Method of gas turbine engine afterburning

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method consists in the fuel feed into combustion chamber or compressor in amount required for its complete combustion. Besides, extra fuel is fed into combustion chamber in amount required for decrease in the temperature of gases in combustion chamber to safe limit (atmospheric supercharging). At activation of said atmospheric supercharging and exiting from the turbine igniter of whatever type is fired at a time.

EFFECT: perfected process.

2 cl


The invention relates to gas turbine engines (hereinafter CCD), and is intended primarily for helicopters, tanks and warships.

There is a method of forcing the turbo by injection into the combustion chamber or to the compressor water or a mixture of water with the fuel (methanol), see vunow S.A. "Construction and design of aircraft gas turbine engines", M., "engineering", 2004, s-419. However, water as a working medium is not the best option: it has a large heat of vaporization - 2500 kJ/kg, high heat capacity - 4190 j/(kgK), high heat capacity of water vapor is about 2 kJ/(kgK) (it changes with temperature and pressure). That is, to heat one kilogram of water to water vapor with a temperature of 1400 degrees, approximately (without compression) 5519 kJ.

Also known "the Way of boost the turbo" patent No. 2474718, in which fuel is injected substance. This new turbo way afterburner by injection into the combustion chamber or to the compressor, or the compressor flammable liquid or gas is called "atmospherium" (from the Greek "Atmos" - evaporation). And fuel designed for cooling the gas before the turbine is called "atmotion".

The task and the technical result of the invention is to safely increase the capacity of the CCD.

For this, methods for the afterburner of a gas turbine engine is fed into the combustion chamber or into the compressor fuel, necessary for its complete combustion in entering the engine air, and the flow in the combustion of additional fuel in an amount necessary to reduce the temperature of the gases in the combustion chamber to a safe limit.

This increases the heat in the combustion chamber, and increases the amount of working fluid for the turbine. In the angular velocity of rotation of the turbine and torque on its blades increase.

Almost optimal working fluid for this method is the substance that the helicopter is always present - kerosene: heat of vaporization of about 220 kJ/kg (i.e 11.4 times less), halve the heat capacity is 2.1 kJ/(kgK)specific heat vapor approximately 1.65 kJ/(kgK). That is, to heat one kilogram of kerosene to the state of a pair of 1400 degrees, have approximately 2575 kJ. Although more water rate increase volume by evaporation. But kerosene at a temperature of 1400 degrees may undergo cracking and thermal decomposition to hydrogen. That is, instead of a single molecule can be formed 15-16 molecules, and, consequently, will increase the volume of the working fluid and its flow rate.

In this way, you may experience harmless side effect: on the blades and guide apparatus of the turbine can be formed a thin layer of graphite. It will not affect Urbina and will quickly burn off after atmosferaga.

Can be used other combustible liquid, including liquefied combustible gas, such as ethyl ether, alcohol, propane or cooled methane. And although in this case the aircraft will need a separate tank, but if necessary, they can apply to the combustion chamber as conventional fuels and used in a normal economic mode of flight.

So what is the advantage of this method is fast and furious, because the evaporating agent (fuel instead of water) will require approximately twice as much? But the thing is that, first, became more of a working body that already increases the traction of the engine, and secondly, if instead of one water molecule to take an equivalent amount of kerosene with the average formula C13H28it is theoretically able to decompose to carbon and 2,87 molecules of hydrogen. Even with a small exothermic effect (for methane - 4,67 MJ/kg).

But the most important advantage of this method of fast and furious that it is not necessary to have, for example, in the helicopter supply of water. It can never be useful. And in case of emergency (for example, when hitting a missile in one of the two engines), you can fly to a convenient landing place on one engine mode atmosferaga. Fuel consumption will be several times larger than the "maximum", but the goal will be achieved.

