Method of nanocrystalline composite cathode materials lixfeymzsio4/c
SUBSTANCE: initial components represent SiO2 or titaniferous magnetite and SiO2 to be mixed with carbonate Li(Li2CO3) at the ratio of 55-70 mol. % initial components, Li2CO3 and FeCO3 making the rest in equal amounts of cathode materials LixFeyMzSiO4/C. Then, powder is fused at 1180±5°C. After cooling, obtained alloy is ground to introduce therein, as high-molecular compound, polymethyl methacrylate or soot in amount of 2-5% of alloy. Then, thermal treatment is performed in cycling mode. For this it is heated to ≥600°C and held for 55-65 minutes. Now, it is cooled to room temperature in 5-10 cycles along with powder surface modification by carbon at heating.
EFFECT: storage battery higher discharge capacity.
5 dwg, 8 ex
The invention relates to a technology for obtaining nanocrystalline cathode materials used in lithium-ion batteries used in automotive, machinery, energy, aerospace and marine applications.
A method of obtaining highly dispersed cathode materials in LixFeyMzPO4/C [RF Patent №2444815]. Spend a mixture of lithium compounds with iron oxide and one or more compounds of metals with oxidation 2+, 3+, 4+, 5+, which suppliers ion-deputies from among the oxides, hydroxides or salts of phosphorus compounds containing PO43+group, and a carbon-containing compounds.
Original mix components and activate in mechanochemical activator, after which the resulting mixture was subjected to heat treatment at 650-800°C, cooled to room temperature and dispersed in mechanochemical activator, all processes are carried out in an inert atmosphere, and surface modification is carried out using carbon-containing compounds that are simultaneously active as a reducing agent and covering agent.
The disadvantage of this method is to obtain low values of capacitance. The method is quite expensive, complicated and unfair.
A method of obtaining the cathode material is a Sol-gel method [.Deng, S.Zhang Sinthesis and characterization of Li2Fe0.97Zn0.03SiO4(M=Zn2+, Cu2+, Ni2+) cathode materials for lithium ion batteries // Power sources, 196 (2011), p.386-392]. In this method was synthesized Li2Fe0.97Zn0.03SiO4. The hydrate of lithium acetate, citrate of iron, zinc acetate, tetraethylorthosilicate and citric acid were used as starting materials. The hydrate of lithium acetate, iron, and zinc are first dissolved in distilled water. A saturated aqueous solution of citric acid is added slowly to the above solution under stirring with a magnetic stirrer. To the resulting homogeneous solution was added a solution of ethanol tetraethylorthosilicate. Under a magnetic stirrer, the stirring was conducted at 80°C for 12 hours to obtain a transparent greenish solution. Then the solution was again stirred with a magnetic stirrer at 75°C for evaporation of ethanol and water. In the wet gel was dried in a vacuum oven at 100°C. the Dry gel is then calcined at 700°C for 12 h in an argon flow. Instead of zinc acetate can also be used as starting materials, the copper acetate and Nickel acetate.
The drawback of this method is costly, and the Sol-gel method is not industrial in comparison with solid-phase reactions and reactions in the liquid phase.
