrast, when the calculated target operating point which is closest to the desired operating point d3located on the side closer to the forbidden region X2the line WX, preventing the ingress, the target working point e5e6e7e8and e9made those points on the line WX, preventing the ingress, which give the maximum limit or the degree of mechanical compression, or the date of closing of the inlet valve.

That is, if the required amount of intake air becomes equal to Q1the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made variable on the plane Q1an equivalent amount of intake air through the serial final target operating point e4e5e6e7e8e9e10e11and e12to the desired operating point d3. During this premiumquality the degree of mechanical compression ratio increase, closing the intake valve is shifted to the side lag until then, until it reaches the point e10and the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17 is gradually increased.

On Fig shows the changes of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual compression ratio and angle of the throttle valve in the case shown in Fig, in which the target intake air mass quickly decrease with Q6(point n) to Q1(target operating point d3). In the case shown in Fig, it is clear that after the required amount of intake air becomes equal to the target value (the working point e2), acting on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of delay complete (working point e10), then complete the action to increase the degree of mechanical compression (target operating point d3). On the other hand, the actual compression ratio gradually decreases and then gradually increases until the completion of actions to offset the moment of closing of the inlet valve in the direction of the lag (operating point e10). In addition, the opening angle of the throttle is reduced from a widely open position up until the working point will not be operating point e3on the plane Q1an equivalent amount in asiaeuro air, then the inlet valve is gradually opened until then, until you have completed action on the torque offset intake valve closing in the direction of the lag (operating point e10).

The following should be noted: sometimes, when the required amount of intake air is changed, the angle of opening of the throttle valve 17, which satisfies the required amount of intake air that is inside three-dimensional bandgap, that is, inside forbidden zone X2on the side of a low load. In this case, the opening angle of the throttle valve 17 is made variable to the aforementioned plane, to prevent the intake, that is, to the corner immediately before ingestion of the three-dimensional forbidden zone, in this case, the working point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and opening angle of the throttle made adjustable in the direction of the operating point which satisfies the demanded intake air mass, without falling into the three-dimensional restricted area.

Below, with reference to Fig-44, will be explained a case in which the drive motor 59 breaks down, and the power supply to the drive motor 59 is stopped. On Pig case is shown in which the drive motor 59 breaks down, and the supply elec is renergie in the drive motor 59 stop then when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W1and the point W2. In this case, the operating point which shows the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made variable from points, respectively, W1and W2 in the direction of the desired operating point dX, as shown by arrows Z1, Z2. The specified operating point dX indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve in the normal cycle, which is shown in Fig(B). In the example shown in Fig, the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made equal to 10, and the closing of the intake valve is made equal to 55° after the bottom dead center (ABDC).

On Fig shows the target operating point e1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9e10e11e12and e13for the case where the power supply to the drive motor 59 cease at the moment when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W1while on Fig shows the target operating point e1e2e3e4e5e6e7e8e9e10e11e12and e13for the case where the power supply to the drive motor 59 stop at the moment when the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of an inlet valve located at the point W2. It should be noted that in the case shown in each of Fig and 42, as an example, a case is shown in which the target operating point is changed in the plane of an equivalent amount of intake air.

In the case, which is shown in Fig and 42, the method of calculating the target operating point is also similar to the calculation method, which was explained above. The target operating point which is closest to the desired operating point dX without falling into the forbidden zone X1X2calculate the basis of changes in Gr compression ratio for a fixed period of time for the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. Incidentally, in the example shown in Fig and 42, the target operating point e2in comparison with the target operating point e1the magnitude of the decrease in the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made equal to the change in Gr compression ratio for a fixed period of time, whereas the time of closing of the inlet valve is made equal to the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. The same way, the target operating point e3 in comparison with the target operating point e2the magnitude of the decrease in the degree of mechanical compression ratio is made equal to the change in Gr compression ratio for a fixed period of time, whereas the time of closing of the inlet valve is made equal to the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. It should be noted that in this case the magnitude of the decrease in the degree of mechanical compression ratio cannot be adjusted, so adjust only the time of intake valve closing.

