Method of sowing winter spiked cereals

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of sowing seeds of winter spiked cereals comprises pre-sowing treatment of seeds, for which the viable seeds are selected first. Then the seeds are moisturised, bringing the moisture content of seeds to 45-50% of their weight. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature of +4°…+6°C for 2.5-3 days. Then the seeds are kept at a temperature in the range of -3°…-5°C for 35-50 days, allowing short-term periods to 12 hours of temperature fluctuation in the range of +5° … to -30°C. Then the seeds are kept before sowing at a temperature below 0°C. Sowing is carried out in spring in time of sowing spring spiked cereals on the area of the fields, allotted for the winter and spring spiked cereals with a seeding rate of 100-200 kg/ha.

EFFECT: invention enables to provide the use of full seed resource due to elimination of crop losses from freezing in the field.

2 ex

 

The present invention relates to agriculture, in particular to methods of sowing of winter crops cereal crops.

The known method of sowing of winter crops cereal crops, including tillage, use of crop rotation, making the cenosis of chemical and biological agents, seeding, and crop rotation between the cultivation of crops grown weed plants of any species composition to the phase of budding, then applied herbicide continuous action on green plants for 1-2 days before sowing the next crop again put on the weeds herbicide continuous action on green plants and seedlings of crops contribute sumusuporta organic fertilizers and tank mixture elicitors, growth substances and microorganisms(RF Patent No. 2405294, CL A01B 79/02, 2010).

The disadvantages of the method of sowing of winter crops cereal crops are low yields and increased consumption of seeds in the sowing process.

These drawbacks are due to the fact that in the known method of seeding winter wheat seedlings exposed in the winter, adverse weather conditions is critically low temperatures. As a result of their effects on winter wheat last partially or completely perish the t, vimarsa. Have to spend the seeds for "repair" of winter wheat in the spring after wintering in the fields and inoculating separate fields where the crops were frozen. Reseeding areas of fields and individual field conduct seeds of spring barley and peas. In addition, this method of sowing winter wheat must conduct breeding efforts to get cold-resistant winter wheat varieties, often leading to reduced productivity of wheat.

Also shoots in autumn are exposed to spores of diseases and damaged field mice, which ultimately reduces yield.

In addition, winter varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum) are the result of breeding work of man, but in the nature of such forms of wheat was not. All natural forms of durum wheat are characterized by summer lifestyle. In the genetic structure of durum wheat no D genome, which is responsible for aImost. Therefore, durum wheat are particularly susceptible to freezing in the winter in the field, and as a result has a low yield.

The closest in technical essence and the achieved result for the proposed method of sowing seeds of winter crops cereal crops is the method of preparation of seeds of winter crops for planting, including pre-sowing preparation of seeds by pre-wetting, keeping at a given the second temperature for a specified time and exposure of the seeds to cold within a specified period, the sowing. And the seeds incubated for 4...5 days at 20°...22°C, and affect them cold for 25...30 days at 2°...3°C under continuous illumination(USSR Author's certificate No. 425567, A01C 1/00, 1974 - prototype).

The disadvantages of the method of preparation of winter crops sowing, taken as a prototype, is a significant limitation of its application, as well as low yields and increased consumption of seeds in the sowing process when using this method to seed the process for the production of food grains and fodder.

These drawbacks are due to the following. There is a method of preparation of seeds of winter crops sowing refers to the methods used in the selection process, in particular for its intensification by producing two crops per year using Vitotronic technology. In a known way the seeds are sown and planted plants that are in the phase of seedlings seeds with roots. Seed loses flowability, which have seeds. Commercially available drill for cereals intended for sowing seeds, unhealthy when the seeded plants in the phase of seedlings. Therefore, plants that are in the phase of seedlings planted manually or it is necessary to develop means of mechanization for this operation. Known SPO is about is applicable in the selection process, where for growing winter crops cereal crops have a relatively small plots and planting operation is conducted manually. The known method, despite the complexity of the process of planting plants in the phase of seedlings, can be applied on small areas of planting in the seed industry, in the production of food grains and fodder, but it cannot be used on large areas of planting.

Lighting affects the growth of plants in the phase of seedlings, but not on the process of vernalization. For vernalization lighting negligible and increases the energy of pre-sowing seed.

