Water treatment system with ballast flocculation and sedimentation and simplified sediment circulation and method to this end

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to water treatment by combination of processes including coagulation, sedimentation, flocculation and ballast flocculation additionally perfected by simplified circulation of sediment. Sediment circulation system allows operation at higher density of sediment and with less notable losses of water. Here, sediment accumulated in sedimentation zone bottom part is forced through hydraulic cyclone definite number of times in periodic cycles to increase the density of extracted sediment of solid particles. This system can be controlled also with the help of suspended solid product analyser, flow metre and/or timer.

EFFECT: control over fluid flow behaviour with the help of above described method.

21 cl, 7 dwg, 1 tbl

 

The present invention relates to a simplified system of recirculation of sludge, which must be added to the water treatment system for drinking or industrial water or wastewater, which may include a combination of methods from the group consisting of coagulation, sedimentation, occulation and ballast occulation, to improve its efficiency by reducing losses and ballast water. It also refers to the specific behavior of the fluid flow, which is possible, in particular, by adding the simplified system of recirculation of sludge, and it is, moreover, improves the efficiency of the method.

Equipment for water treatment is necessary for the treatment of drinking and industrial waste water, where the water is exposed to pollutants of different size and composition. Purification method, therefore, is intended to remove these pollutants through the use of appropriately selected methods, which are usually based on water retention in large tanks for application processing. Such contaminants are sufficiently dense for the fall and accumulate at the bottom of these tanks, depending on the flow rate, while others are large enough to successfully eliminate them from the water with OSU filter. However, some pollutants, called colloids, are microscopic particles that are uniformly distributed in the mixture, which cannot be effectively separated from the hydrocolloid solution, which is a mixture of water and colloid, by physical means and, thus, require specific processing methods.

For the separation of water from these unwanted impurities it must pass through certain stages of treatment. Can be carried out pre-processing to extract large waste and adjusting the pH of the water to facilitate subsequent processing stages. To eliminate finer particles of the suspension and, thus, water clarification equipment for water treatment, as a rule, contains a flocculation zone, where flockhouse agent, or a polymer (such modified polyacrylamides)or chemical product (such as sodium silicate), or in rare cases, a natural product with the same properties is injected into the water. Adding such flocculonodular agent of colloids begin to form flakes (aggregates of particles) of pollutants. Mixer with rotating blades, usually mixes the mixture located in the area of flocculation for maximizing contact between flocculation agent and contaminants is, making thus possible the formation of flakes of large size.

This way the first stage, called occulation can be further improved by adding ballast material similar to micropack, which acts as a ballast and a contact mass which catalyze the reaction of flocculation in water and the solution pollutants. When you add ballast to the above flockhouse agent binds it together with flakes of colloids and other particles, creating, thus, the flakes of larger size and greater weight by agglomerating previously formed floc together with particles of sand. This, in turn, has the advantages of more rapid implementation of the flocculation and the next stage of processing.

The next stage of the method of water treatment is called sedimentation. It takes place in the zone of sedimentation and is based on the fact that gravity pulls every object the surface of the earth with a force proportional to its mass. For this reason, the heavier particles easier addicted in the direction of the lower part of this zone retention, so adding granular ballast such as sand, although it is not the most important, may be a reasonable contribution in the way, reducing the time required for settling of the flocs in the lower part of the zone. Still the way the way flocculation is mostly a means to reduce the number of colloids in suspension in a liquid solution, creating a relatively heavy flakes of colloids, which are not effectively settle at the bottom of the sedimentation zone under the action of gravity, as would the particles of large size in suspension in a liquid solution. Then the purified water is collected, when it flows from the zone of sedimentation. If the area flocculation using ballast, cereal with ballast then accumulate in the bottom of the sedimentation zone and contain sand, which must additionally be processed for separation of sand from contaminants and particle pollutants.

A mixture containing contaminants, colloids, water, and sometimes sand, forms what is generally referred to as "sludge", which must be removed from the system after removing such a large amount of sand and water as possible, maximising the efficiency of the method. The extracted sand can be used again and again in the way without having to add new sand in the course of work, depending on the effectiveness of the above extract.

Nonprincipal additional phase, called coagulation, can be added to the method of water treatment in order to improve e is about efficiency. If it is included in the method, it usually represents the first phase, which started with the cleaning of contaminated water after pre-treatment. It consists in the addition of salts of trivalent metals in the solution of water and contaminants. Salt (usually composites of iron or aluminum), dissolve in water, releasing ions with three positive charges that are associated with colloids, and then form small aggregates. Such units are combined into flakes when the solution is added flockhouse agent, and because they are particles with dimensions larger than those of the colloids, they do agglomeration of aggregates in cereals is relatively simpler than the method without prior coagulation, and this increases the effectiveness of the procedure due to the inclusion in the equipment other zone, the zone of coagulation, and adds the costs of salts of trivalent metals.

The treated water is typically filtered after sedimentation for removal is not settled flakes and particles that may still be in suspension in the water. The concentration of water in the sediment obtained after sedimentation, is still too high, and for this reason need a thickening agent funds sufficient for its reduction to facilitate the transportation, for example, in the burial place ododo is. This additional process takes a long time to be effective, and often require large spaces, as in the case of plots for evaporation in the open air (or dewatering layers). The alternative is a compaction method, which requires pressing the sediment at the textile filters to extract as much fluid as possible, then get a compact briquettes from the remaining solid contaminants. The way the centrifuge uses centrifugal force to extract water from the precipitate, and, after pressing, the remaining contaminants are formed in the form of compact briquettes. On the other hand, these methods require special equipment or large open spaces, to be effective, which is costly and may be impractical, depending on the economic and geographical situation in the community that require this.

Another common problem is real plants for water treatment is the extraction of sand ballast from the resulting precipitate, which leads to unnecessary consumption of material.

The first objective of the present invention is to decrease the amount of sediment released by equipment for water treatment, which typically uses a combination of processing methods in the water, including coagulation, occulation, sedimentation and ballast occulation through the creation of improved tools gradual pumping water from a specified sediment through the use of improved sludge recirculation system.

The second objective of the present invention is to provide means for accelerating water treatment, which can be retrofitted on existing equipment, and also be carried out on the newly built equipment with low cost.

A third objective of the present invention is to reduce the size of pumping water from the sludge such equipment.

The fourth object of the present invention is to eliminate the need for an external pool for pumping water from the sludge used in some plants for processing, reducing, thus, the cost and duration of the water treatment process such equipment.

The fifth object of the present invention is the reduction of losses of the ballast within the methods of water treatment, which may include ballast occulation.

The present invention provides a solution for existing and future installations for water treatment, requiring funds reduce the amount of water contained in the residual sludge from water treatment, for the mind is nisene waste, which must be disposed of later. It also reduces the cost and size of the device required for additional sediment concentration. The present invention also reduces the loss of ballast in the appropriate equipment with certain types of funds separation of liquid and solid products by increasing its speed recovery, achieved through many repeated cycles of re-introduction of sediment in these a means that is made possible by using the present invention.

