Control over local rock specimen density variation at straining

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: first, selected are directions for elastic wave propagation directions uniformly distributed over the entire volume of specimen to measure propagation speed and to define the length of every direction. Ultrasound pulses excited in specimen are radiated therein at the start of every direction. Elastic wave travel time is defined for every direction to define the means propagation speed in every direction using obtained elastic wave length and travel time. Then, said specimen is deformed to preset magnitude in stepwise manner, via preset time intervals. At every deformation step, said mean propagation speeds are defined for every directed as described above to define mean propagation speeds for separated part of specimen volume by the method of nuclear Gaussian functions with averaging radius of at least 5 mm. Calculations at every deformation step are displayed as the projection of the specimen vertical section with at least 5 mm deep layer with dyeing of projection sections by different colours proportional with calculated speed difference for said sections between current and previous deformation steps to make conclusion of specimen density variation.

EFFECT: higher-quality and more detailed picture of compaction and destruction zones.

4 cl, 4 dwg

 

The invention relates to Geophysics, geophysical methods of laboratory simulation and can be used for research of processes of destruction of rocks, monitoring local changes in the density of the sample, respectively, and state of stress in the deformation of the specimen in uniaxial and triaxial deformation, the study of processes of formation of zones of compaction and shear in the mountains in the development of oil and gas fields for development of methods and algorithms for predicting seismic hazard in natural arrays.

There is a method of ultrasonic testing of physical and mechanical condition of the environment, based on the analysis of the characteristics of ultrasonic waves that have passed through the volume of the investigated material (SU 705328 A, G01N 29/04, publ. 1979). In the known method for the control of physical and mechanical condition of the environment is the analysis and measurement of the level of symmetric pairs of lateral signals at radiation in the environment shirokorelsovogo signal and matched filtering. The magnitude of these pairs of lateral signals at the output of the matched filter depends on the complex coefficient transfer medium, which is determined by the physico-mechanical characteristics of the environment (strength, fracture, elasticity etc). However, the known method is based on the principles of radar. Uh what about the means, the signal of the ultrasonic sensing, passing through the monitored environment, at the receiving side does not have the overlay on the main signal, additional signals reflected from any obstacles located a short distance from the direction of the track sensing. Otherwise, you need to consider when analyzing a certain amount of the main signal with the signal reflections that in the laboratory the samples is fundamentally impossible. In the laboratory the samples with small linear dimensions, this method of ultrasonic inspection not applicable, so as always to the primary signal sensing will interfere with the signals reflected from the side faces of the sample. Changes in the level of side lobes is due not only to the physical-mechanical properties of the environment, but also the size and configuration of the sample itself, which will change during uniaxial and triaxial deformation. In addition, obtained in this way, the feature will be integrated in nature and relate to the total volume of the sample without dividing this volume into separate local areas.

There is a method of measuring the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic oscillations, which can be used for ultrasonic testing of materials (SU 1753408 A1, G01N 29/18, publ. 1992). The method gives the possibility of the ability to determine the propagation velocity of ultrasonic waves with high accuracy. Increases the reliability of measurements by eliminating errors associated with the dependence of the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic oscillations on the amplitude of the pressure elastic waves at each point of the test sample. In addition, the known method eliminates the errors associated with the different delays in the active elements of the measuring apparatus. To study local changes in the density of the material during its deformation method has limited application. In itself, the measurement of the velocity of propagation of elastic waves by this method is rather time-consuming process involving the operator may make a subjective factor in the measurement process. The duration of the measurement in one direction is the first few minutes, and the entire measuring cycle 16 directions already tens of minutes. During this time, the sample can occur locally, uncontrolled density changes, which will remain fixed. Practice laboratory research materials of rocks in uniaxial and triaxial deformation shows that the elastic-plastic stage of the deformation process, the attenuation of the amplitude of elastic waves reach a significant amount. In this case, the application of the known method will also be difficult for reasons which no compensation amplitudes of at least the third or fourth period of high-frequency oscillations (n-1)-th of the reflected pulse. Also, because of the small size of the sample forms received reflected ultrasonic signals will be distorted by the superposition of the signals reflected from the side walls of the sample, which will significantly affect the accuracy of measuring the velocity of propagation of the wave.

