Method and device for production of large-sized ribbed panels
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and can be used in production of ribbed panels intended for bodies of compartments, bulkheads, wings and other parts of aircraft and spacecraft. Heated blank is strained at the rate of 0.01-10 mm/s, in steps over the sections, with gradual forming of the entire surface. Area of said sections is at least two times smaller than that of said blank. Straining is executed at the device to be secured in die unit for isothermal die forming. Proposed device comprises top and bottom plates, heaters, female die, male dies with cavities shaped and sized to panel ribs and at least two male die holders. The latter displace in guide columns. It includes sliding thrust plates with drive. One male die is rigidly fixed in male die holder. Other male dies are fitted in their holders and spring-loaded and can displace in direction of forming force application.
EFFECT: enhanced processing performances.
2 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to the processing of metals by pressure and can be used in the manufacture of panels with unilateral and bilateral fins.
Ribbed panels find application in engineering for manufacturing, in particular, enclosures, compartments, partitions, wings and other panels aviation and spacecraft. Such panels must have a high strength, stability and minimum weight, so they are made of high-strength hard under normal conditions of metals and alloys mechanical processing.
There is a method of creep-forming bulky ribbed panels (Forging and stamping: a Handbook. 4 so/ Ed. Tip: E.I. Semenov (PREV.) and others - M.: Mashinostroenie, 1986, - Vol.2. Hot stamping /Ed. by E.I. Semenov, 1986. 592 S., ill., s-463). The method improves the utilization rate of the metal, improves the operating characteristics of ribbed panels, however, require significant power influences in forming the blank of high-strength hard material, having a powerful press equipment.
Closest to the proposed method, is a Method of forming panels with unilateral relief" (see A.S. SU 1248718, bull. No. 29 from 07.08. 1986). Using this method it is possible to make flat ribbed panels of aluminum alloy is Bob. After heating the die and the workpiece to 400...500°C is first a preliminary forming, and after installation in the special stamp of the liner between the preformed blanks is the final stamping with a certain exposure time, given the strength of the deformation and the average specific pressure.
The advantage of this method is to improve the quality of ribbed panels and durability of die tooling.
The disadvantages of the prototype are limited technological opportunities only unilateral relief, the need to use powerful hydraulic presses for the production of large-size panels of spheroidal hard materials, as well as the time spent on cooling and re-heating of the die block, billet with a liner that substantially increases energy expenditure and reduces performance.
A device in the form of a die block structural diagram of which is shown in p.150, RES. (Engineering. Encyclopedia of 40 tons/ Ed. tip: K.V. Frolov (PREV.) and others - M.: mechanical engineering. M 38 Technology and procurement industries. So III-2 / I. Acaro, R.A. Andrievski, A.F. Arzhanov and others; Under the General Ed. Ms. V. Manuilov, 1996, 736 C., Il.). Die block provides isothermal conditions stampout the use of a stamp, which it is installed. Stamp, mounted in the die block has a flaw in the design, which is that the die tool produces simultaneously forming on the entire surface contact with the flat workpiece. The forming is performed without taking into account the speed of movement of the deforming tool and viscous properties of the workpiece material. For this reason, it requires considerable force, so the industry are small sections of ribbed panels, which are by welding with each other get bulky ribbed panel of high-strength hard metals.
This increases the complexity of manufacture and decreases the quality of the product.
The closest structure is the device AS. SU 1248718, bull. No. 29 from 07.08.1986, consisting of upper and lower halves of the die, each of which is made streams for centration halves stamp, upper stamp is placed in the case, directing the inner surface of which is in the process of forming contacts with the rail outer surface of the lower half of the stamp. With the help of the device forming is carried out in two stages: pre with simultaneous forming of two blanks and receiving unilateral relief forms nedostupova parts semi-finished products, and then after the installation of special liner between the billet re-heating to a temperature of forming the final forming.
The disadvantage of this device is the possibility of forming on the entire surface of the workpieces that to obtain large-size panels requires powerful processing equipment, resulting in lower technological capabilities of the stamping process, and the need for cooling of the die and workpiece and re-heating. This reduces efficiency and increases energy consumption.