The method of water treatment, including coagulation, ballast occulation and sedimentation, as a rule, makes it possible to obtain the concentration of solid material sediment in the range between 0.05% and 0.1% (from 0.5 to 1.0 grams/liter). When combined with a simplified system of recirculation of sludge according to the present invention wide studies show that the concentration shows an increase of more than 30 g/l with the reduction of the volume of sediment released at the percentage value in the range between 30 and 97 percent and requires less equipment for sludge thickening.

The present invention also makes possible the recovery of the ballast with a speed equivalent to the speed of recovery of water. The following table compares the results for the characteristics of the present invention and tipin the x water treatment systems:

Lift speed/ attitude recyclingMaterial in suspension (water source)Typical characteristics ticks of the system known from the literatureFeatures : -Tiki system
according to the present invention
Win
revealed-
the istics
20 m/h and 3% recycling20 mg/l96 m3/h
0.6 g/l
3.2 m3/h
20 g/l
97%
40 m/h and 3% recycling200 mg/l96 m3/h
9,82 g/l
47,1 m3/h
20 g/l
51%
40 m/h and 6% recycling600 mg/l192 m3/h
of 13.9 g/l
133,6 m3/h
20 g/l
30%
60 m/h and 6% recycling200 mg/l192 m3/h
of 13.9 g/l
133,6 m3/h
20 g/l
30%
80 m/h 3% recycling200 mg/l192 m3/h
9,82 g/l
94 m3/h
20 g/l
51%

The combination of elements of embodiments one, two and three, as described later, makes it possible to create complex three-dimensional flow, preventing reentry of sediment in the upper part of the sedimentation zone. This thread and this further enhances the efficiency of the present invention and is a result of the implementation of the specific structures described in the detailed description of embodiments.

The present invention consists of a system of recirculation of sludge, which must be added to the zone of sedimentation equipment for water treatment using at least one purification method selected from the group consisting of flocculation, sedimentation, coagulation and ballasted flocculation; this sludge recirculation system is designed for repeated Cycling of the specified residue by way of gradual pumping water, this system contains:

is located further along the way the capacity to extract sediment containing cavity for extracting sludge, located in the lower part of the listed capacity; this cavity defines a certain extent the ons sedimentation, where sediment may accumulate therein under the action of gravity;

- recirculation device containing:

i. means separation of liquid and solid products, which make possible the cleaning liquid solution by removing solid contaminants contained in it;

ii. means of recycling, containing:

1) a recirculation line connected on its input edge with the specified cavity for extracting sludge and connected with specified means of separation of liquid and solid products on its output edge;

2) line re-introduction connected in working condition on its input edge with specified means of separation of liquid and solid products and with the specified capacityto extract the sediment at its output edge; and

3) the inference line, connected on its input edge with the specified line is re-introducing and releasing sediment to the high density of the specified equipment for water treatment at its output edge, located further along the way;

iii. means, active during the specified multiple Cycling of the specified sludge through the sludge recirculation system for progressively specified sediment from the specified system recirculation of sludge through the specified line breeding;

iv. means for moving the specified sediment shown in the recirculation device for a specified multiple of the circulation.

Preferably these means to move the specified sediment in the specified recirculation device represent a pump located further along the way in the recirculation line. Also mentioned means for progressively specified sediment from the specified sludge recirculation system includes means for monitoring the concentration of solid components of the given sediment.

Preferably, these means separation of liquid and solid products are hydrocyclone mounted further along the way than specified recirculation line, in relation to the specified pump, which contains the output for the top product and an outlet for the bottom of the product; the specified output for top product connected with specified means of recycling, and the specified output underflow results in the flocculation zone.

Preferably, further include control means selected from the group consisting of means of control flow and controls the concentration of solid products, to adjust the speed of the specified liquid solution flowing through the specified recirculation device, thus, to optimize the effectiveness of the specified hydrocyclone.

Preferably, these means for the gradual vivid is of the specified sediment from the specified system recirculation of sludge through the said inference line represent analyzer suspended solids, which works in conjunction with the specified flow monitor to further improve the effectiveness of the hydrocyclone by adjusting the flow rate in accordance with the specified concentration of solid components of the given sediment.

Preferably, the zone of sedimentation contains a rotary scraper mechanism containing the upper part and the lower part with respect to the plane of the specified zone sedimentation and rotating in a specified plane, which sends the specified sediment deposited in the specified lower part of this zone sedimentation in the direction specified cavity for extracting the precipitate thus, in order to maintain its dispersion, and effectively divides the specified area of sedimentation on the first upper section and the lower section with respect to the plane of the scraper mechanism, insulating, thus, specified the cavity to extract sediment, the specified input edge of the recirculation line and the output edge of the line for re-introduction located in the specified second lower part, from the said first upper part of this zone sedimentation.

Preferably, the specified rotary scraper mechanism is hollow in the center, forming a hollow shaft, and coincides with a part located further along the way of the given line is Torno introduction of the specified recirculation device, resulting in the specified cavity for extracting sludge.

Preferably, the specified lower part of the scraper mechanism is formed opposite the cone coaxial with the specified hollow shaft, essentially preventing dynamic reverse flow of the specified liquid solution within the specified cavity for extraction of sediment to the specified line for re-introduction and maximizing the flow through the said recirculation line.

Preferably, the specified recirculation device feature outside the specified capacity for the extraction of sediment.

Preferably, the output of the specified line to re-enter the specified recirculation device opens in the specified cavity for extracting sludge.

Preferably, the camera for the sedimentation of sand further include in the specified recirculation device and install earlier along the way than the specified line re-introduction and the specified line breeding, and later along the way than the specified hydrocyclone, making possible the recovery of a granular material like sand, in the specified recirculation device, where the sediment contains material like sand.

Preferably, the specified recirculation device comprises a hydrocyclone, a valve for controlling recirculation the th stream, installed in the specified line re-introduction, and the analyzer suspended solids, also installed in the specified line re-introduction; control opening and closing of the specified valve to control the flow depends on the concentration of the specified sludge recirculation within the specified device.

Preferably, the analyzer suspended solid products installed in the inlet pipe, which supplies water to the specified equipment for water treatment, thus making it possible to control the flow of water through the specified recirculation device depending on the concentration of the colloidal contaminants in the water.

Preferably, the specified hydrocyclone, it is specified hydrocyclone, releases recycled sludge in the sludge recirculation system.

The present invention also consists of a method of obtaining specific behavior of the fluid flow that uses the recirculation of sludge, prevents reverse flow of sediment within the specified second lower sections of the specified zone sedimentation, specified in the first upper section of the sedimentation zone, and also brings to the maximum flow from a specified line re-introduction to the specified line recirculation, which contains the following stages:

a) a mixture of water and hlophe the contaminants enter in the area of sedimentation;

b) then the flakes are falling inlocated further along the waythe capacity to extract sediment containing cavity for extracting sludge, located in the lower part of the listed capacity; this cavity defines a certain amount of the specified zone sedimentation under gravity, forming a precipitate;

c) rotating the scraper mechanism containing the bottom edge and a hollow center, sends the specified sediment deposited in the specified lower part of this vessel, in the direction specified cavity for extracting the precipitate thus, in order to maintain dispersed;

d) the recirculation line having its input part located inside this cavity to extract sediment and connected in operable with the pump moves the sediment in the specified recirculation device;

e) a certain amount of sediment re-injected into the specified cavity for extracting sludge through line re-introduction, which has its output edge is located inside this hollow center of the specified scraper mechanism;

f) receiving stream sedimentflows back in the direction specified recirculation line without back flow into the line re-introduction due to the specific combination of:

i. the specified rotary scraper, milling the mA;

ii. the specified cavity for extracting sludge;

iii. specified recirculation device;

iv. specified recirculation line and

v. the line re-introduction of the specified recirculation device located inside this hollow centre of the indicated rotation of the scraper mechanism and resulting in the specified cavity for extracting sludge.