Closest to the invention is a method of monitoring changes in the density of the rock sample, which consists in the fact that the rock sample is exposed to ultrasound, measured at each stage of loading and in each direction the duration of the ultrasonic pulse, which corresponds to the level of development of cracks, build graphics sounding and the intersection of the sounding with the axis of loading determine the long-term strength of rock corresponding to the beginning of the destruction of the sample, and increasing its volume (RU 2276344 WITH, G01N 3/08, 2006). When increasing the axial load on the sample in the beginning processes of sealing material, sealing local defects, increasing the density of the material. This leads to an increase in the duration of the signal sensing (decrease in attenuation at different defects). By increasing the axial load in the sample, the formation of microcracks, there is a gradual destruction of material, reducing its density. This decreases dlitelnost the probing signal in the decay on his defects. This method can only roughly estimate the long-term strength of rock. There is no possibility of tracking local changes of individual pieces of rock. To get the value of long-term strength required to bring the sample to almost complete destruction.

The present invention is to develop ways of controlling the local density variations in the rock sample at each next step of its deformation, allowing for the expense of state control sample to determine the location of the origin and formation of areas of compaction and destruction, to trace the dynamics of this process and to produce three-dimensional, spatial-temporal distribution density of the material, reflecting the local stress state of the sample.

The technical result provided by the present invention is to increase the number of zones, in which the control of the density of the material. This will give you the opportunity to get better and more detailed picture of the formation of zones of compaction and destruction. Through step-by-step, discrete deformation of the sample will allow us to estimate the rate of change of the local destruction of each separately selected part of the sample volume. Thereby it is possible to obtain three-dimensional, spatial-temporal distribution density of the material, reflecting the e changes in the local stress state of the sample.

This technical result is ensured by the fact that in the method of control of local changes in the density of the rock sample during deformation, namely, that at the initial stage is chosen uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the sample directions for measuring the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in these areas and determine the length of each direction alternately in the sample at the beginning of each direction emit ultrasonic pulses which excite the sample elastic waves to measure the time of passage of elastic waves in each direction and the computed values of the length and time of elastic waves in each direction determine the average velocity of propagation of elastic waves in each direction, then step through predetermined equal time intervals deform the sample to the preset value, at each stage of deformation determined similarly to the above-described average velocity of propagation of elastic waves in all the selected areas on the obtained values of the mean velocities of propagation of elastic waves to determine the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in certain parts of the sample volume by the method of nuclear Gaussian functions with a radius of averaging not less than 5 mm, the results of the calculations at each step of deformation display in VI is e projection of the vertical section of the sample layer thickness of not less than 5 mm with staining of sections of the projection of a different tone, proportional to the calculated speed difference for these areas, between the current and the previous step of deformation, which is judged on changing the density of the sample.

At this step, the deformation of the sample at each step is chosen not less than 10 μm, and the interval between steps is not less than 100 C.

The time of arrival of the elastic wave in each direction is determined by the moment of transition of the first half period of the elastic waves through zero, the fixed receiver sensor.

Part of the directions for measuring the velocity of propagation of elastic waves is chosen in such a way that they intersect in one point.

For the basis of the method is taken kinematic characteristics of elastic waves. These characteristics include the time of arrival of the elastic wave reception sensor, the average speed of propagation of elastic waves along the selected direction. The basis of this method is a method of ultrasonic computed tomography, when through the study material periodically in different directions pass ultrasonic elastic wave, determine the velocity of its propagation and mathematically restore the distribution of velocities of propagation of elastic waves in the whole volume of the material. The method allows to determine the relative change of the local density of the sample. An indicator of the density of the material is korost propagation of elastic waves. It is well known that the higher the density of the material, the higher the speed of propagation of the elastic waves.

Figure 1 presents the block diagram, installation implementing the method of control of local changes in the density of the rock sample during deformation.

Figure 2 - the scheme of arrangement directions of measuring the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in two orthogonal planes.

Figure 3 - projection of the vertical section of the sample for different areas of deformation: (a) 10271 second test, b) 17525 second test.

Installation implementing the method of control of local changes in the density of the rock sample during deformation (figure 1), consists of a system of radiating 1 and receiver 3 sensors equally spaced on the surface of the sample 2, the pre-amplifier unit 4, switch channels with synchronization run 5 ADC 6, the switch 8, the oscillator 9 and the main computer 7.

