Coal strip mining
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
The present invention relates to mining, in particular to the development of a coal Deposit in an open way, and restoration of open mining areas, and can be used in coal mining and reclamation of waste rock dumps.
The known method open-pit mining of coal, including the preparation of ground surface within the site of the planned development; drainage career fields and fence him from entering the water; the opening of the career field; keeping Stripping - dredging and removal of waste rock containing minerals; maintenance of mining - dredging, transportation and unloading of minerals . Open pit mining cause significant harm to the environment, so the absence of works on restoration of open mining lands is a serious disadvantage of this method.
The closest analogue, taken as a prototype, is a method open-pit mining of coal, including: removing the top soil layer and save it or transfer in the territory subject to recovery; soil mixing, loading and transportation of overburden with the formation of waste dumps; blasting, loading and transportation of coal to the warehouse, as well as reclamation of dumps .
The disadvantage of the prototype are:
- weathered coal from the part of the layer that goes under the load, on the one hand, is a low quality fuel and its storage in the coal warehouse leads to dilution of saleable coal, on the other contains humic acid, the introduction of which increases soil fertility;
the surface area of the dump is always larger than the area of the surface with which the removed topsoil. Therefore, the volume of removed soil layer is not sufficient for reclamation of all disturbed open work areas, in particular dumps.
Noted deficiencies reduce the effectiveness of the method open-pit mining of coal.
The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency of open-pit mining of coal due to separate coal from the weathered part of the reservoir and placing it on the smooth surfaces of the dump when reclaiming.
This objective is achieved in that in the method open-pit mining of coal, including the removal of topsoil and save it or transfer in the territory subject to recovery; soil mixing, loading and transportation of overburden with the formation of waste dumps;
the blasting, loading and transportation of coal to the warehouse, as well as reclamation of dumps, according to the technical solution of weathered coal seams, suitable close to the land surface, extracted and derived from dirout separately, dump line, aligned on the surface of the applied layer of soil and weathered coal, the resulting layer is loosened with presecco overburden and happen even earlier.
Near an exit of the coal seam to the surface or under the load varies elemental composition of coal: reduced content of carbon and hydrogen and increases the oxygen content, appear humic acid. In the zone of weathering increased fracturing of coal . The idea is to use weathered coal, which is low quality fuel, as a soil-forming component in the restoration of open mining lands. Making destroyed weathered coal in the rock overburden will contribute to the formation of humus, and the introduction of coal into the soil (clay and loam) improves its structure.
The method can be carried out as follows. Coal-mining region, there are old mines open cast mining and building new. When building a new coal mines appear growing waste rock dumps, which at this stage of the operation of the enterprise can not be restored; but require reclamation of old waste dumps of coal mines.
The new plant after opening the coal seam is proceed to the extraction of weathered coal, i.e. the development of the reservoir, appropriate close to the surface or under load. This coal is directed to the restoration of disturbed lands, in particular on waste dumps of old enterprises. When this waste rock dumps align with the plateau of its sides, aligned on the surface of the applied layer of the soil previously removed from the area of the developed area, and weathered coal. Then, the resulting layer is loosened to a depth of a little more power layer, i.e. proseccos overburden, and slightly happen even earlier.
By loosening the applied layer of soil and weathered coal proseccos overburden the effect of mixing soil, coal and overburden; the coal improves soil structure and enriches humic acids, and overburden hold the deposited layer from erosion by precipitation.
The rolling of the applied layer of charcoal and soil reduce its erosion under the influence of wind and precipitation.
Thus, the exclusion delivery weathered coal warehouse of finished products reduces the likelihood of dilution of saleable coal of low-quality fuel; applying a layer of weathered coal aligned on the surface of the dump helps restore damaged public lands. All of the above demonstrates the efficiency of the open the procedure of coal mining, i.e. the achievement of the objectives of the invention.
Sources of information
1. Bokiy B.V. Mining. / Textbook for students of mining specialties. - M: Whiteheat. - 1953. - s-518 (similar).
2. Westcott Paul. Management of open coal mining // [electronic resource]. - Mode of access: http://base.safework.ru/ - date accessed 20.02.2013 prototype).