Preferably, the reverse cone type on the specified lower edge of the specified scraper mechanism, giving more opportunity to the stream specified sediment result ofthe line re-introduction through the specified line recirculation without back flow inside the specified line re-introduction.

The present invention also consists of a method of obtaining specific behavior of the fluid flow, which prevents the reverse flow of sediment within the specified second lower sections of the specified zone sedimentation in the specified first top section of the sedimentation zone, and also brings to the maximum flow from a specified line re-introduction to the specified line recirculation, comprising the following stages:

a) a mixture of water and flakes of pollutants enters the zone of sedimentation;

b) then the flakes are falling in located further along the way the capacity to extract sediment from the cavity for containing a series of extraction residue, located in the lower part of the listed capacity; this cavity defines a certain amount of the specified zone sedimentation under gravity, forming a precipitate;

c) rotating the scraper mechanism containing the bottom edge and a hollow center, sends the specified sediment deposited in the specified lower part of this vessel, in the direction specified cavity for extracting the precipitate thus, in order to maintain dispersed;

d) the recirculation line having its input part located inside this cavity to extract sediment and connected in operable with the pump moves the sediment in the specified recirculation device;

e) a certain amount of sediment re-injected into the specified cavity for extracting sludge through line re-introduction, which has its output edge is located inside this hollow center of the specified scraper mechanism;

f) receiving stream sediment flows back in the direction specified recirculation line without back flow into the line re-introduction due to the specific combination of:

i. the specified rotation of the scraper mechanism;

ii. the specified cavity for extracting sludge;

iii. specified recirculation device;

iv. specified recirculation line and

v. specified line again is keeping the recirculation device, located on the specified wall cavity to extract sediment.

Preferably, the specified lower edge of the specified scraper mechanism add inverted cone, giving more opportunity to the stream specified sediment result from the specified line re-introduction through the specified line recirculation without back flow to the specified line re-introduction.

The present invention also consists of a method of obtaining specific behavior of the fluid flow, which prevents the reverse flow of sediment within the specified second lower sections of the specified zone sedimentation, specified in the first upper section of the sedimentation zone, and also brings to the maximum flow from a specified line re-introduction to the specified line recirculation containing the following stages:

a. a mixture of water and flakes of pollutants enters the zone of sedimentation;

b. then the flakes are falling in located further along the way the capacity to extract sediment containing cavity for extracting sludge, located in the lower part of the listed capacity; this cavity defines a certain amount of the specified zone sedimentation under gravity, forming a precipitate;

c. the recirculation line having its input part located inside this cavity for the extracted what I sludge and connected in operable with the pump, moves the sediment in the specified recirculation device;

d. a certain amount of sediment re-injected into the specified cavity for extracting sludge through line re-introduction, which has its output edge is located on the specified wall cavity to extract sediment;

e. the resulting stream sediment flows back in the direction specified recirculation line without back flow line re-introduction due to the specific combination of:

i. the specified cavity for extracting sludge;

ii. specified recirculation device;

iii. specified recirculation line and

iv. the line re-introduction of the specified recirculation device located at the specified wall cavity to extract sediment.

In the drawings illustrating the preferred implementation of the present invention, shown:

figure 1 is a schematic General view of the equipmentfor water treatment according to the present invention, based on the external sludge recirculation system, referred to hereinafter as an implementation option one;

figure 2 - schematic General view of equipment for water treatment, where the sludge recirculation system re-enters the sediment in the lower part of the sedimentation zone with passes down through the hollow center of the rotary scraper is of echanism, referred to hereinafter as an implementation option two, and where the flow re-circulation of sludge regulate analyzer suspended solid products;

figure 3 is another schematic General view of equipment for water treatment, constituting a second variant implementation of the sludge recirculation system in figure 2, where the flow re-circulation of sludge instead regulate by means of the flow meter;

4 is another schematic General view of equipment for water treatment, where the sludge recirculation flow control using timer;

5 is another schematic General view of equipment for water treatment, showing the various locations, which can be located components to control the flow recirculation or analysis of suspended solids;

6 is another schematic General view of equipment for water treatment, where the control flow recirculation is carried out using analysis of suspended solids in the water flowing through the pipe for feeding; and

7 in an enlarged scale as compared with figure 2-4, 5 and 6, a graphical representation of the specific modeling of the dynamics of the flow of sludge through the sludge recirculation system of the present invention, in this case through the recycling of sludge case for two, and it is taken at the bottom on the right side, part 2 of 4, 5 or 6.

Figure 1 indicates the General equipment 01 for treatment of water containing within 3 main areas in which circulates the water, with the added sludge recirculation system, the corresponding variant of one implementation of the present invention. The water flows from left to right for a gradual clearing it from contaminants. Located earlier in the course of the way area 10 coagulation is defined as the vertical capacity of the storage 100, for example, a cubic shape, the receiving water through the passage, which may be a conventional pipe and which is not shown in the drawing. Coagulant, preferably a salt of trivalent metal add to the water flowing in the zone 10 of coagulation, to initiate the formation of aggregates of pollutants mixed with water. Small particles of contaminants in suspension in the water, as a rule, are negatively charged and, therefore, are attracted salts of trivalent metals that are dissolved in water, leaving ions with three positive charges. The engine 11 mounted above the zone of coagulation, allows for rotation of the agitator 12, with which it is connected with the rotary shaft 11a. The mixer 12 includes a number of rotating blades 12a, 12b, ..., extending in working condition generally horizontally at some distance above the bottom 102 of the first chain and / or previously along the way of storage tanks 100.

The shaft 11a is sufficiently long so that the stirrer 12 is rested at a certain depth below the water surface in the zone 10 coagulation, and it rotates with the agitator 12 due to the rotational movement transmitted by the engine 11. The blades 12a, 12b, ... agitators rotate generally parallel to the plane of the bottom 102 of the container and mix the water and salt solution of trivalent metal for maximizing surface contact between the two reactants and, therefore, the ionic attraction between these ions with positive charges and pollutants in the water. This stage is not critical to achieve the appropriate water purification, but can improve the efficiency of water treatment.

The water containing the now small aggregates of pollutants, then pour the second vertical capacity storage 104, which is called zone 15 flocculation. The motor 110 mounted above the bottom 106 of the container 104 also enables the second mixer 108 to rotate at a certain depth below the surface at some distance above the plane of the bottom 106 of the container 104 through the inclusion of a rotating shaft 110a. Flockhouse agent is mixed with water in the tank 104, which already contains the aggregates formed in the zone of coagulation.