On the other hand, Fig shows the changes of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual compression ratio and angle of the throttle valve in the case shown in Fig, while Fig shows the changes of the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the actual compression ratio and angle of the throttle valve in the case shown in Fig. In the case shown in lubies Fig and 44, it is clear that if the drive motor 59 breaks down, then closing the inlet valve is shifted in the direction of advance, reduce the degree of mechanical compression and reduce the opening angle of the throttle. It should be noted that in this case, if the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the time of intake valve closing the achievement of which indicate the desired operating point dX, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is held in the desired operating point dX. In this case, the amount of intake air regulating the throttle valve 17.

Thus, in this embodiment of the present invention, when fails the drive motor 59, that is, when it fails, a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, then calculate the target operating point, which can be reached after a fixed period of time from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point dX, not getting into the forbidden zone X1X2and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made changeable in the direction of the target operating point. In this case, the target operating point is preferably made of the operation point most remote from the current operating point of those operating points that can be reached after a fixed period of time from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point dX without falling into the forbidden zone X1X2. In addition, in this embodiment of the present invention after a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression fails, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve reaches the desired working the point dX, the intake air mass regulate the throttle.

On Fig shows the diagnostic procedure malfunction of a drive motor 59. This procedure is performed by an interrupt after a certain period of time.

As shown in Fig, first perform an operation 100, which is judged whether the flag the presence of a fault, which indicates that the drive motor 59 is out of order. When the flag the presence of a fault is not selected, then the procedure passes to operation 101, which calculates the value of ΔE2change the amount of electric power supplied to the drive motor 49, since the previous interrupt until the current interrupt. Then perform an operation 102, which calculates the change in ΔSθ rotation angle of the Cam shaft 55 since the previous interrupt until the current interrupt. Then perform an operation 103, in which judge out whether defective drive motor 59. When ΔE2exceeds the reference value, but ΔSθ is smaller than a preset reference value, then decide that the drive motor 59 is out of order, and at this time in the procedure passes to operation 104. At operation 104 sets the flag the presence of a fault, and at operation 105 stop electric power supply to the PR the water motor 59.

On Fig and 47 shows the procedure for computing the target operating point, which can be reached after a predetermined fixed time interval from the current operating point, i.e. to calculate the target values of the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the inlet valve and the target value of the opening angle of the throttle.

In this procedure, the target operating point, which can be reached after a predetermined fixed time interval, calculate every specified period of time. Therefore, the procedure that is shown in Fig, execute with interrupts after every specified period of time. This specified period of time can be set freely, but in this embodiment of the present invention, this predetermined time interval is 8 MS (milliseconds). Therefore, in this embodiment of the present invention a procedure for computing the target value shown in Fig perform every 8 MS, and the target operating point, which can be achieved through 8 MS from the current operating point is calculated every 8 milliseconds.

As shown in Fig, first perform an operation 150, which calculates the required number GX intake air. It required number GX intake air, for example, zarana is stored in the ROM 32 as a function of the degree of the pedal 40 of the accelerator and the engine speed. Then perform an operation 151, which is judged whether the flag the presence of a fault. When the flag the presence of a fault is not selected, then the procedure passes to operation 152, which calculates the desired working point on the reference line W operating modes in accordance with the required number of GX intake air. Then perform an operation 153, in which judge whether the current operating point of the desired operating point. When the current operating point is specified operating point, the loop is complete. In contrast, when the current operating point is not at the specified operating point, then the procedure passes to operation 154 where is judged whether the required number GX intake air more than the amount of intake air GA in the current working point.