The technical result is to ensure the full use of seed resource by eliminating losses of crops from freezing in the field in winter.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of sowing of winter crops cereal crops, including pre-sowing preparation of seeds by pre-wetting, holding at a given temperature for a given time and exposure of the seeds to cold within a specified period, sowing, according to the invention the seedbed preparation seed starting with the selection of viable seeds that hydrate, bringing the moisture content of the seeds up to 45...50% of their mass is maintained at a temperature of +4°...+6°C for 2.5...3 days, for the eat at a temperature in the range of -3°...-5°C over 35...50 days, allowing short-term period of up to 12 hours with the temperature fluctuations in the range from +5° ... -30°C, then store seeds before sowing at a temperature below 0°C, sowing perform in spring sowing of spring crops cereal crops on acreage allotted for winter and spring laboratory culture with a seeding rate of 100 to 200 kg/Ha.

The novelty of technical solutions is that the technical result is achieved by the fact that due to the distinctive features of the process, i.e. sowing of winter crops cereal crops spring, they are not exposed in the winter, adverse weather conditions - high Morozov. Excludes consumption of seeds on the repair of crops" winter cereal crops in the spring after wintering in the fields and replanting of individual fields on which crops should freeze completely. The opportunity in the absence of the need not to work on selection of winter cereal crops to frost. This makes breeding for high yield and ultimately will increase the productivity of winter crops cereal crops.

In addition, the seeding with seeding rate of 100 to 200 kg/Ha (2...3 million seeds per 1 Ha) instead of the commonly used seeding rates 250-270 kg/Ha (...6,0 5,5 million units per 1 Ha), prevents thickening of alabasta. Gelled chleboski on the one hand leads to lower yields due to uvelichivayushchie between plants, but on the other hand saves seed at sowing. The overestimation of the rate, leading to overconsumption of seeds during sowing of winter crops cereal crops caused by the desire to compensate for the loss of plants due to frost, rodents and diseases in the autumn season.

Hydration of the seed, bringing the moisture content of the seeds up to 45...50% of their mass at a temperature of +4°...+6°C for 2.5...3 days creates the prerequisite for sowing of winter crops cereal crops spring in terms of sowing of spring crops cereal crops. Due to the premise that this interval is the minimum temperature at which to begin the growth processes of the seed embryo. At these temperatures the growth processes occur in minimal stretching of cells. When the mode minimum stretching of the cells is limiting the growth of cells in length, and hence the tissues of the embryo (roots, shoots) in length. This is necessary to prevent damage to roots and seedlings seed embryo during storage and planting, as well as to maintain the flowability of seed required for sowing their seed devices commercially available drills.

Keeping seeds that have started the growth processes at a temperature in the range of -3°...-5°C for 35...50 days, also creates the preconditions for sowing of winter crops cereal crops spring in terms of sowing of spring cereals ku is Tur. Due to the premise that at this time under the effect of operational parameters and influence of the genotypes of winter wheat seeds in processes of synthesis of organic compounds that are necessary for cell division of the embryo, which causes the change of the vegetative (growth) of generative processes, provides further increasing the number of elements of the generative organ: the number of productive shoots (stems), number of seeds per ear and weight. In addition, the processes of synthesis of organic compounds provide the transition of winter cereal crops from the phase of tillering in the phase of earing that allows them to sow seeds in the sowing of spring crops.

Short periods up to 12 hours with the temperature fluctuations in the range from +5° ... -30°C ensures the elimination of biopsy in the seeds, where they do not constitute metabolism and growth processes required for vernalization, which means the process of vernalization.

Storage before sowing at a temperature below 0°C creates conditions "biopsy", which stop the growth processes that began in the seeds. The growth processes are limited by the swelling, the appearance of a bump or destruction of the shell and the emergence of seedlings. Seeds in the growth phase can be dried to 14%...16% moisture content without losing their viability. In the absence of access to water and t is mperature below 0°C in the seeds stop all biological processes, and redox processes are slow. The seeds remain viable.

Analysis of the properties of the set of features of the claimed method and properties of the set of features detected prototype and analogues showed that the combination of features of the claimed method shows a new property - maximizing the yield of winter crops cereal crops.

Examples of specific implementation method.