The objective of the proposed technical solution is the expansion of technological capabilities by regulating specific pressure variation in the conditions of creep under load depending on the speed of deformation and deformation of parts of the flat blanks for her one setup with the specified parameter of damage to the panel.
To solve this problem is proposed a method of manufacturing a bulky ribbed panels, including the deformation of the heated billet, which is carried out at the same temperature with exposure under the force of the impact, the deformation of the workpiece is carried out with a speed of from 0.01 to 10 mm/s series plots, the area of which, at least in DV is times smaller than the area of the workpiece.
Device for the production of large ribbed panels, designed for mounting the die block for isothermal forging, comprising upper and lower plates, heating elements, the matrix and punches executed with the cavity shape and dimensions of the ribs ribbed panel, the device is equipped with at least two peasantization mounted for movement on guide columns, through which they are connected with the upper plate, punches with cavities on the shape and dimensions of the ribs of ribbed panels and slip resistant straps with the mechanism of their movement, with one of the punches rigidly fixed to the lower pancontinental, other punches are installed in peasantization can move in the direction of application of force stamping and spring-loaded, sliding resistant strap is made with possibility of accommodation through the mechanism of their movement between peasantization and between the upper plate and the upper peasantization to ensure impact on the blank by the punch mounted for movement.
Figure 1 shows a honeycomb panel with ribs;
figure 2 shows the package stamp at the beginning of the deformation of the workpiece;
figure 3 shows the package stamp at the first stage formais the change of the Central section of the blank;
figure 4 shows the package stamp in the second stage of deformation of other portions of the workpiece;
figure 5 Dana design pack stamp on the final stage of forming the marginal areas of the blank.
The method is as follows.
In block stamp mounted on a hydraulic press, and fix pack placed between peasantization slip resistant straps. In the stamp stack the sheet and carry out heating of the package with the workpiece to the desired temperature isothermal forging. Isothermal forging panel is carried out with a range of velocities of the upper stamp from 0.01 mm/s to 10 mm/sec Power load P=qF create depending on the calculated and experimental values of specific pressure q and the corresponding speed of deformation of the V0. Specific pressure q is determined by the results of experimental or theoretical studies depending on the speed of deformation, taking into account the damage to the metal.
The forming carried out in stages. The number of stages of deformation depends on the power of a hydraulic press, mechanical and plastic properties of the workpiece material, the overall dimensions of the panel, the speed and degree of deformation, regulated damaging material. At one stage forms the small change ribbed panels with simultaneous exposure tool stamp on the entire surface of the workpiece. To obtain large ribbed panels produce the forming of individual sections of the workpiece. The position of the parts of the stamp before deformation is shown in figure 2. The Central punch 6 is rigidly connected with peasantization 8, while the punches 3, 9, 4 and 7 have the opportunity longitudinal movement by the amount of introduction of the plug 6 into the workpiece material. Thus, a force on the workpiece may be exercised only by the punch 6.
In the first step, forming subjected to the median point of the work piece 14 (see figure 3) using a punch 6. After the deformation force is removed, and between the bottom 8 and the top 5 peasantization moving forward thrust of the strap 17 by using an eccentric rotary device 16 and the handles 15. The newly created calculated force on other sites billet new sections of the punches 4 and 7 with a specified exposure time (see figure 4). When this happens move poisonedwaters 8 on guide columns 18 to contact with the upper peasantization 5, which established the punches 3 and 9. Punches 3 and 9 do not participate in the forming of the workpiece, so as to have the ability to move relative to poisonedwaters 5. In the process of forming new areas of the workpiece Central punch 6 is coprecos is owenii with molded at the first stage of loading cells protecting them from possible distortion in the process of forming new areas of the workpiece. In the last step, moving forward thrust of the strap 17 between the upper peasantization 5 and the upper plate 1 with the eccentric rotator handles 16 and 15, followed by forming the remaining edge areas of the workpiece (see figure 5). When this happens move passonately 8 and 5 on guide columns 18 to contact with the upper plate 1, and the punches 3 and 9, based in the surface of the upper plate 1, are introduced into the workpiece 14, while the other punches are in contact with the previously formed cells, protecting them from possible distortion. Gradual deformation ensures complete filling of the metal streams stamp without the use of special gaskets and repeated cooling and heating of the die block with the workpiece.
