Method of sowing spring spiked cereals

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises soil treatment, pre-sowing treatment of seeds and sowing in spring. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is carried out by their moisture, bringing the moisture content of the seeds to 45-50% of their mass. The seeds are kept at a temperature of +5°÷+10°C for 20 days, then the seeds are packed and stored till sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and sowing is carried out at the seeding rate of 100-150 kg/ha. The pre-sowing treatment of seeds is started with selection of germinable seeds.

EFFECT: method enables to provide full use of seed resources due to increasing the yield of spring spiked cereals.

2 cl, 2 ex

 

The present invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of sowing spring crops cereal crops.

The known method of sowing of spring wheat Courier, in which sowing is carried out at the optimum time of sowing of spring wheat seeding rate of 5 million viable seeds per 1 ha (L.A. Bespalova, A. Romanenko, F.A. Kolesnikov and other varieties of wheat and triticale. Publishing house "EDI", Krasnodar research Institute of agriculture, 2012 - p.75).

The disadvantages of this method of sowing of spring wheat is its low productivity and increased consumption of seeds in the sowing process, as well as the instability of crop yields in the years of its cultivation.

These drawbacks are due to the fact that spring headed culture and, in particular, spring wheat is less productive than winter. Seeds of spring wheat sprout after planting in the spring and then plants grow in conditions of increasing daily air temperature. Such external effects on plants of spring wheat reduces the time on the formation of generative organs of plants, accelerating its completion. In adverse conditions, namely the daily increase in temperature, plants reduce the development phase, the resulting fruiting occurs earlier. So plants respond to adverse external conditions. Reducing the time of the formation of generative organs of the plant which is the reason for the low yield of spring wheat and spring crops in General.

In addition, spring headed culture, in particular spring wheat at tillering stage, less bushes and form fewer shoots. The result is a significant part of the soil of the field is not protected by the stalks of the plants from direct sunlight. This leads to intense evaporation of moisture from the soil. It worsens the conditions of development of plants. To compensate for the sparseness of the crop at tillering stage, sowing perform with increased seeding rate, that is, a seeding rate of 5 million viable seeds per 1 ha This increases the consumption of seeds in the sowing process.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result for the proposed method of sowing of spring wheat is the way the seeding of spring wheat, including tillage, crop rotation crops, the introduction of the cenosis of chemicals, the seedbed preparation seed by seed treatment, sowing in spring (VA, Nebesky Experience of technology implementation of zero tillage. Krasnodar, 2003, p.15 1st par., PEFC. sec.; s-92).

The disadvantages of this method sowing of spring wheat, taken as a prototype, is its low productivity, increased consumption of seeds in the sowing process, the instability of crop yields in the years of its cultivation.

These drawbacks are due to the fact that spring headed culture and the company and, spring wheat is less productive than winter. Seeds of spring wheat sprout after planting in the spring and then plants grow in conditions of increasing daily air temperature. Quick daily air temperature increase is not possible to more fully realize the potential productivity. Then there is the external effects on plants of spring wheat reduces the time on the formation of generative organs of plants, accelerating its completion. In adverse conditions, namely the daily increase in temperature, plants reduce the development phase, the resulting fruiting occurs earlier. So plants respond to adverse external conditions. Reducing the time of the formation of generative organs of plants is the reason for the lower yields of spring wheat and spring crops in General.

In addition, spring headed culture, in particular spring wheat at tillering stage, less bushes, thus forming a smaller number of shoots. The result is a significant part of the soil of the field is not protected shoots tillering plants from direct sunlight. This leads to intense evaporation of moisture from the soil. It worsens the conditions of development of plants. When the temperature at the soil surface above +30°C plants bushes, and develops only one main colooney the victory is. To compensate for the sparseness of the crop at tillering stage, sowing perform with increased seeding rate, that is, a seeding rate of 5 million viable seeds per 1 ha and even up to 7 million viable seeds per 1 ha This increases the consumption of seeds in the sowing process.

The technical result is to ensure the full use of seed resources at the expense of increasing the yield of spring cereal crops.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of sowing of spring crops cereal crops, including tillage, seedbed preparation seed sowing in the spring, according to the invention the seedbed preparation seed is carried out by them wet, bringing the moisture content of the seeds up to 45...50% of their mass, soak the seeds at a temperature of +5°...+10° for 20 days, then the seeds are Packed and stored before sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and the sowing is carried out with a seeding rate of 100...150 kg/ha, and the seedbed preparation seed starting with the selection of viable seeds.

The novelty of technical solutions is that the technical result is achieved due to the hydration of the seed, bringing the moisture content to 45...50% of their weight and keeping the seeds at a temperature of +5°...+10°C for 20 days, starting the growth processes in the seed embryo. At these temperatures the growth processes occur in minimal stretching of cells. When the mode min is a high tensile cells is limiting the growth of cells in length, and thus the tissues of the embryo (roots, shoots) in length. This is necessary to prevent damage to roots and seedlings seed embryo during storage and planting, as well as to maintain the flowability of seed required for sowing their seed devices commercially available drills.