Example 1. Seeds of winter wheat with a predefined laboratory germination not less than 95%, for example, varieties Victory breeding Krasnodar research Institute of agriculture, at the stage of pre-sowing seed preparation, stariway in PVC bags and placed on pallets in three bags in a row and three rows. The seeds that are in PVC bags on pallets, with Autocar immersed in water 0.5...1.0 minute, the temperature of which is equal to +16...+20°C. For immersion in water use specially constructed pool. Then the seeds in bags on pallets get out of the water, put on the ground, giving to drain the water. Then the pallets with bags loaded into autorefrigerators and maintained at a temperature of +4°...+6°C for 2.5...3 days, put on a pad. At this time the seeds starts the process of cell division in embryos and stretching the spine and starostka. The seeds swell, bursting their Obolo is a, what is recorded visually. Then the seeds in bags on pallets placed in autorefrigerators and kept at a temperature of -3°...-5°C for 35...50 days. In autorefrigerators 1...3 times daily changes of temperature in the range from +5° ... -30°C. At this time, under the effect of operational parameters and influence of the genotypes of winter wheat seeds in the process of synthesis of organic compounds that are necessary for cell division of the embryo, which causes the change of the vegetative (growth) of generative processes, resulting in the subsequent formation of spike, number of spikes and seeds in one ear and vypolnennoi seeds.

Seeds in PVC bags on pallets stored before sowing at a temperature below 0°C, for example, in the range 0°...-5°C.

In the spring under favourable weather conditions for planting spring crops cereal crops (wheat, barley, triticale, rye, oats) on the space of fields reserved for winter and spring laboratory culture, conduct the prepared planting seeds with low seeding rate - 100...200 kg/Ha. Before sowing, the seeds are dried until the content of moisture not higher than 18%, that you can use for planting commercially available drills without modification of their design.

Example 2. Previously, at the stage of pre-sowing seed preparation, perform the selection of viable seeds winter ball is Ana, for example, varieties Kondrat selection Krasnodar research Institute of agriculture. They stariway in PVC bags, which are placed on pallets. Then, the bags on pallets immersed in water having a temperature of +18°...+20°C 3...4 hours. After this the seeds in bags on pallets get out of the water, set on the site and maintained at a temperature of +18°...+20°C 24 hours (day). Then subjected to intensive drying by exposure to warm air. Then the suction column when the air flow rate in the range 3...5 m/s seeds separated into two fractions. Lightweight fraction of seeds used for sowing. Viable seeds are lightweight faction, because they increase the windage. In them are activated enzymes hydrolysis of reserve substances endosperm embryo. Spare substances are spent on the breath and the energy required for germination of the embryo in the initial period. In addition, the seeds begin to swell, increasing its volume. Heavy fraction of the seeds may be again subjected to this manufacturing operation, which can be divided a certain number of viable seeds.

Then viable seeds stariway in PVC bags, stacked on pallets and using Autocar immersed in water 0.5...1.0 minute, the temperature of which is equal to +16...+20°C. Then the pallets the bags are loaded into autorefrigerators and maintained at a temperature of +4°...+6°C for 2.5...3 days.

After this the seeds in bags on pallets kept at a temperature of -3°...-5°C for 35...40 days. For winter barley on the implementation of this technological operation of this time is enough. In autorefrigerators 1...3 times daily changes of temperature in the range from +5° ... -30°C.

Then the seeds in PVC bags on pallets stored before sowing at a temperature below 0°C.

In the spring under favourable weather conditions for planting spring crops cereal crops (wheat, barley, triticale, rye, oats) on the space of fields reserved for winter and spring laboratory culture, conduct the prepared planting seeds with low seeding rate - 100...200 kg/Ha.

The use of the proposed method of sowing of winter crops cereal crops in comparison with known methods will allow you to:

completely eliminate the possibility of freezing winter cereal crops and the cost of "repair" of crops by seeding or reseeding other crops, such as peas, spring barley and spring wheat; to eliminate the impact on winter crops cereal crops vectors of viruses (insects and diseases in the period from September to March are the months; it will not be necessary to make nitrogen fertilizer due to nitrification processes in soil in the spring, in which the nitrogen accumulates in the soil; the period vzdelavani the crops in the crop rotation in the fall will increase (up to December in terms of the Krasnodar region).

Method of sowing seeds of winter crops cereal crops, including pre-sowing preparation of seeds by pre-wetting, holding at a given temperature for a given time and exposure of the seeds to cold within a specified period, seeding, characterized in that the seedbed preparation seed starting with the selection of viable seeds that hydrate, bringing the moisture content of the seeds up to 45...50% of their mass is maintained at a temperature of +4°...+6°C for 2.5...3 days, then at a temperature in the range of -3°...-5°C for 35...50 days, allowing short-term period of up to 12 hours with the temperature fluctuations in the range from +5° ... -30°C, after which the seeds are stored before sowing at a temperature below 0°C, and sowing perform in spring sowing of spring crops cereal crops on acreage allotted for winter and spring laboratory culture with a seeding rate of 100 to 200 kg/ha



 

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