When GX>GA, that is, when the amount of intake air should be increased, then the procedure passes to operation 155, in which, as was explained on the basis of Fig-21, define the target operating point. That is, when the operation 155 calculates the target opening angle of the throttle in accordance with the required number of GX intake air. This target opening angle of the throttle is usually equal to the angle fully open, if the desired operating point u is Lorena on the plane Q 6full open throttle. Then perform an operation 156, which calculates the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, and then perform the following operation 157, which calculates the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. Thus, when calculating the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, take into account possible changes in the degree of mechanical compression explained with reference to Fig and Fig.

Then perform an operation 158, which use the method that was explained on the basis of Fig, to determine the target operating point. Then perform an operation 159, in which, based on the determined target operating point, calculate the target value of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the target value of the moment of closing of the inlet valve. The target value of the opening angle of the throttle has already been calculated at operation 155 as the target opening angle of the throttle.

On the other hand, when the operation 154 was made the judgment that GX≤GA, that is, when the amount of intake air should be reduced, or when the amount of intake air becomes equal to required the th amount of intake air, then the procedure passes to operation 160, which, as was explained on the basis of Fig-39, define the target operating point. That is, at operation 160 calculates the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, then perform the following operation 161, which calculates the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time. Thus, to calculate the degree of mechanical compression, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, also take into account possible changes in the degree of mechanical compression explained with reference to Fig and 3. Then perform an operation 162, which define the target operating point.

Then perform an operation 163, at which calculates a target opening angle of the throttle, which satisfies the required amount of intake air, and the target opening angle of the throttle makes the target value of the opening angle of the throttle. However, when the angle of opening of a throttle, which satisfies the required number of GX intake air that is inside the forbidden zone, the target opening angle of the throttle make equal to its value on the aforementioned plane, p is patstwowej to hit. The target opening angle of the throttle made adjustable along the plane to prevent the intake closer to the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve to the desired operating point.

The following should be noted: although it is not explained above, a similar situation may occur if the required amount of intake air increases. For example, when the working point is located in a lower region of the forbidden zone X1on the side of the high load, shown in Fig, if the required amount of intake air increases, the target opening angle of the throttle sometimes is inside forbidden zone X1on the high side loads. At this point in time, the target opening angle of the throttle valve is made equal to its value at the reference plane of the working modes, including various reference line W operating modes, which are set for different planes of an equivalent amount of intake air. The target opening angle of the throttle made adjustable along the support plane of the working modes approaching the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve to the desired operating point.

On the other hand, when the operation 151 full release occurring is about the judgment what flag the presence of a fault is selected, then the procedure passes to operation 164, which calculates the desired working point dX. Then perform an operation 165, in which judge whether the current operating point of the desired operating point dX. When the current operating point is not desired operating point dX, then the procedure passes to operation 166 where, as was explained on the basis of Fig and 42, define the target operating point. That is, when the operation 166 calculates the moment of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, then perform the following operation 167, which saved the change Gr compression for the degree of mechanical compression ratio is used to calculate the degree of mechanical compression, reached after a fixed period of time.

Then perform an operation 168, which calculates the target operating point, then perform the following operation 169, at which calculates a target opening angle of the throttle. On the other hand, when the operation 165 made the judgement that the current working point is the desired operating point dX, then the procedure passes to operation 169, at which calculates a target opening angle of the throttle in accordance with the desired quantity is the ETS intake air.

On Fig shows how to control a mechanism of regulating the degree of compression of the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment and the throttle 17 using the PID to the degree of mechanical compression ratio, the closing of the intake valve and the opening angle of the throttle became the target values that have been calculated in the procedure shown in Fig and 47. This procedure is performed repeatedly, when the engine starts.

As shown in Fig, at operation 200 calculates the difference ΔIT (= IT0IT) the target value IT0after closing the inlet valve and the current value of IT after closing the inlet valve, calculate the difference ΔCR (= CR0-CR) target value CR0the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the current value of the CR the degree of mechanical compression ratio, and calculate the difference Δθ (θ0-θ) target value θ0the opening angle of the throttle and the current value θ of the angle of opening of the throttle.