Simultaneously with the passage of the growth processes in embryos of seeds per mode minimum tensile cells go and processes for the synthesis of organic compounds that are necessary for cell division of the embryo. The processes of synthesis of organic compounds cause shifts in vegetative (growth) of the generative processes that provide the subsequent increase in the number of elements of the generative organs: the number of productive shoots (stems), number of seeds per ear and weight, and tillering of plants at tillering stage. All this ultimately increases productivity in particular spring wheat and whole spring cereal crops, as well as the stability of high yields by years of cultivation.

Seeding with seeding rate of 100...150 kg/ha (2...3 million seeds per 1 ha) saves the seeds at sowing, because the overestimation of the seeding rate results in excessive seed at sowing.

Storage of seeds before sowing at a temperature below 0°C prevents their growth and maintain their germination before sowing.

The analysis of the properties of the aggregate of signs Appl the frame of the method and properties of the set of features detected prototype and analogues showed the set of features of the claimed method shows a new property is to maximise the yield potential of spring cereal crops.

Examples of specific implementation method

Example 1. Seeds of spring wheat, for example, varieties Budimir selection Krasnodar research Institute of agriculture in advance, at the stage of pre-sowing seed preparation, stariway in PVC bags and placed on pallets in three bags in a row and three rows of bags. Use seeds with laboratory germination not less than 95%. Then use autocare immersed in water having a temperature of +18°...+20°C, 0,5...1,0 minute, bringing the moisture content of the seeds up to 45...50% of their mass, and then the pallets with bags put on the ground and give the water to drain out. Then they are loaded in autorefrigerators and maintained at a temperature of +5°...+10°C for 20 days. The seeds starts the process of cell division in embryos and stretching the spine and starostka. The seeds swell, when this is broken the skin on that record visually. At this time, under the effect of operational parameters and influence of the genotypes of spring wheat seeds in the process of synthesis of organic compounds that are necessary for cell division of the embryo, which causes the change of the vegetative (growth) of generative processes, resulting in the subsequent formation of spike, number of seeds per ear and made the th seeds. Then the seeds are Packed and stored before sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and the sowing is carried out with a seeding rate of 100...150 kg/ha in the period from 10 February to 10 April in the pre-treated soil.

Example 2. The seedbed preparation seed spring wheat begin with the selection of viable seeds. To do this, they are soaked in water and soak in it for 24 hours (a day). Then subjected to intensive drying by exposure to warm air. Then the suction column when the air flow rate in the range 3...5 m/s divide the seeds into two fractions. Lightweight fraction of seeds used for sowing. Heavy fraction of the seeds may be again subjected to the above-described operations. Due to it allocate a certain number of viable seeds. Then perform the work as described in example 1.

The use of the proposed method of sowing of spring crops cereal crops (wheat: soft, hard, Emmer wheat; barley; oats; triticale) in comparison with the known methods of planting will help to reduce the period of plant development phase of spring cereal crops and reduce their growing season, which is a prerequisite for obtaining maximum yield, bringing its value to the value of the harvest of winter crops cereal crops; increase precocity late-maturing varieties; to shift the timing of harvesting the spring cereal crops, starting 5-10 days earlier.

p> 1. Method of sowing of spring crops cereal crops, including tillage, seedbed preparation seed sowing in the spring, characterized in that the seedbed preparation seed is carried out by them wet, bringing the moisture content of the seeds up to 45-50% of their mass, soak the seeds at a temperature of +5°÷+10°C for 20 days, then the seeds are Packed and stored before sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and the sowing is carried out with a seeding rate of 100-150 kg/ha

2. Method of sowing of spring crops cereal crops according to claim 1, characterized in that the seedbed preparation seed starting with the selection of viable seeds.



 

Same patents:

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2 cl, 2 dwg

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2 cl, 1 ex, 6 tbl

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4 tbl

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2 tbl

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2 ex

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1 tbl

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1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises soil treatment, the use of crop rotation of spring spiked crops, presowing treatment of seeds and sowing in spring in time of sowing the spring spiked crops. The seeds are moistened, bringing the moisture content of the seeds to 45-50% of their mass, held at a temperature of +5°÷15°C for 1.5-2.0 days. Then, at a temperature in the range of -3°÷5°C for 20 days, allowing for short-term periods of up to 12 hours of fluctuations in temperature in the range of +5° to -30°C. Then, the seeds are stored prior to planting at a temperature of 0°÷5°C, and planted with a decreased seeding rate in the range of 100-200 kg/ha. The presowing treatment of seeds is started with the selection of germinable seeds.

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2 cl, 2 ex

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4 ex, 4 tbl

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5 dwg

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EFFECT: machine has advanced technological capabilities, simplified construction and improved performance.

15 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of sowing seeds of winter spiked cereals comprises pre-sowing treatment of seeds, for which the viable seeds are selected first. Then the seeds are moisturised, bringing the moisture content of seeds to 45-50% of their weight. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature of +4°…+6°C for 2.5-3 days. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature in the range of -3°…-5°C for 35-50 days, allowing short-term periods to 12 hours of temperature fluctuation in the range of +5° … to -30°C. Then the seeds are kept before sowing at a temperature below 0°C. Sowing is carried out in spring in time of sowing spring spiked cereals on the area of the fields, allotted for the winter and spring spiked cereals with a seeding rate of 100-200 kg/ha.

EFFECT: invention enables to provide the use of full seed resource due to elimination of crop losses from freezing in the field.

2 ex

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