By the way, who is using this service stamp, the calculated value of power punching is reduced three times and stamping exercise for one set of billet hydraulic press. The complexity of manufacturing large-sized panel is significantly reduced when using the proposed method by reducing the heating time insulated snap-in three razai abolition of welding operations sections of the panel. Indeed, by a known method it is necessary to formastat three sections of the panel, placing three consecutive blanks in the die and heating each with a stamp.
For details of the responsible destination damaging material should not exceed ω=0,2. In this case, it is expedient to carry out the forming at speeds of deformation that does not exceed V0=0.1 mm/s For parts with higher damage rate of deformation can be increased to V0=10 mm/s
For implementing the method uses a device consisting of the top 1 and the bottom 13 of the plates. On the bottom plate for thermal insulation is used asbestos gasket 12 on which you installed the heaters 11 and the matrix 10. On the top plate are pressed column guides 18 which move pancontinental 5 and 8. To reduce the eccentricity of the force stamping on the yoke press and prevent misalignment when forming the workpiece 14 in the lower pancontinental 8 and the upper pancontinental 5 punches 4 and 7, 3 and 9 have the same contact area with the workpiece and constant calculated power variation. Between peasantization 5 and 8 are placed in the frontal direction moving the stop rail 17, the same sliding thrust of the strap 17 is installed in the transverse direction between the point what soedertaelje 5 and the upper plate 1. Removing and installing a sliding stop bars 17 is eccentrics 16 by turning the handles 15. The punch 6 is pressed into pancontinental 8, and the punches 3, 9, 4 and 7 in peasantization 5 and 8 can move under the action of elastic elements 2 and force shaping.
The design of the device allows you to change the number of stages of loading on the workpiece. If, for example, it is necessary to reduce the magnitude of the forces shaping flat blanks, instead of two passonately at the top of the stamp are fixed three purandaradasa and three sets of sliding stop bars, which gives the possibility to increase the number of stages of loading up to four.
When forming blanks from less durable materials, the proposed device allows forming the entire workpiece during removal from the package sliding stop bars.
An example implementation of the method.
It is necessary to make large ribbed panel of aluminium alloy AMg6 with bilateral fins and unit cell dimensions a=50 mm, the thickness of the rib b=10 mm and a depth of wells 5 mm (see figure 1) on a hydraulic press force of 5 mn. The number of cells n=12×10=120. The dimensions of the panel: A=730 mm; B=610 mm Initial thickness of the blank h0=35 mm, end h=30 mm for double sided fins, the depth of penetration of the punches ∆ H=5 mm
P and conducting experimental and theoretical studies have shown the influence of speed of implementation tool V 0the value of specific pressure q at the heating temperature of 450°C alloy AMg6. The research results are summarized in the table.
The estimated strength of the deformation of one ribbed cells respectively equal to 100.5 kN; 117,250 kN; 124,000 of 127.5 kN and kN.
To obtain panel (see figure 1) with 120 cells requires the power of forming in a single operation variation, respectively: 12,06 mn; 14,07 mn; 14,88 mn; and 15.3 mn.
|The dependence of the surface pressure q on the speed of deformation of V under isothermal forging aluminum alloy AMg6 at a temperature of 450±2°C|
|Material||The speed of movement of the tool in mm/s|
|Aluminum alloy AMg6||The value of the specific pressure, MPa|
From these calculations of the modes of deformation of the workpiece to obtain a large ribbed panel is visible, if there is a hydraulic press with a capacity of 5 mn is impossible to obtain a honeycomb panel with a size of 730×610 mm by a known method. The proposed method for three stages of forming such a panel can be made on the existing hydraulic press, if the first and subsequent stages of isothermal forging to produce 40 cells. Power punching in a single operation, respectively, will be equal to: as 4.02 mn; 4,69 mn; 4,96 mn; 5,10 mn.
