Coal strip mining

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises the steps that follow. Top soil layer is removed to be preserves or to be transferred to territories to be reclaimed, loosening, loading and conveying stripped rock to make the waste dumps, dislodging, loading and coal transfer to storage and reclamation of dumps. Note here that seam weathered coal approaching the day surface is extracted and stored separately. Waste dumps are levelled to apply soil and weathered coal layers thereon. Produced layer is loosened with stripped rock and rolled.

EFFECT: higher efficiency.

 

The present invention relates to mining, in particular to the development of a coal Deposit in an open way, and restoration of open mining areas, and can be used in coal mining and reclamation of waste rock dumps.

The known method open-pit mining of coal, including the preparation of ground surface within the site of the planned development; drainage career fields and fence him from entering the water; the opening of the career field; keeping Stripping - dredging and removal of waste rock containing minerals; maintenance of mining - dredging, transportation and unloading of minerals [1]. Open pit mining cause significant harm to the environment, so the absence of works on restoration of open mining lands is a serious disadvantage of this method.

The closest analogue, taken as a prototype, is a method open-pit mining of coal, including: removing the top soil layer and save it or transfer in the territory subject to recovery; soil mixing, loading and transportation of overburden with the formation of waste dumps; blasting, loading and transportation of coal to the warehouse, as well as reclamation of dumps [2].

The disadvantage of the prototype are:

- weathered coal from the part of the layer that goes under the load, on the one hand, is a low quality fuel and its storage in the coal warehouse leads to dilution of saleable coal, on the other contains humic acid, the introduction of which increases soil fertility;

the surface area of the dump is always larger than the area of the surface with which the removed topsoil. Therefore, the volume of removed soil layer is not sufficient for reclamation of all disturbed open work areas, in particular dumps.

Noted deficiencies reduce the effectiveness of the method open-pit mining of coal.

The purpose of the invention is improving the efficiency of open-pit mining of coal due to separate coal from the weathered part of the reservoir and placing it on the smooth surfaces of the dump when reclaiming.

This objective is achieved in that in the method open-pit mining of coal, including the removal of topsoil and save it or transfer in the territory subject to recovery; soil mixing, loading and transportation of overburden with the formation of waste dumps;

the blasting, loading and transportation of coal to the warehouse, as well as reclamation of dumps, according to the technical solution of weathered coal seams, suitable close to the land surface, extracted and derived from dirout separately, dump line, aligned on the surface of the applied layer of soil and weathered coal, the resulting layer is loosened with presecco overburden and happen even earlier.

Near an exit of the coal seam to the surface or under the load varies elemental composition of coal: reduced content of carbon and hydrogen and increases the oxygen content, appear humic acid. In the zone of weathering increased fracturing of coal [3]. The idea is to use weathered coal, which is low quality fuel, as a soil-forming component in the restoration of open mining lands. Making destroyed weathered coal in the rock overburden will contribute to the formation of humus, and the introduction of coal into the soil (clay and loam) improves its structure.

The method can be carried out as follows. Coal-mining region, there are old mines open cast mining and building new. When building a new coal mines appear growing waste rock dumps, which at this stage of the operation of the enterprise can not be restored; but require reclamation of old waste dumps of coal mines.

The new plant after opening the coal seam is proceed to the extraction of weathered coal, i.e. the development of the reservoir, appropriate close to the surface or under load. This coal is directed to the restoration of disturbed lands, in particular on waste dumps of old enterprises. When this waste rock dumps align with the plateau of its sides, aligned on the surface of the applied layer of the soil previously removed from the area of the developed area, and weathered coal. Then, the resulting layer is loosened to a depth of a little more power layer, i.e. proseccos overburden, and slightly happen even earlier.

By loosening the applied layer of soil and weathered coal proseccos overburden the effect of mixing soil, coal and overburden; the coal improves soil structure and enriches humic acids, and overburden hold the deposited layer from erosion by precipitation.

The rolling of the applied layer of charcoal and soil reduce its erosion under the influence of wind and precipitation.

Thus, the exclusion delivery weathered coal warehouse of finished products reduces the likelihood of dilution of saleable coal of low-quality fuel; applying a layer of weathered coal aligned on the surface of the dump helps restore damaged public lands. All of the above demonstrates the efficiency of the open the procedure of coal mining, i.e. the achievement of the objectives of the invention.

Sources of information

1. Bokiy B.V. Mining. / Textbook for students of mining specialties. - M: Whiteheat. - 1953. - s-518 (similar).

2. Westcott Paul. Management of open coal mining // [electronic resource]. - Mode of access: http://base.safework.ru/ - date accessed 20.02.2013 prototype).

3. Lidin HD Mining: a Glossary. / GD lidin, P.D. Voronin, D.R. Kaplunov, etc. - 4th ed., revised and enlarged extra - M.: Nedra, 1990, s (Weathering of coal).

Method open-pit mining of coal, including the removal of topsoil and save it or transfer in the territory subject to recovery; soil mixing, loading and transportation of overburden with the formation of waste dumps; blasting, loading and transportation of coal to the warehouse; reclamation of dumps, characterized in that weathered coal seams, suitable close to the land surface, produced and warehoused separately, waste rock dumps align, aligned on the surface of the applied layer of soil and weathered coal, the resulting layer is loosened with presecco overburden and happen even earlier.



 

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