This flockhouse agent are thoroughly mixed in water with the help of mixer 108, and it makes possible the formation of flocs of particles inside the zone 15 flocculation, when combined with pollutants. The rate of formation and the size (and thus weight) of the flakes preferably can further be increased by adding ballast. The most commonly used ballast is micropeak (e.g., with particle diameters in the range between 50 μm and 150 μm) because of its General availability and relatively low cost.

Then the water enters the third zone, called zone sedimentation 16 located in a different vertical tank storage 112. Flakes and aggregates, which are created in the two previous zones 10 and 15, are drawn under the action of gravity in the direction of the bottom 22 in the form of a funnel which is located further along the way of the vessel 112. Heavier particles, therefore, are more likely to sink to the bottom 22 16 zone sedimentation and do it faster than the lighter particles, which represents a benefit from coagulation and ballasted flocculation to improve the efficiency of water treatment system. The scraper mechanism 20, which may carry the device, such as a reverse cone 21, at its center, impart rotational movement in the plane of the zone 16 sedimentation by electric motor 18 that moves the rotating vertical shaft 17.

A the Yu shaft 17 is sobremisana flakes of pollutants, which are deposited on the radially tapering from top to bottom walls of the bottom 22 of the cavity 19 to extract the sediment below the reverse cone 21 in the Central zone 16 of the sedimentation. Flakes of pollutants, thus, collect inside the cavity 19 to extract the sludge mass is subsequently forms a precipitate.

The reverse cone 21 may be replaced by other relevant agencies, such as the horizontal perforated plate located at some distance above the bottom 22, in the form of a recess. Perforation of such a perforated plate would make possible the free flow of sediment at such a flow rate that sediment would not return to a state of suspension.

This precipitate, which contains a relatively large amount of water will hereinafter be called the diluted sludge. For optimization of this treatment, this water diluted sludge must be processed for pumping so much water as possible from the diluted sludge. To achieve this goal, the diluted sludge is sucked in the intake line 39 recirculation recirculation device under the action of the pump 38. Then the sediment passes through the output line 33 and enters the hydrocyclone 30, which typically serves as a means of separation of liquid and solid products. The hydrocyclone 30 is arranged in the same the way that sediment with a higher concentration of pollutants requires a lower flow rate through the cyclone 30 to achieve a high speed of separation, and Vice versa, sludge with a lower concentration of contaminants requires a higher flow velocities for a good speed separation due to its centrifugal operation.

Flowing material containing particles of lower density, leaves the hydrocyclone 30 through the outlet pipe 32, and the material of the bottom product, containing particles with a higher density, passes through the bottom hole for reuse. Input 31 for process water makes possible the washing of recycled ballast material. The camera 34 with air ventilation for sedimentation of sand can be connected to a pipe 32, because it makes the best possible recovery of the sand, still in the top product, provide a hydrocyclone 30. Also, the authors found after some research that the camera for the sedimentation of sand is a good place to add air channel. This air channel facilitates the separation of air from the recycled sludge and thus prevents the introduction of air into the recess for the recycling of sludge.

Then the precipitate either direction is aetsa through output line 35 to derive the recirculation device for treatment of water or sediment passes again into the cavity 19 for extracting sludge through line 40 re-introduction. The device 36, which controls the opening of the valve 37 to control the flow, selects the line 35 or 40, if the concentration of solid contaminants in the sediment reaches a predetermined level, or if the flow rate reaches the specified value, or the passage of a certain amount of time. The device 36 may consist of, for example, of the analyzer suspended solids, flow meter or timer, respectively. Sediment with a higher concentration of pollutants, re-entered then into the cavity 19 to extract the sludge is mixed with the diluted sludge resulting from sedimentation of flocs in the zone 16 of the sedimentation, and the cycle begins again, gradually increasing the concentration of solid components of the sludge, with a gradual pumping water.

Also the combination of the scraper mechanism 20""", directed by deepening upward cone 21""", cavity for extracting sludge and as a recirculation line 39, and line 40""" re-introduction into the Central tube creates a specific behavior of the fluid flow in the cavity 19""" to retrieve the sediment, as shown in Fig.7. This behavior of the thread sends the sludge from line 40""" re-introduction in line 39""" recycling, at the same time vkluchaetsia in the concentrated sludge, coming from line 40""" re-introduction, diluted sludge, which accumulates in the cavity 19""" to retrieve sediment due to sedimentation.

Again, the combination of the scraper mechanism 20', 20", 20"' inverted cone 21', 21", 21"', cavity to extract the sediment and as the line 39', 39", 39'" recycling and line 40', 40", 40"' re-introduction located inside the rotating shaft 17', 17", 17'" in figure 2, 3 and 4, respectively, creates a specific behavior of the fluid flow in the cavity 19', 19", 19'" to retrieve sediment. This behavior of the thread sends the sludge from line 40', 40", 40"' re-introduction into the line 39', 39", 39"' recirculation, at the same time also introducing concentrated in the sediment coming from the line 40', 40", 40"' re-introduction, diluted sludge, which accumulates in the cavity 19', 19", 19"' to retrieve sediment due to sedimentation. In this case, however, the reverse cone 21', 21", 21"' is much more preferred because it prevents the reverse flow of the concentrated sludge coming from the line 40', 40", 40"' re-introduction.

It is a specific behavior of the fluid flow model, using modern computer software, the following well-known principles of fluid mechanics, and the result is shown in Fig.7. It shows the concentrated residue, spilling down from line 4""" re-introduction into the cavity 19""" to retrieve sediment and either coming directly in line 39""" recycling, or redirected using inverted cone 21""" for the holding of this sediment in the cavity 19""" zone 16""" sedimentation. This behavior of the fluid flow, thus leading to maximum recirculation of the concentrated sludge, at the same time mixing it with diluted sludge, continuously deposited under the action of gravity, in the recirculation device with reverse cone 21""", essentially controlling the return flow of the concentrated sludge in the direction of the upper part of the zone 16""" sedimentation, thus effectively separating the cavity to extract sediment from the upper part of the zone 16""" sedimentation.

2, 3 and 4 mainly shows the equipment for water treatment in figure 1, but with embodiment two of the present invention and with other means of control flow in the recirculation device. In these embodiments, the implementation of the rotary shaft 17' zone 16' sedimentation, which rotates the scraper mechanism 20'has a hollow center, allowing for placement inside the output of the line 40' re-introduction of the option of implementing one. This configuration allows you to better integrate the sludge recirculation system according to the present invention inside the equipment for water treatment, requiring less space to work with.

In figure 2, the analyzer 41 suspended solid productivestrategy on line 42', connecting the camera 34' for sedimentation of sand and valve 37' to control the flow, making possible the selective opening of the latter depending on the concentration of solid components of the sludge in the chamber 34' for sedimentation of sand. If this concentration is below the specified threshold, then the analyzer 41 suspended solids control valve 37' to control the flow, sending a signal through the 42' communication, which in this case represent the cable. Then the precipitate is re-injected into the cavity 19' to extract the sludge so that it can be mixed with the diluted sludge that accumulates due to sedimentation. When the concentration exceeds the specified threshold value, the valve 37' to control the stream is closed, and a highly concentrated sludge can leave the sludge recirculation system through line 35' excretion.