3. Lidin HD Mining: a Glossary. / GD lidin, P.D. Voronin, D.R. Kaplunov, etc. - 4th ed., revised and enlarged extra - M.: Nedra, 1990, s (Weathering of coal).
Method open-pit mining of coal, including the removal of topsoil and save it or transfer in the territory subject to recovery; soil mixing, loading and transportation of overburden with the formation of waste dumps; blasting, loading and transportation of coal to the warehouse; reclamation of dumps, characterized in that weathered coal seams, suitable close to the land surface, produced and warehoused separately, waste rock dumps align, aligned on the surface of the applied layer of soil and weathered coal, the resulting layer is loosened with presecco overburden and happen even earlier.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate mining, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks into separate belt dumps, mining of a open-pit field, filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground waters with construction wastes. Afterwards they perform design and planning works to construct roads, passages, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures. Then they start filling the mined space in two stages. At first they do the primary filling of the mined space of the pit with a mix made of stripping rocks and ground construction debris with fraction size of the latter of not more than 100 mm mixed in equal proportions. Filling is done until complete filling of the mined space of the pit, then along the surface planned by a bulldozer they apply on top a layer of a soil mixture with seeds of perennial herbs of meadow-weed group, and final planning is carried out not sooner than in one year. Then the planned surface is ploughed, with subsequent levelling and filling of the entire surface of the mined space with a layer of sand with thickness of at least 100 mm with subsequent light levelling. Afterwards roads are connected, hydraulic engineering and land reclamation structures are arranged, and the entire surface of the planned surface of the mined space is divided into sections, in each one they perform burials of certain years and for the standard depth of burial.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs for restoration works, protection of soil against wind and water erosion.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining and may be used for recultivation of anthropogenic structures and strengthening of dust-producing surfaces. The method includes treatment of stored tailings with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer. At the same time previously, for formation of a pedogenic layer, they treat the surface of the tailing dump with a zeolite hydraulic mix at the ratio of zeolite-water equal to 1:2 and perform tillage of the surface layer. And treatment of soil with a binding compound, sowing of perennial herbs and compaction of the surface layer is carried out simultaneously, at the same time binding compounds are water-soluble polymers.
EFFECT: creation of a pedogenic layer due to application of zeolite tuffs onto the surface of the tailing dump, making it possible to exclude application of fertilisers, to strengthen development of herbal root systems, thus to increase efficiency of biological recultivation of a tailing dump.
2 cl, 2 ex, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: sowing of herbs and hard-shrub species is carried out in indents of uneven surface of mine dumps. Simultaneously with that Nitraria sibirika is sown into grooves cut on the tops of process crests of dumps.
EFFECT: reduced time for complete design coverage of anthropogenically damaged lands with plants.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of the mined space to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of the drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the pit by dumping of stripping rocks with subsequent terracing of hill slopes and arrangement of places for burial of remains, at the same time underground tomb structures are arranged on terraces, being designed for several graves, besides, each tomb structure is made with hydraulic insulation, drainage system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the ventilation system is additionally equipped with a separate air duct installed with an angle of inclination of not more than 35 degrees and made in the form of a hollow vertical channel filled with stems of cane located in the ground in close proximity from the tomb structure with the possibility to connect each subsequent grace to it in the tomb structure.
EFFECT: reduced labour costs and costs of recovery works, rational usage of land.
SUBSTANCE: method includes filling of a mined-out space of a quarry to the border of the upper level of ground water with construction wastes, arrangement of a drainage layer with construction wastes, formation of a hill in the centre of the mined-out quarry from stripping rocks with terracing of its slopes, installation of a drainage system, retaining walls, and arrangement of places on terraces for burial of remains, at the same time retaining walls for terraces are made of reinforced concrete cylindrical piles by means of their submersion in soil, pile caps are rigidly connected to each other with the help of concrete mortar, and on terraces they arrange underground vault structures with hydraulic insulation, water disposal system, drainage and ventilation systems, at the same time the first burial is made for depth of more than three meters, and the distance from the cover of the last burial to the level of terrace surface ground shall make at least one meter.