For panels a responsible destination damaging material after stamping should not exceed the rate of damage w=0,2. In this case, it is expedient to carry out the forming at speeds of deformation that does not exceed V0=0.1 mm/s, i.e. create a load not more 4,69 mn. For panels, which during operation is possible, a higher level of damage, can be isothermal forging load 4,96 mn and more. Thus, the proposed method extends the technological capabilities of manufacturing large ribbed panels, significantly reduces the complexity of the process and the energy consumption for the heating device and the workpiece.
1. Method of manufacturing large ribbed panels, including the deformation of the heated billet, which is carried out at a temperature of isothermal forging with vyd what Ricoy under power influence characterized in that the deformation is carried out with a speed of from 0.01 to 10 mm/s series plots of the workpiece, the area of which at least two times smaller than the area of the workpiece, with the gradual forming the entire surface of the workpiece.
2. Device for the production of large ribbed panels, designed for mounting the die block for isothermal forging, comprising upper and lower plates, heating elements, a matrix and a punch made with cavities on the shape and dimensions of the ribs of ribbed panels, characterized in that it is provided with at least two peasantization mounted for movement on guide columns, through which they are connected with the upper plate, punches with cavities on the shape and dimensions of the ribs of ribbed panels and slip resistant straps with the mechanism of their movement, with one punch rigidly fixed to the lower pancontinental, the other punches established in peasantization can move in the direction of stamping and spring-loaded, sliding resistant strap is made with possibility of accommodation through the mechanism of their movement between peasantization and between the upper plate and the upper peasantization to ensure impact on the blank what uranami, installed with the ability to move.
SUBSTANCE: present invention pertains to military equipment and can be used when making high-precision small arms. A mandrel bar or puncheon is put into the channel of barrelled work-piece and a channel with grooves is formed through rotary forging or drawing. The surface of the work-piece channel is pre-activated and then coated with a composition. The composition assumes functions of lubricant material and provides for a wear-proof coating when making the channel with grooves. The composition contains a mixture of homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts and dispersion reinforcement systems in viscous carrier and natural minerals in the class of carbonates, halogenides, sulphates, silicates and oxides with combined concentration of 20-40 wt %. The natural minerals are modified until formation of a porous layer of minerals on the surface of the channel, forming hydrophilous-hydrophobic splices, filled with organic ligands. The work-piece then undergoes thermal processing for 2-4 hours at 130-140°C, after which a channel with grooves and a wear-proof coating are simultaneously formed.
EFFECT: reduced labour input in manufacturing with improved tactic-technical and operational characteristics of the barrel at the same time.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: hollow cylinder stock is brought with its not subject to treatment end to clamping device and fixed in it. After that a mandrel with a coaxially inserted and lengthwise set off spike is introduced into the end of the zone of the stock, subject to treatment. Its free end passes up to the clamping device. The end of the spike is brought after that in an axial direction of the stock into contact with geometric locking with the clamping device. The mandrel together with the clamping device and stock are axially passed through a stationary technological position. To facilitate inside and, if necessary, outside profiling, the surface of the stock along the section subject to treatment is radially effected in this position. The device contains the first and axially installed to it the secondary spindle straddles, axially set off to the first spindle straddle mandrel and the stationary technological position with cold fabrication tools for operating radially to the axis of the straddle. The clamping device is located coaxially against the axis of the first straddle and it is designed to be set off against the technological position. At that the technological position is situated stationary between the spindle straddles. There is also the movable spike axial-symmetrically situated inside the mandrel.
EFFECT: extended technological capabilities.
24 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: plastic working of metal, possibly forming on inner surface of tubular blanks with bottom multi-stat helical riffles of mutually opposite directions at manufacturing fragmentation type envelope of ammunition.