Figure 3 meter 43 flow set in the same position as the analyzer 41 suspended solids in figure 2, which it replaces. In this case, measuring 43 flow dictates the valve 37 to control the flow whether it is open or closed, depending on the specified threshold values of flow velocities.

Figure 4 timer 44 can replace the analyzer 41 suspended solids figure 2. In this case, the timer 44 is sportsouth for the accurate operation of the valve 37"' to control flow depending on the specific entered time values.

Figure 5 shows the preferred position of the device to control the flows in figure 2 and 3, respectively, of the analyzer 41 suspended solids meter 43 flow. In this case, the camera 34"" for sedimentation flowing sand is missing for clarity of view. The device is still used to control valve 37"" to control the flow, though each of the various provisions shown has its specific benefits, depending on the intended use of the sludge recirculation system. Position 45a device control stream is connected to the output line 32"" from the top product of the hydrocyclone 30"and is located further along the way than the connection 46"" between line 40"" re-introduction and line 35"" insertion. In position 45a device for controlling flow effectively changes the configuration of the valve 37"" to control the flow until the desired concentration crosses the Y-shaped splitter 46"". This position 45a allows the system recirculation sludge re-enter only the sediment at concentrations lower than the threshold value, the cavity 19"" to retrieve the sediment, which, in turn, makes possible a certain time savings.

Actually, if the device is to control the flow is in position 48b, only the sediment concentration equal to threshold testing the structure or exceeding it, be output from the system, ensuring, thus, the minimum efficiency. However, the sediment concentration is high enough for excretion via line 35"" for launch, will be reinjected into the cavity 19"" to retrieve the sediment due to the fact that it is earlier along the way than the Y-shaped splitter 46"," thus requiring unnecessary recirculation of sludge and, in turn, more time for processing. The combination of the two systems 45a and 48b devices for flow control, however, makes possible the use of their qualities both for maximizing system efficiency. Device for controlling flow located in position 45c, can optionally be used in combination with a flow monitor or position 45a or 48b, or as 45a and 48b for suspension of concentrated sludge in case of breakdown or system failure, which could send randomly diluted sediment in the direction of the line 35"" to launch, even if it does not satisfy the requirements of the concentration to a predetermined threshold value.

Equipment for water treatment figure 6 contains the analyzer 48 suspended solid products installed on the inlet line 47, which delivers water to the zone 10'"" coagulation, which controls the valve 37""' to control the flow of the system is neither recirculation sludge thus, the concentration of sediment coming from the sludge recirculation system through line 40""' for excretion is high enough relative to the input concentration in the water. This system can be used in conjunction with the systems of the previous drawings to further improve the efficiency of processing the extracted sludge.

1. The recirculated sludge, which must be added to the zone of sedimentation equipment for water treatment using at least one purification method selected from the group consisting of flocculation, sedimentation, coagulation and ballasted flocculation and sludge recirculation system designed for continuous circulation of sediment to gradually pumping water from the sludge contains:
located downstream capacity to extract sediment containing cavity for extracting sludge, located in the lower part of the indicated capacity and the cavity determines the volume of the sedimentation zone, where the accumulation of sediment under the influence of gravity;
the recirculation device containing:
i) means for separating liquid and solid products, which make possible the cleaning liquid solution by removing solid contaminants contained in it;
ii) means for recirculation, comprising:
1) line recircu is acii, connected on its input edge with the specified cavity for extracting sludge and connected with specified means of separation of liquid and solid products on its output edge;
2) line re-introduction connected on its input edge with specified means of separation of liquid and solid products and with the specified capacity for the extraction of sediment on its output edge, and
3) the inference line, connected on its input edge with the specified line is re-introducing and releasing sediment low density of the specified equipment for water treatment at its output edge located downstream;
iii) means active during a specified multiple circulation of the specified sludge through the sludge recirculation system for progressively specified sediment from the specified system recirculation of sludge through the specified line breeding;
iv) means for moving the specified sediment in the specified recirculation device within a specified multiple of the circulation.

2. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 1 in which the means for moving sludge in the recirculation device is a pump located downstream on the recirculation line.

3. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 2, in which the means of separation of liquid and solid products is a hydrocyclone mounted downstream, than the recirculation line in relation to the pump, which contains the output for the top product and an outlet for the bottom product, and the yield for the upper medium is connected with the above mentioned equipment recycling and exit to the bottom of the product is poured within the flocculation zone.

4. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 3, in which the control means, which is selected from the group consisting of means of control flow and controls the concentration of solid products provide additionally to regulate the flow of the diluted sludge flowing through the recirculation device, thus, to optimize the efficiency of the hydrocyclone.

5. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 4 in which the means for the gradual removal of sludge from the sludge recirculation system through line breeding represent analyzer suspended solids, which works in conjunction with a flow monitor to further improve the efficiency of the hydrocyclone by adjusting the flow rate in accordance with the concentration of solid components of the sludge.

6. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 5, in which the sedimentation zone contains a rotary scraper mechanism containing the upper part and the lower part with respect to the plane of the sedimentation zone and rotating in the plane is t, which directs the sediment deposited at the bottom of the sedimentation zone, in the direction of the cavity to extract the precipitate thus, in order to maintain its dispersion, and effectively separates the zone of sedimentation on the first upper section and the lower section with respect to the plane of the scraper mechanism, insulating, thus, the cavity for the extraction of sediment input edge of the recirculation line and the output edge of the line for re-introduction located in the second lower part, the upper part of the sedimentation zone.

7. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 6, in which the rotary scraper mechanism is made hollow in the centre, forming a hollow shaft, and coincides with a part located downstream edge line of the re-introduction of a recirculation device, resulting in the cavity to extract sediment.

8. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 7, in which the reverse cone on the lower part of the scraper mechanism is made coaxial with the hollow shaft, essentially preventing dynamic reverse flow of the diluted sludge, which is in the cavity for extracting sludge in line for re-introduction and maximizing the flow through the recirculation line.

9. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 6, in which the recirculation device is located outside of the vessel to retrieve sediment.

10. ICI the EMA recirculation of sludge according to claim 5, in which the output line to re-enter the recirculation device opens inside the cavity to extract sediment.

11. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 7, in which the recirculation device further include a camera for sedimentation of sand and set it higher flow than the line re-introduction, and the inference line and lower flow than the cyclone, making possible the recovery of a granular material like sand, in the recirculation device, and the precipitate contains material like sand.

12. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 7, in which the recirculation device comprises a hydrocyclone, a valve for controlling the recirculation flow within the line re-introduction, and the analyzer suspended solids, also mounted in the line of re-introduction, while controlling opening and closing of the valve to control flow depending on the concentration of the sludge inside the recirculation device.

13. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 1, in which the analyzer suspended solid products is located in the inlet pipe, which supplies the equipment for water treatment by water, making thus possible to control the flow of water through the recirculation device, depending on the concentration of the colloidal contaminants is of exist in the water.

14. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 7, in which the hydrocyclone releases recycled sludge in the sludge recirculation system.