The emitting unit 1 and step 3 of the sensors relative to each other according to a certain scheme form a system of directions across the sample at different angles, for measurements of the velocities of propagation of elastic waves. Electrical square wave signal oscillator 9 through the switch 8 is supplied to the emitter 1, in which the electrical energy is practical signal is converted into an elastic wave, propagating in the sample. Passed through the sample elastic wave falls on the receivers 3, which is converted into an electrical signal, amplified in pre-amplifier unit 4 and through the switch 8 gets to the inputs of the ADC 6. Program registration with a given frequency produces a start signal oscillator 9 via the selected emitter, registering the wave form of the received elastic waves at a certain receiving sensor, thereby forming the desired measurement direction. Based on the length of each direction and traveltime elastic waves from radiating to the receiving sensor, is determined by the average speed of elastic waves in each direction. The amplitude of the electrical excitation signal is selected depending on the attenuation of the wave in a particular material. A typical value of the amplitude of the probing signal for Sandstone 30-50 C. For uniform coverage of the entire volume of the test sample is selected symmetric scheme of the measurement directions of the velocities presented in figure 2. The intersection of multiple areas at one point improves accuracy further calculations of the velocities of propagation for specific parts of the sample volume in the vicinity of points of intersection of the directions, which, in turn, significantly improves the accuracy assessment of the key local changes in the density of the material.

For the implementation of this scheme, is used to measure eight radiating 1 and eight foster 3 sensors. As a emitting 1 and receiver 3 sensors are used crystals polarized piezoceramics. The duration is sent to the sample probe pulse of 1.2 μs, which corresponds to the resonance frequency of the used crystals.

The method of control of local changes in the density of the rock sample during deformation according to the invention is as follows.

Sample 2 with a piece of acoustic receiving 3 and radiating 1 sensors installed in accordance with the scheme of measurements, is mounted in the working space of the press. Prior to the deformation of the sample 2 is the measurement of the velocities of propagation of elastic waves in all directions. The relative error in the measurement of the velocities of propagation of elastic waves must not exceed 0.5%. To obtain the necessary accuracy of measurements on samples of small size to determine the time of arrival of the ultrasonic elastic wave reception sensor uses the criterion of zero-crossing of the first half of the registered waveform signal.

Then, the sample begins to undergo a stepwise deformation at intervals of not less than 100 with and step deformirovanie is not more than 10 μm. After each step of deformation are repeated measurements of the velocities of propagation of elastic waves in all directions and calculates the difference of the velocities in each direction between the current values and the values obtained in the previous step deformation. According to the obtained results assessed value of the velocity at each point inside the sample, which is calculated as a weighted average of the points along each of the direct beam. Weight, which is taken as the average value from each point on the ray determined by the Gaussian nuclear function, which sets the rate of the loss of the "influence" of each point on the beam depending on the distance to this point. In the light of "points of influence" are the velocity values equal to the average speed along this beam.

Suppose we have a set of pairs of vectorsG=(p1(b),p2(b); b=1,...,L)belonging to the boundary of the volume Ω of the sample under study, for which we know the running timet (b)The p-wave from pointp1(b)in point ofp2(b). Letd(b)=|p1(b)-p2(b)|the distance between pointsp1(b)andp2(b)ande(b)=(p2(b)-p1(b) )/d1(b)is the unit vector directed from pointp1(b)in point ofp2(b). We introduce a straight line connecting pointsp1(b)andp2(b):

whereA(b)- straight-line segment connecting pointsp1(b)andp2(b);

<> Ω is the volume of the sample;

G - array L vectors (directions of measurements);

p1(b)andp2(b)- start and end points of measurement;

b - an array variable varies from 1 to L;

L is the number of measurement directions;

t(b)- the running time of P-waves from pointp1(b)in point ofp2(b);

d(b)- the distance between pointsp1(b)andp2 (b);

e(b)is the unit vector directed from pointp1(b)in point ofp2(b);

p12(b)(s)- array for storing line segments connecting points

p1(b)andp2(b);

s is an array variable, taking values from 0 tod(b).

Describe the nuclear assessment initial approximation of the velocity distribution. For this we define on each beamA(b)a uniform grid of vectors

ck(b)=p12(b)(sk(b)),sk(b)=(k-1)×Δsb(b), k=1,...,Mb,Δsb=d(b)/(|Mb-1|,)(2)

whereck(b) - the vector to the rayA(b);

sk(b)- k-th segment of the grid vectors in the direction (b);

Mb- the number of points on each ray ofA(b);

k - variable varies from 1 to Mb;

Δsb- readability split cut for a grid of vectors;

where the number of points Mbfor each ray will be taken such that the value of ∆ Sbit was about the same. Each vectorck(b)comparable is the average velocity along the line ofu(b)=d(b)/t(b). Then interpolate these are the values in the nodes of a regular gridR= (r(a))according to the formula:

ν0(a)=ν0(r(a)|h)=[ΣΣu(b)×f((r(a)-ck(b))/h]/[ΣΣf((r(a)-ck(b))/h](3)

wherev0(a)- the predicted values of average speed;

u(b)-average speed by the beam (b);

R - mesh nodes;

r(a)- and-th grid node;

h - parameter (radius) averaging;

f(r) is the Gaussian kernel smoothing;

Δ1 - step partitioning;

f(r)=exp(-r2) Is the Gaussian kernel smoothing - h>0 is a parameter (radius) averaging the summation over b from 1 to L, for k from 1 to Mb.