SUBSTANCE: riffles form grid of rhombic protrusions. In order to form such riffles, tubular blank is reduced by two successive operations. At each operation tubular blank and punch with helical protrusions are together pulled through sizing die. Each operation is realized at least during two transitions while punches whose length is multiply less that length of blank are used. Common pulling through of blank and punch during first transition of each reduction operation is realized while punch rests upon bottom of blank. Between transitions at each reduction operation punch is unscrewed from blank with formed helical riffles for forming between punch and blank band of engagement of helical protrusions of punch and helical riffles of blank. Said band is used at next reduction transition for resting punch and for providing desired direction of formed helical riffles.
EFFECT: enlarged functional and manufacturing possibilities of method.
FIELD: plastic working of metals, possibly manufacture of parts with shaped contour, for example polyhedral parts.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises steps of forming round cross section semi-finished product; embossing its surface for forming relief in the form of alternating protrusions and recesses and shaping curvilinear contour of said relief. Size of shaped contour corresponds to size of profile of ready part. Diameter of described circle passing through apexes of curvilinear protrusions is selected in range consisting of (1.15 - 1.35) of diameter of inscribed circle passing through apexes of recesses of part. Curvilinear contour of protrusions and recesses is shaped due to acting upon semi-finished product by means of shaping tool having profile of working surface in the form of curvilinear protrusions. The last have curvature radius with curvature centers spaced from part symmetry center by distance exceeding by 1.65-1.8 times distance from said symmetry center till curvature centers of curvilinear protrusions of part. Curvilinear recesses are alternated with curvilinear protrusions on working surface of shaping tool. Diameter of described circle passing through apexes of said recesses consists (1.15 - 1.35) of diameter of inscribed circle passing through apexes of curvilinear protrusions.
EFFECT: enlarged manufacturing possibilities of method and apparatus.
8 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: die includes upper and lower halves with prints forming a stream, a box and a flash bridge. The bridge is made by connection of a horizontal section to a section formed by a projection on one half of the die by a bore on the other half of the die. The projection is restricted by some part of a circle with radius R1, and the bore is made with radius R2. Centre of bore radius R2 is offset relative to the centre of projection radius R1 to the zone of the stream with larger surface areas of cross sections along the perimeter of the flash bridge and to the side from the zone of the stream with smaller surface areas of cross sections. With that, offset is performed by a value that is variable along the perimeter of the flash bridge and does not exceed 0.8h, where h - design height of the flash on the flash bridge.
EFFECT: reduction of forging force and decrease of distortion of forged pieces, forging inclinations and thickness of the flash.
SUBSTANCE: proposed tool comprises pot, female die and coupled dummy block and stem. Screw coupling is tightly secured in said stem by thread joint and key. Dummy block is jointed with screw coupling by bayonet joint composed of ledges on screw coupling and recesses in dummy block and locked by resilient split pin.
EFFECT: ruled out dummy block locking in the pot.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: stock is exposed to closed deposition in a matrix channel and double-sided extrusion. Extrusion is carried out into upper and lower wedge cavities formed by upper and lower wedge puncheons. Then the specified puncheons are extracted from the matrix channel and turned around the axis by the angle 180°. By means of these puncheons they perform the subsequent loading of the stock with filling of the upper and lower wedge cavities at the other side. The cycle is repeated, afterwards wedge puncheons are replaced to puncheons with an end surface arranged perpendicularly to the axis of the stock. Closed deposition is carried out giving initial shape to the stock. Wedge puncheons and matrix channel have round or rectangular shape.
EFFECT: invention excludes formation of cracks, cavities, folds and clamps in a stock and provides for higher resistance and operability of a device.
3 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and may be used in producing 5.45-30 mm calibre gun barrels. Hollow actuating centre is intended for radial squeezer for reduction of pipe billet with inner chamfer on one end. Actuating centre comprises body with cylinder and cavity for moving central sleeve with outer cone for said inner chamfer. Damping element is arranged between central sleeve rear end and body. Actuating centre is equipped with taper sleeve with teeth at front located inside conical cavity made on the side of body front end. Said sleeve is locked by pins relative to said body. Said pins feature small and large diameter parts. Large diameter parts are located in the body and conical sleeves lengthwise grooves to thrust by their rear ends against sleeve lengthwise rear ends. Small diameter parts are fitted in body cylinder bores and extend therefrom with nuts screwed on in seats made at body rear end.