15. The sludge recirculation system according to claim 1 in which the means for the gradual removal of sludge from the sludge recirculation system includes means for monitoring the concentration of solid components of the sludge.

16. The method of obtaining a given passage of the fluid flow using a sludge recirculation system of claim 8, which prevents the reverse flow of sediment located in the second lower section of the sedimentation zone, the first upper section of the sedimentation zone, and also brings to the maximum flow from line re-introduction into the recirculation line, which contains the following stages are carried out:
a) feeding a mixture of water and flakes of pollutants into the sedimentation zone;
b) the subsequent passage of flakes located downstream capacity to extract sediment containing cavity to extract the sediment at the bottom of the tank, and the cavity defines a volume zone sedimentation under gravity, forming a precipitate;
c) the direction of rotation of the scraper mechanism containing the bottom edge and a hollow center, the sediment deposited in the lower part of the vessel, in the direction of the cavity to extract the sludge so that p is derivate its dispersion;
d) moving the sludge recirculation line having its input part located inside the cavity to extract sediment, and connected in operable with the pump in the recirculation device;
e) re-enter a specified number of sediment into the cavity to extract sediment through the line re-introduction, which has its output edge is located inside the hollow center of the scraper mechanism;
f) ensure the flow of the received stream sediment back in the direction of the recirculation line without back flow into the line re-introduction due to the combination of:
i) rotating the scraper mechanism;
ii) cavity for extracting sludge;
iii) a recirculation device;
iv) recirculation line and
v) line re-introduction of a recirculation device located inside the hollow center of rotation of the scraper mechanism and leading to the cavity to extract sediment.

17. The method of obtaining a given passage of the fluid flow according to clause 16, which add a reverse taper at the lower edge of the scraper mechanism, providing an additional opportunity for disposing of stream sediment from the line re-introduction through the recirculation line without back flow into the line re-introduction.

18. The method of obtaining the specified mode flow tekokare, using a sludge recirculation system according to claim 9, which prevents the reverse flow of sediment located in the second lower section of the sedimentation zone, the first upper section of the sedimentation zone, and also brings to the maximum flow from line re-introduction into the recirculation line, comprising the following stages are carried out:
a) feeding a mixture of water and flakes of pollutants into the sedimentation zone;
b) the subsequent passage of flakes located downstream capacity to extract sediment containing cavity to extract the sediment at the bottom of the tank, and the cavity defines a volume zone sedimentation under gravity, forming a precipitate;
c) the direction of rotation of the scraper mechanism containing the bottom edge and a hollow center, the sediment deposited in the lower part of the vessel, in the direction of the cavity to extract the precipitate thus, in order to maintain dispersed;
d) moving the sludge recirculation line having its input part located inside the cavity to extract sediment, and connected to the pump, the recirculation device;
e) re-enter a specified number of sediment into the cavity to extract sediment through the line re-introduction, which has its output region is located on the wall of the cavity to extract sediment;
f) PR is the flow of the received stream sediment back in the direction of the recirculation line without back flow into the line re-introduction due to the combination of:
i) rotating the scraper mechanism;
ii) cavity for extracting sludge;
iii) a recirculation device;
iv) recirculation line and
v) line re-introduction of a recirculation device, located on the wall of the cavity to extract sediment.

19. The method of obtaining a given passage of fluid flow through p, which add a reverse taper at the lower edge of the scraper mechanism, providing an additional opportunity for disposing of stream sediment from the line re-introduction through the recirculation line without back flow line re-introduction.

20. The method of obtaining a given passage of the fluid flow using a sludge recirculation system of claim 10, which prevents the reverse flow of sediment located in the second lower section of the sedimentation zone, the first upper section of the sedimentation zone, and also brings to the maximum flow from line re-introduction into the recirculation line, comprising the following stages are carried out:
a) feeding a mixture of water and flakes of pollutants into the sedimentation zone;
b) the subsequent passage of flakes located further along the way the capacity to extract sediment containing cavity to extract the sediment at the bottom of the tank, and the cavity defines a volume zone, sit the orientation under the action of gravity, forming a precipitate;
c) moving the sludge recirculation line having its input part located inside this cavity to extract sediment and connected in operable with the pump in the recirculation device;
d) re-enter a specified number of sediment into the cavity to extract sediment through the line re-introduction, which has its output region is located on the wall of the cavity to extract sediment;
e) providing a flow of the received stream sediment back in the direction of the recirculation line without back flow line re-introduction due to the combination of:
i) a cavity for extracting sludge;
ii) recirculation device;
iii) recirculation line and
iv) line re-introduction of a recirculation device, located on the wall of the cavity to extract sediment.

21. The recirculated sludge, which must be added to the zone of sedimentation equipment for water treatment using at least one purification method selected from the group consisting of flocculation, sedimentation, coagulation and ballasted flocculation and sludge recirculation system designed for continuous circulation of sediment to gradually pumping water from the sludge contains:
located downstream capacity to extract sediment containing floor is here to retrieve sediment, located in the lower part of the indicated capacity and the cavity defines a volume of the sedimentation zone, where the accumulation of sediment under the influence of gravity;
the recirculation device containing:
i) means for separating liquid and solid products, which make possible the cleaning liquid solution by separating the specified sediment, including solids, low density from the solid products of high density;
ii) means for recirculation, comprising:
1) a recirculation line connected on its input edge with the specified cavity for extracting sludge and connected with specified means of separation of liquid and solid products on its output edge;
2) line re-introduction connected on its input edge with specified means of separation of liquid and solid products and with the specified capacity for the extraction of sediment on its output edge; and the line re-introduction re-introduction to the specified capacity of the sediment, including solids, low density, and
3) the inference line, connected on its input edge with the specified line is re-introducing and releasing sediment, including solids, low density of the specified equipment for water treatment at its output edge located downstream;
iii) means active is within the specified continuous circulation of the specified sludge through the sludge recirculation system, for the gradual elimination of the specified sediment, including solids, low density of this system recirculation of sludge through the specified line breeding;
iv) means for moving the specified sediment in the specified recirculation device within the specified multiple circulation.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mechanical engineering.

SUBSTANCE: recycling water system for auto washing comprises technological equipment associated with a system of pipelines with a waste-water purifying apparatus, and includes a storage tank 47, into which waste water flows by gravity, a pump 48 for supplying water from the storage tank 47 into ta reactor 49, a compressor 52 for mixing a medium in the reactor 49, a metering pump 51 of a working solution of a coagulant, a flotation plant 54, a storage tank 59 for collecting the purified water after the flotation plant 54, course 61 and fine 66 mesh filters, a storage tank 63 for collecting the purified water after course mesh filters, a diaphragm pump 55 and a receiving tank of sludge 56.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of waste-water treatment and the overall system performance.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: biotechnology.

SUBSTANCE: bacterial strain Exiguobacterium mexicanum RNCIM B-11011 is proposed, having the ability to dispose quickly of oil, diesel fuel, motor oil, gas condensate.

EFFECT: strain can be used to clean soil and water reservoirs contaminated by crude oil and petroleum products in a wide temperature range.