The values of ∆ Sbtake approximately equal to a certain step Δl is the same for all rays (thus the long rays acquire a greater weight than short), that is,Mb=max(2,int(d(b)/Δl)+1).

The results of the calculations are displayed on the monitor screen in the form of selected projections of sections of the sample in some layer of a certain thickness. The layer thickness should not be less than the radius of the averaging. For local zones of the sample, in which there had been a change of velocity of propagation of elastic waves, the result of this calculation will be equal to zero. For zones that are subject to change, will be determined LVEF who are the magnitude of the difference. Thus the sign of the resulting value determines the direction of change of density of a given local volume. With the positive sign we can talk about increasing the density of the material, and when negative, respectively, about the reduction.

As an example of implementation of the invention, consider the example of testing geotextiles under conditions of controlled uniaxial deformation by application of a constant strain-rate and loading levels of high amplitude.

Pre-selected maximum (in our case 16) the number of independent directions of measurement of the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in the sample. Directions were chosen so that the entire volume of the sample was evenly they covered. The most suitable scheme of arrangement of sensors is evenly symmetric in two orthogonal planes (measurement direction in one plane is shown in figure 2). Uniform distribution of directions allows you to more correctly estimate the local density changes. The presence of zones, where the intersection of several areas, gives the ability to more accurately assess changes in densities in the vicinity of these areas. After installation of the sensors on the sample and mounting the sample in the workspace test press was made of the control measured the e velocities of propagation of elastic waves in all directions for the undeformed material. In particular, for determining the velocity of propagation method was applied ultrasonic sensing check the waveform of the received signal, determining time of arrival of the elastic wave reception sensor on the end of the first half-period waves through zero and compensation hardware and other delays of a signal using a reference sample. To compensate for hardware and other delays of the received signal, prior to the testing of all samples was carried out single measurement of velocities of propagation of elastic waves in all directions on the material with a known velocity of propagation (on steel). These measurements allowed to determine the necessary amendments that were considered in subsequent measurements on the sample.

Then prepared and mounted on the press sample deformed at a constant speed of deformation. When this step deformation was set to 10 μm, and the interval between steps - 100 C. This step size deformation allows significantly change the internal stress state of the sample. The interval with more than 100 gives the ability to measure velocities of propagation of elastic waves in all directions and allows you to stabilize the sample due to the passing of the processes of relaxation and redistribution of stresses in the material. After the next step de the information we measured the velocities of propagation of elastic waves in all directions. The method of computer tomography, using the method of nuclear Gaussian functions were made calculations for each elementary part of the sample volume. For estimations we have used the values of the velocities obtained in all directions, and the difference between the current speed value for a given direction and speed for the same direction, obtained in the previous step. For the estimation the whole volume of the sample was divided into elementary cubes with the size of the faces 5 mm Size of the face has been selected from the conditions necessary detail further analysis, grain size, components of the sample volume and the characteristic size of areas affecting passing through the sample probe of an ultrasonic wave (the characteristic size of the zones is estimated based on preliminary estimates of the speed of wave propagation in the sample type and frequency ultrasonic sensing for samples of Sandstone speed of propagation of longitudinal waves within 3 km/s, the frequency of the signal sensing 390 kHz, thus the characteristic sizes of the zones of influence of 5-10 mm).

For each elementary volume (a cube with edge 5 mm) of the sample by the formulas (1), (2) and (3) have been calculated average velocity of propagation of elastic waves. The radius of the averaging was chosen equal to 5 mm Vapormedia the radius of the averaging leads to excessive, not objective, drilling processes, and the choice of a larger value of the radius of the averaging causes severe integrating and smoothing the picture of the distribution.

The obtained differential values of the velocity characterizes the local variation of the density of the sample material, since it is well known that the denser the material, the higher the velocity of propagation of ultrasonic waves. So if this is the elementary volume of the sample in the time elapsed between two consecutive steps of deformation did not change the propagation velocity of elastic waves, the difference will be zero. When a positive difference is an increase in speed, and thus increasing the density of the material in this local area. Conversely, if the negative difference is the decrease of the density.