But this Gttest one operational feature - with a large degree of expansion of gases in the turbine, when the outlet temperature drops below 700 degrees C (ignition temperature of hydrogen)released as a result of thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons hydrogen at the outlet of the turbine to mix with air to form an explosive gas mixture. If the mixture is accidentally or intentionally be inflamed, violent explosion. To avoid this, when you enable atmosferaga should simultaneously include firing device of any type (gasoline burner, gas burner, Prochaska and the like) output from the turbine to the atmosphere. Almost without alterations may be applied to control the device from flamethrowers. Doubt as to the operability of the electric spark, as at the exit of the nozzle of the hydrogen are not mixed with the surrounding air.

Moreover, the control device can not burn continuously, but only a short time for igniting hydrogen, which then will burn yourself until the end of the mode atmosferaga.

The supply of additional fuel has several nuances. Firstly, it is not necessary to submit all the fuel in the main injector: they are not designed to increase fuel consumption by up to 10 times, and the burning is going bad with the formation of products of incomplete combustion, which reduces the exothermic effect of burning prima is but 1.36 times.

But the latter fact can be used to control this seemingly unregulated mode - you can reduce the power of the afterburner, feeding into the main nozzle fuel in a quantity slightly greater than the stoichiometric amount. The consumption of amotorola will be much less.

Secondly, the length of the torch when the supply amotorola in General the nozzle due to the cooling effect of the excess fuel is likely to rise sharply, so it's best to bring fuel to the stoichiometric composition (hereinafter - "studiotorino", i.e. the number of primary or secondary, liquid or gaseous fuel supplied to the main nozzle or stage compressor and is designed to achieve a stoichiometric composition with oxygen) in the main injector or in the penultimate or predpredposledney stage compressor. This will cool the incoming air and increase its mass flow rate. Do not give studiotorino at the beginning of the compressor, otherwise the fuel will be thrown by centrifugal force to the outer shell of the compressor and will flow into the combustion chamber in a film form.

And the rest of the fuel should be submitted by the end of the torch main burners (under the end of the torch means the end zone almost full - 95-99% - combustion stereotipove served in the main is Aranci and stage compressor).

Thirdly, when the fuel supply to the compressor you should make sure that it has not snowshovels there is compression or to the flame entered the stage through the combustion chamber. To avoid the latter, it is necessary that the conductor bars last step was narrowing, providing a supersonic flow. Then the flame will not spread through this area.

Fourthly, if the supply of additional fuel will not be included instantly, during the transition process, it is possible to briefly achieve stoichiometric composition without excess fuel that will lead to the exit of the turbine building. To avoid this, during the transition period in the combustion chamber or into the compressor must be in ascending number to go noncombustible liquid, for example water.

Used water can contain antifreeze additives such as glycol to prevent freezing and wetting agent, such as-6. While in the water container is not formed foam, water and air can be separated in the tank with a rubber bag. The wetting agent is needed to lubricate the moving parts of the pump. Since the lubricating properties of wetting was not specifically studied, it may be necessary to experiment in this direction. You can also use oil emulsion.

And only after reaching the stoichiometric what remained would be the substitution of water for achmatova. Preferably smooth so as not to cause temporary, and the more drastic the reduction or increase of the supply of the cooling agent, as this may result in either melting the turbine or compressor surge.

However, very rapid, almost instantaneous supply stereotipove and simultaneously amotorola will not lead to melting of the turbine, as the exposure time increased temperature will be low. Although this increases the probability of failure in the surge.

EXAMPLE: the combustion chamber of the CCD has two rows of nozzles. For emergency power increase in the first (along the gas) number served stoichiometric amount of fuel (i.e. full use of the available air oxygen), and the second row of nozzles is supplied is the amount of fuel to the temperature before the turbine has not increased and may even be slightly decreased (subject to increase the angular velocity of rotation of the turbine.

1. The way afterburning gas turbine engine, which fed into the combustion chamber or into the compressor the amount of fuel required for complete combustion, and the flow in the combustion of additional fuel in an amount necessary to reduce the temperature of the gases in the combustion chamber to a safe limit, and enabling atmosferaga should simultaneously include firing device of any of the IPA output from the turbine into the atmosphere.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the control device is a gasoline burner or Prochaska.


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