3 tbl, 5 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of contaminated water. This method comprises bringing of water in contact with at least one adsorbent powder in zone (2) of preliminary interaction with mixing. Then, follow flocculation with weighted flakes and deposition. Mix of sediment, ballast and adsorbent powder is removed from sedimentation zone bottom (5). Said mix is fed into hydraulic cyclone (11) to displace hydrocyclone (11) top product containing the mix of sediment and adsorbent powder into transition zone (14). Mix of sediment and adsorbent powder are returned from transition zone (14) to zone (2) of preliminary interaction. Process incorporates the step whereat at least one index of adsorbent powder in preliminary interaction zone (2) is obtained. Suspension of green adsorbent powder in water is fed upstream of zone (2) when concentration of said powder in this zone is lower than preset threshold value and the step of acidification of said sorbent.

EFFECT: production of water suitable for drinking.

14 cl, 1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: sorbent is obtained by thermal processing of sapropel with content of mineral component 54-85%. Thermal processing is carried out at a temperature of 300-350°C in an air medium. The obtained sorbent is bifunctional.

EFFECT: obtaining the sorbent suitable for simultaneous extraction of non-polar substances and heavy metals from water solutions.

5 tbl, 3 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of zinc extraction from bottom sediments with an ionic liquid includes preparation of an analytic sample. Extraction of zinc from the solid sample is performed with application of the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexaphosphate with additives of ammonium thiocyanate and potassium iodide with further quantitative determination of zinc (II) ions in a concentrate of an organic phase of the ionic liquid.

EFFECT: providing degree of element extraction close to one hundred percent.

1 dwg, 2 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for purification of natural waters at production of drinking water. Clarification is made by forcing water through the layer of foam bricks or foamed polystyrene while filtration is performed by forcing this water through quartz sand with grain size of 0.3-1.5 mm and gravel of 2-32 mm grains. Sorption is made on granulated activated carbon with grain size of 0.5-5 mm to decontaminate initial water by primary chlorination with sodium hypochlorite containing up to 19% of active chlorine in amount of 0.9-1.3 mg/l. Then, water is processed by polarisation current of carbon-graphite electrode self-organisation in aluminium oxyhydrate medium for 50 minutes and by aluminium sulphate in amount of 1.8-2.5 mg/l and flocculating agent POLYDADMAX, series FLOQUAT FL 45 in amount of 0.1-0.4 mg/l. Now, secondary chlorination is performed by sodium hypochlorite containing up to 19% of active chlorine in amount of 3-5 mg/l.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of purification and quality of drinking water, non-polluting process.

1 dwg, 2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: flocculant for water purification is obtained by copolymerisation of a monomer mixture - itaconic acid or its anhydride, alkyl ether of itaconic acid and amide of acrylic or methacrylic acid, with content of each component in a mixture equal to 10-80 mol.%. As amides of acrylic or methacrylic acid used are: acrylamide, methacrylamide, N-alkylacrylamide. It is possible to perform copolymerisation in the presence of a solvent.

EFFECT: simplification of the process technology, increase of qualitative characteristics of the flocculant, used for purification of water, which has different values of acidity, salinity, concentration of wide spectrum of pollutants; the flocculant also has low production cost.

4 cl, 4 tbl, 12 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: settling tank consists of a reservoir with a bottom supply of water to be purified through a central tube, provided with a water-distributor, providing water supply into the reservoir in the form of jets in horizontal planes at different angles of the jet direction with respect to the radial direction. The settling tank is also provided with means for discharge of purified water from the volume lower than its level with a regulated level of discharge, as well as means for providing automatic control of water discharge from the reservoir at a constant rate, which does not depend on change of the rate of supply in it of water to be purified.

EFFECT: extension of technological possibilities of the settling tank, simplification of water distributor manufacturing, increased efficiency of sewage water clarification, provision of possibility of automatic control of the rate of purified water discharge from the settling tank.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of purifying technogenic waters includes dissolution of polyethyleneglycol terephthalate in an organic solvent, supply of the obtained mixture into water to be purified and further floatation of the processed water at pH 708 with separation of ions of heavy metals. Polyethyleneglycol terephthalate is dissolved in glycerol in a ratio 1:1-1:3, with supply of the obtained mixture into water to be purified in an amount of 0.2-0.4 l/m3.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase transparency of the purified water and increase concentration of oxygen dissolved in it with preservation of a high degree of purification.

2 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes mechanical activation by passing a water flow through a membrane system with holes with d diameter not larger than 1 mm with a ratio of a flow section to 10%, with pressure variation from 0.05 to 0.5 MPa, water alkalisation with a water ammonia solution in an amount of 0.003÷0.05 wt % and separation of an insoluble sediment from the processed water. The length of hole channel L is selected by condition L≥10d, where d is a diameter of one hole. Separation of the insoluble sediment from the processed water is performed in centrifuges of a setting type with pulsing or auger discharge of the sediment.

EFFECT: increased efficiency of the water softening process, reduction of energy consumption and reduction of concentration of an introduced alkalising solution.

3 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of recycling of organic substrates having no value as a starting material for making commodity products, especially organic fertilisers. For implementing the method, the starting substrate is subjected sequentially to the anaerobic processing with obtaining biogas, the aerobic processing with obtaining easily precipitating biosludge and the oxygen-containing gas, the separation into fractions with obtaining a liquid and a solid fraction, followed by thermal recycling of the solid fraction to obtain ash content and gaseous products. The biosludge thermal energy is used to control temperature mode of the anaerobic processing after its contact with the gaseous products of thermal recycling. The thermal recycling is carried out in the mode of gasification using oxygen-containing gas and to obtain gaseous products in the form of the generator gas. The temperature mode of the anaerobic processing and humidity of the solid fraction is controlled by the thermal energy of the biosludge liquid fraction. The biosludge liquid fraction is then sequentially subjected to additional anaerobic processing and stripping. The resulting ammonia water is used for preparing organic fertilisers.

EFFECT: method provides increase in energy efficiency of the recycling process, reduction of the cost, and improving the operational performance of the main anaerobic process.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: heat treatment method of mechanically dewatered sludge involves drying of dewatered sludge of steam-gas mixture obtained from dewatered sludge and heated due to combustion heat of dried deposits, combustion of dried deposits so that melt of mineral substances is obtained and tapped and discharged steam-gas mixture is baked with flue gases. Prior to baking, steam-gas mixture is divided into two flows; with that, the first flow in the amount of 5-10% of the whole discharge weight is supplied to combustion zone of thermally dried deposits, and the second flow of the rest weight is introduced to deactivation gaseous products after melt of mineral substances is tapped.

EFFECT: invention allows improving ecological efficiency of combustion process of dried deposits.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: screw-separator consists of a shaft mounted in spring loaded supports movable relative to the housing, with ball bearings ensuring a tight contact without gaps of the outer surface of screw turns with a perforated bottom of the housing or with a perforated removable replaceable insert in the solid housing. In the interturn space of the screw an additional wiping blade is mounted. The additional blade with its one end is mounted on the shaft hub on the length of the interturn space of the screw and with the other free end it approaches directly to the perforated bottom or the insert and ends at a certain distance from the bottom or the insert. Between the free end of the additional blade and the bottom or the insert a technological gap is formed which is limited by the edges of the turns of the screw. The additional blade from the point of mounting to the shaft hub to its the free end is made in the form of a curved surface so that in the cross section of the press between the bottom or the insert the screw turns and the ends of the additional blade a curved wedge channel is formed. The channel has an inlet size which is much larger than the outlet size which is the technological gap between the free end of the additional blade and the bottom.