Then perform an operation 201, where ΔIT is multiplied by a proportional constant 2Kp1to calculate the proportional member of Ep1the control voltage for mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, ΔCR is multiplied by a proportional constant Kp2to calculate the proportional member of Ep2p3to calculate the proportional member of Ep3the control voltage for the throttle 17.

Then perform an operation 202, where ΔIT is multiplied by the integral constant Ki1and this result (Ki1∙ΔIT) multiplying the sum with the accumulation to calculate integral member of Ei1the control voltage for mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, ΔCR is multiplied by the integral constant Ki2and this result (Ki2∙ΔCR) multiplying the sum with the accumulation to calculate integral member of Ei2the control voltage for A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, and Δθ is multiplied by the integral constant Ki3and this result (Ki3∙Δθ) multiplying the sum with the accumulation to calculate integral member of Ei3the control voltage for the throttle 17.

Then perform an operation 203, at which the difference (ΔIT-ΔIT1) between the current ΔIT and the previous calculated ΔIT1multiplied by the differential constant Kd1to calculate the differential member Ed1the control voltage for mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, the difference (ΔCR-ΔCR1) between the current ΔCR and the previous calculated ΔCR1multiplied by the differential constant Kd2to calculate the differential member E d2the control voltage for A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, and the difference (Δθ-Δθ1) Δθ between the current and the previous calculated Δθ1multiplied by the differential constant Kd3to calculate the differential member Ed3the control voltage for the throttle 17.

Then perform an operation 204, where the proportional member of Ep1integral member of Ei1and the differential member Ed1summed up to calculate the control voltage E1for mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, proportional member of Ep2integral member of Ei2and the differential member Ed2summed up to calculate the control voltage E2for A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression, and the proportional member of Ep3integral member of Ei3and the differential member Ed3summed up to calculate the control voltage E3for the throttle 17.

If the mechanism B of the camshaft adjustment, A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression and the throttle 17 respectively operate in accordance with the control voltage E1E2and E3the moment of closing of the inlet valve, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the angle of opening of a throttle accordingly change is upravlenii consistently changing target values. It should be noted that when the flag is set for the presence of a fault, to A mechanism of regulating the degree of compression cease to apply control voltage E2.

On Fig shows a modified version. As shown in Fig-42, in the embodiment of the invention, which has been explained above, when electric power supply to the drive motor 59 stop, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made changeable in the direction of the desired operating point dX. However, when the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is in the area marked on Fig stroke S, that is, when the degree of mechanical compression ratio is low, and closing of the intake valve is on the side where it is shifted in the direction of advance, if the drive motor 59 breaks down, then there are no problems, even if the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is held in the operating point at the time of output of a drive motor 59 of the building.

Therefore, in modified form, which is shown in Fig, if the drive motor 59 breaks down when the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression and mo is UNT intake valve closing, is in the area, which is marked on Fig stroke S, the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is held in the operating point at the time of output of a drive motor 59 of the building. In addition, in modified form, which is shown in Fig, if the drive motor 59 breaks down when the working point, which indicates the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is out of scope, which is marked on Fig hatching's, you can make the desired working point dX to the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve located anywhere within the region, which is indicated by hatching S.

On Fig shows another variant embodiment of the invention. As explained above, in the present invention used transmission mechanisms 65, 66 of the reversing type. Therefore, when the engine is stopped, the cylinder block 2 is lowered due to gravity and enters a state with a high compression ratio. As a result, there is a danger that when restarting the engine, the combustion will occur with a deviation from the norm. Therefore, in the embodiment of the invention, which is shown in Fig when the engine is stopped, the lowering of the cylinder block 2 due to the silt of gravity prevent by placing elastic elements, for example springs 67, working in compression between the crankcase 1 of the engine and the cylinder block 2.