EFFECT: rational use of restored land areas.
SUBSTANCE: method includes separate extraction, movement and piling of soil layer and stripping rocks, mining of a quarry field, filling of the mined space of the pit with construction wastes and further compaction. Then terracing is carried out at one of pit slopes with the help of a bulldozer. Places for burial of remains are arranged on terraces. On the other slope of the pit a vertical wall is arranged for burial of urns with ashes of deceased, where horizontal rows of niches are arranged, being made by means of horizontal pushing of pipe sections of rectangular cross section.
EFFECT: reduced labour inputs and cost of recovery works, rational use of land areas.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: separate excavation of soil layer and overburden rocks, their movement and stocking into individual strip dumps is performed; open-pit field development, laying and levelling of overburden rocks and their compaction is performed to form an impervious screen. Then, backfill material is added, which consists of a mixture of overburden rocks and non-organic wastes - dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production and citrogypsum from production of citric acid in the following ratio (wt %): overburden rocks : dust of electrostatic precipitators from cement production : citrogypsum = 2 : (1 - 1.5): (0.2 - 0.3).
EFFECT: reduction of adverse effect on the environment owing to avoiding open-area storage of wastes, and production of citric acid, and their use as part of backfill material during recultivation of open pits.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: root layer is formed due to removal, loading, transportation and application to the dump surface of overburden rocks from top overburden bench, which consist of fertile soil layer and basement rocks. Then, vegetation cover is formed using the planting material treated with complex biological preparation.
EFFECT: reduction of reclamation periods; increase in durability of cultivated forest and grassy ranges on reclamated lands.
SUBSTANCE: separation of tailings into fractions is performed at tailing drain points on inclined surface, on which system of settling trenches with reinforced-concrete trays laid in them is created. Width of the tray bottom is equal to width of bucket of extraction-loading equipment. Then, mechanical cleaning of settling trenches from conditioning tailings is performed.
EFFECT: reduction of impoverishment of tailings and costs for development of useful components.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.
EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises opening of deposit by galleries at quarry unworked edge, working of deposit in blocks with excavation of minerals by chambers, release of crushed mineral to underground openings and bringing it to grass. Note here that deposit is developed by galleries at dividing unworked edge to horizons equal to height of production bench. Charges are laid in gallery blast-holes and wells. Cut opening is produced by blasting blast-hole and well charges of the gallery central group. Rock is excavated and loaded to carries via loading funnels. Blast-hole and well charges are blasted to force the deposit of the gallery flank groups to cut opening. Conical bank of blasted rock is formed, loaded and transported. Deposits of central and two flank directions are developed to isolate prior development zones by quality of mineral stock.
EFFECT: creation of working zone in central and two flank directions at unworked edge at selective working of deposits.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining particularly to openworking of rocks. Zoning is adjusted by registration of changes in thrust and lift engine performances to tie the latter via bucket spatial position in digging cycle for registration of bench bottom quality, granulometric composition and shape of cut rock bulk at transition from near well space to gotten well space. Characteristics of bench bottom working are allowed for by changes in performances of thrust engine at the level of bench bottom. Rock granulometric composition is defined by changes in performances of lift engines at filling and retention of filled bucket. Bulk compactness is defined by changes in performances of lift engine at scooping height registration at transition from gotten near well space to gotten well space.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of zoning and quality of blasting.
SUBSTANCE: access ramp for trucks in open-pit mine combined with inclined safety berm of open-pit mine includes empty and loaded branches and additional ramps to safety berms of open-pit mine located on side slopes of ramp for trucks. Herewith, empty and loaded branches of access ramp for trucks are separated and located in different half-trenches the bases of which are inclined safety berms of open-pit mine replacing sections of horizontal safety berms of open-pit mine along path of ramp for trucks and interconnected by additional ramps for auxiliary equipment located on side slopes of half-trenches, and additional ramps connecting access ramp for trucks with safety berms of open-pit mine are located at both sides of it.