EFFECT: in such implementation the moisture is more fully separated from the separated mass of without clogging the holes of the perforation in obtaining less wet stiff fraction.

3 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: claimed method relates to field of utilisation of concentrated organic substrates, such, as litter-free manure, dung, sediments and sludge of stations of mechanical-biological purification of household and industrial sewages close to them in composition. Method of processing organic substrates into fertilisers and carrier of gaseous energy includes aerobic processing of initial substrate with formation of heated and hydrolysed substrate and heated humid oxygen-containing gases, anaerobic processing with formation of heated effluent and biogas and separation into fractions. Separation into fractions is carried out after aerobic processing. Liquid fraction is subjected to anaerobic processing. Heated effluent is applied as heat carrier for regulation of heat mode of aerobic processing and as source of ammonia nitrogen for enrichment of solid fraction. Heated humid oxygen-containing gases are applied for preliminary heating and aeration of initial substrate.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to reduce duration of aerobic-prepared heated and hydrolysed substrate stayingat limiting anaerobic stage, reduce weight and dimension indices of equipment, refuse from unreliable heat-exchanging equipment and ensure effective application of elements of effluent supply for agrotechnical purposes, with increase of process energy efficiency.

1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydration of water-containing material, in particular, sediments of sewages. Method of sediment dehydration includes expression of sediment by vacuumisation of sub-layer space in pulse mode with application of receiver and fast-acting valve until moisture starts boiling in deep layers and migrate to the surface with simultaneous heating of expressed sediment by sucking of heated air or inert gas through layer of sediment and its following double-side vacuumisation.

EFFECT: method makes it possible to reduce moisture-content of sediment and speed up dehydration.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to treatment of effluents sedimentation including high-concentration emulsified oil products and can be used at industrial enterprises before effluents sedimentation by concentration. Proposed method comprises electric treatment by asymmetric variable current and filtration for concentration. Before electric treatment, the effluents are subjected to vibroacoustic effects in two frequency sub bands with lower frequency of 0.3-0.8 kHz and upper frequency of 9-18 kHz. Said method comprises electric treatment by asymmetric variable current of positive pulse duration of 30-100 s and amplitude of 0.4-0.6 A while negative pulse duration and amplitude make 6-10 s and 0.75-1.0 A.

EFFECT: intensified filtration for concentration.

2 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to biological treatment of sewage sludge. The method of treating sludge involves mixing sludge, enzymatic treatment, decontamination, drying and conditioning the obtained biomass, wherein the sludge used is a mixture of deposited sludge and pre-treated excess sludge. Pre-treatment involves conversion of excess sludge into an active enzymatic mass by saturating with atmospheric oxygen to concentration of not less than 10 mg/l, air-cavitational and electrochemical treatment using a galvanic pair while feeding intermittent alternating current through the excess sludge pumped into a pressure pipe. The apparatus for treating sludge comprises the following, connected by pipes: a sludge container 1, an intermediate container 5, a drying system, a pump 7, an activator 10 placed in a reactor-balancing tank 11, a device for reducing cavitation 6 placed in front of the pump 7 on the pressure pipe 8 which connects the intermediate container 5 and the activator 10, wherein the reactor-balancing tank acts as a dispensing apparatus. The activator 10 has a chamber for mixing media, having excess sludge and air inlets which are linked to the chamber of an electrochemical coagulator lying on the same axis as itself, wherein the chamber for mixing media is in form of a housing consisting of a cylindrical part and four conical parts; inside the housing on guides there is a cowling, having a cylindrical part and two conical parts; the excess sludge inlet is in form of a conical funnel and flow guides at a tangent to the cylindrical surface of the cowling of the apparatus; the air inlet is in form of a pipe located in the conical part of the housing, lying on the opposite side of the outlet of the treated mass from the cowling, and the converging and diverging conical parts of the housing which act as an electrochemical coagulator, lying at the outlet of the cowling, respectively, are fitted with multi-turn bimetallic spirals which are separated by dielectric spacer plates in form of rings placed between connecting flanges.

EFFECT: low cost of treating deposited sludge and providing high efficiency of treatment from heavy metals.

5 cl, 6 dwg, 1 tbl, 7 ex

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to drying of water-bearing material, for example, manure. Proposed method comprises heating air flow in first heat exchanger to get in contact with first portion of manure to be dried, dividing heated air into first and second air flows, heating second air flow in heater, drying second portion of manure in direct contact between second heated air flow and second portion of water-bearing manure, cooling down second air flow to temperature of first cooling fluid in second heat exchanger using the first cooling fluid, mixing cooled first and second air flows in mixer and cooling down mixed air flow by second cooling fluid in third heat exchanger.

EFFECT: efficient recovery of secondary heat and its reuse at minimum power consumption.

21 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of conditioning liquid sludge formed when treating waste water. The method of conditioning liquid sludge, in accordance with which sludge is subjected to a mechanical dehydration step followed by a heat drying step, wherein iron (III) chloride and/or unslaked or slaked lime is injected into the sludge between the dehydration and drying steps and/or at the input of the drying step, wherein the lime is injected in form of powder such that a coating is formed on the sludge cake without excess mixing so as to prevent thixotropy in order to reduce sludge binding during the drying step and evaporation capacity. The apparatus for conditioning liquid sludge has, between the mechanical dehydration apparatus (1) and the heat drying apparatus (3) and/or the input of the heat drying apparatus (4), an apparatus (4) for injecting iron (III) chloride and/or apparatus (8, 9) for injecting unslaked and slaked lime on top of the sludge, wherein lime is injected in form of powder so as to form a coating on the sludge cake without excess mixing so as to prevent any thixotropy.

EFFECT: invention enables to reduce evaporation capacity of sludge coming into a drying apparatus and avoid increase in viscosity of the sludge.

FIELD: process engineering.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to dehydration equipment and may be used in coal industry, mining, etc, wherein water is used for transfer of lumpy materials. Proposed device comprises feet pipe, dehydration bin with tapered bottom and material release gate, radial classifier and water discharge flute. Said classifier is made up of equal-side rods arranged as divergent beams inclined to horizontal plane by 30-45°. Said rods feature isosceles trapezium cross section with larger base located atop dehydration bin with clearance spaced from dehydration bin for magnitude exceeding that of material lumps fed via feed pipe.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

2 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: disclosed is a flocculation method which involves intermixing a silicon-containing polymer flocculant with a process stream from melting bauxite ore in an amount which is effective to flocculate at least part of solid suspended solid particles of at least one type selected from calcium aluminosilicate, calcium silicate, calcium titanate, titanium dioxide and mixtures thereof.

EFFECT: high rate of depositing suspended particles and larger clarified stream compared to when using existing industrial flocculants.

25 cl, 9 tbl, 9 ex

Up!