On the other hand, when creating this design, such as that which is shown in Fig, because it uses the transmission mechanisms 65, 66 reversible type, when the engine is stopped, the cylinder block 2 rises up and enters a state with a low compression ratio. Therefore, during the re-starting of the engine is input in a state with a low compression ratio. However, during re-start the engine inlet condition with very low compression engine starting becomes difficult.

Therefore, in the embodiment of the invention, which is shown in Fig, the worm wheel 63 is formed cut-away portion 68 and attached limiter 69, which can engage with the two end portions 68a, 68b cut part 68. This limiter 69 is used to limit the range of angles of rotation of the worm wheel 63 so that the compression ratio does not become extremely low. That is, in this embodiment of the invention to prevent an excessive decrease in the degree of mechanical compression ratio when the engine is stopped, are gearing 65, 66 to limit the rotation angles of the Cam shafts 65, 66.

The REFERENCE LIST of ITEMS

1 - CT is ur engine

2 is a block

3 - cylinder head

4 - piston

5 - combustion chamber

7 - inlet valve

17 - throttle

65, 66 - gearings

70 is a Cam shaft used to drive the intake valves

A mechanism for regulating the degree of compression

B - regulatory mechanism of the valve timing

1. Internal combustion engine with spark ignition, containing the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression, made with the possibility of changing the degree of mechanical compression, and the mechanism of the camshaft adjustment made to control the closing of the inlet valve, which is used to specify forbidden zone for the combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve to prevent ingress of the operating point, which is a combination of the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the inlet valve, in a prohibited area, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made variable from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point on the side of the low degree of mechanical compression without getting into a prohibited area, when the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails.

2. The engine according to claim 1, in which the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression made the AK, when the failure of the regulatory mechanism for the compression, the combustion pressure causes a gradual decrease in the degree of mechanical compression ratio, and when the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio is gradually reduced, the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made variable from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point without getting into a prohibited area.

3. The engine according to claim 2, in which, when the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression fails, calculate a target operating point, which can be reached after a fixed period of time from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point without getting into a prohibited area, and the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve is made changeable in the direction of the target operating point.

4. The engine according to claim 3, in which the target operating point is calculated based on the date of closing of the inlet valve, which can be reached after a fixed period of time, and saved the degree of compression of the degree of mechanical compression.

5. The engine according to claim 4, in which the target operating point made by the working point, which is the farthest from the current operating point of those operating points, to the which can be reached after a fixed period of time from the current operating point in the direction of the desired operating point without getting into a prohibited area.

6. The engine according to claim 2, which has a throttle valve for throttling the intake air regulating the amount of intake air after the failure of the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression and after the degree of mechanical compression ratio and the closing of the intake valve has reached the desired operating point.

7. The engine according to claim 2, in which the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression is driven through gearing from the output of the drive mechanism with the electric drive, and mechanism for regulating the degree of compression has a construction in which the combustion pressure actuates the transfer mechanism so that the degree of mechanical compression ratio is reduced gradually when discontinuing the power supply to the drive mechanism with an electric drive.

8. The engine according to claim 7, in which the transmission mechanism has a transmission efficiency in the range from 10% to 50%, when the combustion pressure actuates this gear.

9. The engine according to claim 7, in which the mechanism for regulating the degree of compression changes the relative position of the crankcase and cylinder block, which is located above the crankcase, by rotation of the Cam shaft to change the degree of mechanical compression, and transmission mechanism consists of a worm wheel attached to blackbomb shaft, the worm, which engages with the worm wheel and is made with the possibility of rotation of the drive mechanism.

10. The engine according to claim 7, in which between the crankcase and the cylinder block is elastic element, preventing the lowering of the cylinder under the action of gravity when the engine is stopped.

11. The engine of claim 10, in which the transmission mechanisms limit the rotation angle of the Cam shaft, preventing an excessive decrease in the degree of mechanical compression ratio when the engine is stopped.