EFFECT: reduction of quarring costs due to simplification of works for final pit edge formation and reducing volume of excavation removal caused by its through cut for berm of ramp for trucks.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises erection of sludge pond, opening and mining of quarry field. At quarry nonworking board bench located on the side of maximum ground water mark in quarry field contour erected is buttress anti-filtration shield, under the level of ground waters beyond the boundaries the prism of possible collapse of underlying bench, over the entire length of ground water layer. Note here that buttress shield height is defined from mathematical relationship.
EFFECT: lower capital and operating costs.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises excavation of working trench, mounting of transport communications, working of quarry field, excavation of minerals and access rock by benches. Note here that quarry field development is varied out from centre to its flanks while after development of quarry field for angle α between working trench and transport communications to be defined from mathematical relationship. Access rock is dumped into internal dumps located between working trench and transport communications. After complete development of quarry field working trench is elongated and transport communications are installed, cycle being reiterated several times.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises stockpile filling of dumping site stages. Note here that dumping site stage comprising rocks of capping and pasty tails are laid separately towards each other. Note also that pasty tails are laid on slope side Note that stockpile filling of dumping site stages and pasty tails I performed to one horizontal level.
EFFECT: filling of dumping sire stages in single turn, pilling of pasty tails after ore dressing redistribution at inclined base.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves stripping operations performed by longitudinal stripping cuts along the direct system with laying of overburden rock into external dump arranged on upper platform of a non-working open-pit side, at stock-piling of overburden rock to external dump in tiers that are formed along dumping front. Dumping front is arranged at a right angle to an upper edge of a non-working side of the open pit and aligned with movement direction of overburden rock from the working face of longitudinal stripping cut to their dumping place.
EFFECT: reducing overburden rock re-excavation volumes.
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of parallel rows of wells, charging them with explosives and their short-delay blasting. This short-delay blasting of radially arranged charges in membrane layers is performed as follows. First row of wells is blasted, the third one from the bench edge. Then, 1 row of wells is blasted with 25 ms delay while 2 rows of wells are last blasted with 50 ms delay. To locate the membrane layers, rock mass is photographed to define the radius of curvature of bench mining block slope by relationship with due allowance for acoustic stiffness of rocks. Weighted average layer-by-layer quantity of systematic fractures per the width of mining block coverage Wc is defined. Weighted average spacing between two adjacent systematic fractures is defined. Degree of crushing and line of resistance at bench bottom are defined. Sums of rock bed depths and strength factor (by Protodyakonov scale) are calculated. Rock strain rate, clamp factor, explosive potential energy and blast efficiency are defined.
EFFECT: maximum development of rock mass, decreased consumption of explosives, higher yield.
4 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: rock loosened by wheel-type miner is dumped by miner discharge arm belt conveyor onto that of self-propelled two-section hopper turn bar. Then, it is dumped into hopper sections rock from under which, with no outage of hopper and miner displacing in synchronism and in parallel, it is dumped cyclically into dump-trucks. Said dump-trucks move along with said hopper at loading.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of mining due to decreased downtime of miners and dump tricks.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, in particular, to development of slope beds of coal deposits by open mining works. The method includes development of a series of slope flat-dipping beds by open mining works comprising a coal bed with non-commercial reserves. This bed may be in a bench at its any height. Mining of overburden rocks is carried out by horizontal layers after blast-hole drilling carried out with the purpose to loosen the rock massif for the entire height of the bench, including a coal bed with non-commercial reserves. The rock of the beds without admixture of coal is loaded right into dumper trucks, and the layer containing the bed coal with non-commercial reserves, is sent via the device for separation of rock pieces from fine coal and loaded into different dump trucks. The upper and lower borders of the layer containing the bed coal with non-commercial reserves are set, when the mixture of the rock and coal reaches the ratio of 85-90% rock and 10-15% coal.
EFFECT: extraction of coal bed with non-commercial reserves without changes in the procedure of open mining works performance.
FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.
SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.
EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.
7 cl, 6 dwg