EFFECT: better reparability, longer life, lower costs of products.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and can be used for production of articles with high mechanical properties by forming fine-grain and homogeneous structure. This die block comprises band, male die and female die. Female die has parallel inlet and outlet channels. Said channels feature geometrically identical cross-sections and are interconnected by intermediate channels. Intermediate channel is arranged at the angle of 120°≤θ≤135° to inlet and outlet channels. Intermediate channel cross-section over its entire length in the plane perpendicular to axes of said inlet and outlet channels geometrically identical to cross-section of said channels.
EFFECT: high mechanical properties by forming fine-grain and homogeneous structure.
5 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to blacksmith's work and can be used for making large-sized forged-pieces like discs, hubs, covers and bottoms. Proposed hammer comprises stationary and suspended parts connected by rods. Stationary part has cylindrical or prismatic shape with saw-like circular surface groove. Said rods are articulated with suspended part and engaged with stationary part by pivots. The latter enter said saw-like groove to displace therein. Center of gravity of every rod is displaced from the line that passes through hinge axis and pivot axis. Note here that said displacement occurs in symmetry about stationary part axis. This allows the turn of hammer suspended part after every reduction.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of forging and quality of finished article.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming, namely, to metal hardening in processing. Billet is subjected to compaction by extrusion via female die inlet channel and circular outlet channel. Billet is subjected to compaction with twisting in said circular cavity. Compaction is performed in the device composed of male and female dies. Female die has the insert, vertical inlet channel and outlet channel. Outlet channel is composed of circular cavity arranged between female die and insert. Male die and insert can rotate jointly for billet compaction and twisting in circular cavity. Male die has ledges while insert has slots to receive male die ledges.
EFFECT: higher intensity of plastic deformation.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and can be used in production of turbine blades. Initial blank is placed in horizontal intake of split female die composed of two split followers. Split followers have horizontal opening to make said intake and radial cavities for blades. Axial force is applied to blank both ends by male dies arranged on both sides. Blank is strained unless a complete filling of blade cavities to produce multiple-piece forged piece. Forged piece consist of blades connected by butt-end. Forged piece is withdrawn from the mould to detach the blades from butt-end.
EFFECT: higher ductility, lower moulding force, higher precision and metal recovery.
4 cl, 18 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and can be used at four-hammer forgoing devices of hydraulic forges. Device comprises two holders of top and bottom hammers articulated with side hammer holders by eight lateral pull-away and four centering guides. Centering guides are arranged symmetrically at both sides of the device mirror plane and have axial cavities. Said cavities accommodate compression springs to displace vertically top hammer holder relative to bottom hammer holder. Antifriction plates are mounted at aforesaid inclined surfaces.
EFFECT: higher reliability, longer life, simplified design.
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to metal forming and may be used in making single-piece parts including bulky part and long part 3. Proposed device comprises female die composed of at least two half-dies 4a, 4b. Said female die has material feed opening 5 and cavity 6 shaped to said bulky part. At least, one half-die has opening 7 to extrude long part 3. Device incorporates female die feed container 9 to open into material feed opening 5. To extrude the material from container 9 into female die from opening 7, compaction piston 11 is used. Said material is compacted and fed in opening 5 by first pressure for deform the material and fill female die therewith. Then, said material is compressed by second pressure, higher than said first one. Note here that said material escapes from extrusion opening 7.
EFFECT: lower metal input, simple and fast production.
12 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: metal working.
SUBSTANCE: hard alloy matrix has casing, bushing pressed in the case and hard alloy insertion. Bushing has multifaced hole. Hard alloy insertion is composed by several sections made in form of trapezoidal-section prisms which have cut angles at their non-working edges. Number of sections corresponds to number of faces of item to be headed. Cuts of angles are made symmetrically to faces of working edge. Slits are made in several places of multifaced hole bushing at the ponts where faces cross each other.
EFFECT: improved resistance of matrix; simplified assembly.
3 cl, 1 dwg