 

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18 cl, 17 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to engine control system of, primarily, hybrid vehicles. Proposed control system comprises power output adjustment system. The latter is configured to output engine torque to motor-generators Engine is equipped with mechanisms of variable compression ratio and valve timing adjustment. One motor-generator is used to reverse the vehicle. In case engine operates in reverse, then torque of opposite sense of rotation drives the other motor-generator. The latter is used to generate electric power. Mechanical compression ratio is maintained at preset of higher magnitude. Intake valve closure moment stays aside intake stroke TDC.

EFFECT: higher efficiency in reverse.

5 cl, 30 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed device comprises valve closing time control mechanism, compression ratio control mechanism, ignition mechanism and output torque compensator to compensate ICE output reduction caused by shift of actual intake valve closure time toward TDC side. Besides, it comprises reference state determination device to determine intake valve closure reference time, reference compression ratio, and reference ignition time, and control module. Control module controls valve closure time control mechanism and compression ratio control mechanism to match actual intake valve closure time with valve closure reference time as well as to match actual compression ratio with reference compression ratio so that actual compression ratio is invariable. Also it controls ignition mechanism to match ignition time with reference ignition time. Control module allows control over intake valve closure actual time to make it approximate to TDC from reference valve closure time. Besides, it controls output compensation module when actual compression ratio exceeds reference magnitude. Invention covers also various design versions of control device.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

10 cl, 31 dwg

FIELD: internal combustion engine.

SUBSTANCE: invention considers spark ignition internal combustion engines. The internal combustion engine contains the variable compression mechanism (A) which allows changing the degree of mechanical compression, and the mechanism (B) of valve timing adjustment, which allows changing the induction valve timing (7). The volume of induced air supplied to the combustion chamber (5), is controlled by means of changing the induction valve timing (7). Degree of mechanical compression increases to the maximum degree of mechanical compression when the volume of induced air supplied to the combustion chamber decreases. In this case the volume of induced air supplied to the combustion chamber (5) decreases when the induction valve timing (7) is moved from the dead point of induction to the limit valve timing. When the induction valve timing (7) reaches the limit valve timing, the volume of induced air into the combustion chamber (5) becomes the limit controlled amount of induced air controlled by the valve timing adjustment mechanism. When the volume of induced air into the combustion chamber (5), decreases additionally due to the limit controlled volume of induced air, induction valve timing (7) is kept at the limit valve timing. During acceleration, when the volume of induced air into the combustion chamber (5) is less than limit controlled volume of induced air, if required acceleration degree is higher than predefined degree, movement of the induction valve timing (7) starts from the limit valve timing in the direction approaching to the lower dead point of induction when the volume of induced air to the combustion chamber is less in comparison with that when required acceleration degree is lower than predefined degree.

EFFECT: acceleration increase.

4 cl, 15 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention may by used in internal combustion engines provided with turbo-superchargers. Control method of turbo-supercharger rotation frequency is used in piston engine containing inlet and outlet valves (35) and (40), drive system (45) of inlet and outlet valves and turbo-supercharging device. Turbo-supercharging device includes compressor part, connected downstream to inlet side with inlet valves, and turbine part connected downstream to outlet side of outlet valves. Engine operates in the first operation mode, when it is actuated under specified load or below it, and combustion air is injected using compressor part of turbo-supercharging device. At that inlet valve is controlled by the first profile of inlet valve lifting, and air is supplied to the cylinder, fuel in engine (10) ignites by combustion engine, and outlet valve is controlled by the first profile of outlet valve lifting, and exhaust gas generated during combustion moves in turbine part of turbo-supercharging device. Engine operates in the second operation mode under load above the preset load, at that operating point of compressor part (25.1) on diagram of compressor moves far from surge line thus increasing air flow between compressor part outlet and turbine part inlet by means of valve opening period overlap increasing. Described is a control system for piston engine with turbo-supercharger.

EFFECT: improving compressor operation reliability.

17 cl, 7 dwg

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