The results of the calculations were constructed projection onto the plane of the vertical section of the sample layer width of 5 mm, the orientation of the cross section was determined based on the assigned research tasks. The results of calculations of the local density changes of the sample are presented in figure 3. The position and width of the intersecting layer window to display the projection shown in the left pie chart of each shape. As can be seen from figure 3, the deformation process of the sample increased density in the upper por the front part and the reduction in the lower right part.

1. The method of control of local changes in the density of the rock sample during deformation, namely, that at the initial stage is chosen uniformly distributed throughout the volume of the sample directions for measuring the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in these areas and determine the length of each direction alternately in the sample at the beginning of each direction emit ultrasonic pulses which excite the sample elastic waves to measure the time of passage of elastic waves in each direction and the computed values of the length and time of elastic waves in each direction determine the average velocity of propagation of elastic waves in each direction, then the step after specified intervals of time warp the sample at the set value, at each stage of deformation determined similarly to the above-described average velocity of propagation of elastic waves in all the selected areas on the obtained values of the mean velocities of propagation of elastic waves to determine the velocity of propagation of elastic waves in certain parts of the sample volume by the method of nuclear Gaussian functions with a radius of averaging not less than 5 mm, the results of the calculations at each step of deformation present in the form of a projection of the vertical section of the sample layer thickness is e less than 5 mm with staining of sections of the projection of a different tone, proportional to the calculated speed difference for these areas, between the current and the previous step of deformation, which is judged on changing the density of the sample.

2. The method of control of local changes in the density of a sample according to claim 1, characterized in that the step of deformation of the sample at each step is not less than 10 μm, and the interval between steps is not less than 100 C.

3. The method of control of local changes in the density of a sample according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the time of arrival of the elastic wave in each direction is determined by the moment of transition of the first half period of the elastic waves through zero, the fixed receiver sensor.

4. The method of control of local changes in the density of a sample according to claim 1 or 2, characterized in that the part of the directions for measuring the velocity of propagation of elastic waves is chosen in such a way that they intersect in one point.



 

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FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: sampling device has sampler, changeable batching member which is made separately from the sampler, housing, and wind-protection device. The wind-protection device is made of porous diaphragm mounted in the base of the housing and overlaps it. The sampler is mounted to provide the distance between the inlet port of the sampler and diaphragm to be 0.1D<L<0.3D, where D is the diameter of diaphragm and L is the distance between the inlet port of the sampler and diaphragm.

EFFECT: improved design.

3 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: test technology.

SUBSTANCE: sample for testing porous materials by means of shock compression is made in form of a disc with flat parallel bases and cone side surface. Diameters of bases of disc relate as (7-8):1. Thickness of sample equals to (0,15-0,2) diameter of larger base.

EFFECT: reduced number of tests; improved precision.

2 dwg

FIELD: meteorology.

SUBSTANCE: device has sampling cylinder provided with cutting ring with teeth, piston with pusher, cutting members secured to the inner side of the ring, and cover with central threaded opening for the pusher made of a screw. The cover and pusher are provided with handles.

EFFECT: enhanced convenience of sampling snow.

4 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: analyzing and/or investigating of materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the sampling member and means for measuring the flow parameters into the pipeline, pumping a part of the flow through the sampling member, and determining the parameters of the flow.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: investigating or analyzing materials.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises setting the sampling member into the pipeline, separating the branch with inhomogeneous distribution of inclusions upstream of the sampling, directing the branch to the mixer for the intensive homogenizing, combining the flow branches, and sampling the combined flow. The device has sampling member, by-pass pipeline for branching the flow, and mixer. The mixer is mounted on the horizontal section of the pipeline between the inlet of the by-pass pipeline and its outlet for homogenizing the flow branch, which does not flow through the by-pass pipeline.

EFFECT: enhanced reliability of sampling.

2 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: oil industry.

SUBSTANCE: device has hollow body which is a fragment of force pipeline at vertically placed portion of mouth armature. Tool for controlling flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance is made in form of valve, connected to rotary support. Sample chamber is a ring-shaped hollow in hollow body, placed at same level with valve and connected at inlet to flow of multi-component gas-liquid substance through extracting channels, made on hollow body. Extracting channels are made in form of side slits, positioned symmetrically relatively to valve rotation axis. Ring-shaped hollow on hollow body is connected at outlet to locking tool, mounted at extension of valve shaft and made in form of sample-taking valve. Valve shaft and sample-taking valve are interconnected through hollow intermediate shaft. Sample-taking valve is placed in the body of locking tool with possible reciprocal movement. Valve shaft and hollow intermediate shaft are interconnected with possible mutual rotation for a quarter of one turn.

EFFECT: simplified construction and maintenance, higher quality.

4 dwg

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