The known method proceduralizing cathode material 0.8Li 2FeSiO4/0.4Li2SiO3/C and Li2FeSiO4/C in the stoichiometric ratio of Li:Fe:Si1/43:1:1,5 (low Fe content compared to pure Li2FeSiO4with application of the synthesis, selected as a prototype [Jingyu Bai, Zhengliang Gong Nanostructured 0,8Li2FeSiO4/0,4Li2SiO3/C composite cathode material with enhanced electrochemical performance for lithium-ion batteries // J. Mat. Chem., No. 22, 2012, p.12128-12132]. As a precursor was used 0,8Li2FeSiO4/0,4Li2SiO3/C. For the synthesis was used Sol-gel method. 0,008 mol of iron powder and to 0.016 mol of citric acid were mixed in 30 ml of deionized water and stirred at 80°C. Then the stoichiometric LiAc·2H2O (0,024 mol) and Si(OC2H5)4(0.012 mol) are dissolved and then continue stirring for another 4 hours. 0.01 mol of ethylene glycol is added to the solution and heated to 120°C, incubated for 2 hours for polymerization and dried at 70°C in vacuum. After drying, is crushed into a powder and calcined in a stream of argon at 650°C for 10 h After which the cathode material is mixed with acetylene and a binder of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) in a weight ratio of 80:10:10 in a ball mill at a speed of 500 pmin-1within 4 hours, using as solvent N-methyl-2-pyrolidone (NRM). Then the suspension is applied on aluminum foil and dried in HAC is the mind at 70°C for 2 hours. In the method used amorphous Li2SiO3(lithium-ion conductor) as a transmission channel for improved lithium ion diffusion in Li2Fe-SiO4and 0.8Li2FeSiO4/0.4Li2SiO3/C composite material, which contains an active cathode material in Li2FeSiO4in the crystalline phase, surrounded by amorphous Li2SiO3. The resulting material formed secondary micron size particles with primary nanocrystallites (20 nm)comprising an active cathode material in Li2FeSiO4in the crystalline phase, surrounded by amorphous Li2SiO3and amorphous carbon.
The disadvantage of this method is the high cost of the process, its complexity, and quite time consuming, and relatively low values of specific discharge capacity of the material.
The task is to develop a simple, rapid and cheap method of producing nanocrystalline composite cathode materials in LixFeyMzSiO4/C and the increase in specific discharge capacity of the material.
For solving the problem of method for obtaining nanocrystalline composite cathode materials in LixFeyMzSiO4A /C, which consists in the fact that, as initial components choose SiO2or titanomagnetite and SiO2in equal amounts, is the quiet mixed with Li carbonate (Li 2CO3) in the ratio of 55-70 mol.% from the source, the rest of Li2CO3and FeCO3in equal amounts. Melt the powder at a temperature of 1180±5°C. Then cooling the alloy to the formation of the amorphous structure. According to x-ray analysis and electron microscopy these materials are amorphous (figure 1). Thus, the homogeneity of the structure.
For uniform distribution of carbon and coating material particles carry out the grinding of amorphous alloy with high molecular compound (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) or carbon black in an amount of from 2 to 5% of the alloy. The particle size after grinding is 100-2000 nm. Next, perform a heat treatment in the mode of Cycling, and it is heated to a temperature of ≥600°C, incubated for 55-65 minutes, cooled to room temperature, perform 5-10 cycles, combining with the heating surface modification of the carbon powder.
Grinding allows the graft polymerization of the radical group SN to the particles of the powder and thereby uniform coating. PMMA is used to obtain highly dispersed state of matter with a minimum of time grinding. Mode thermal Cycling allows to obtain nanocrystalline composite material Li2FeSiO4consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous phases, with mo is oficerowie the surface of the carbon particles. According to electron microscopy in the lumen of the structure of the material consists of crystalline phase Li2FeSiO4and amorphous phase (figure 2). Cooling from the liquid state initial phases, followed by cyclic heat treatment allows to obtain a stable amount of the nanocrystalline phase Li2FeSiO4and amorphous phases, which ensures high characteristics of the specific discharge capacity of the material, accelerates the process of heat treatment up to 6 hours. Adding high-molecular compounds in a certain amount, you can simplify the modification of the surface of the powder, which leads to improvement of specific discharge capacity of the cathode material. Using as a starting material of silicon oxide and a mixture of titanomagnetite and silicon oxide significantly reduces the process.
The set of distinctive features is necessary and sufficient to solve the task.
At the melting temperature of 1180±5°With formation of amorphous phase, heat is no longer appropriate, ±5°C is the temperature measurement error.
The ratio of initial substances 55-70 mol.% SiO2selected based on the fact that these limits correspond to the low-melting eutectic in the system Li2O-SiO2.
At a temperature of cycles equal to 600°C., the necessary growth of the crystal is achieved phase Li 2FeSiO4whose size is larger than 200 nm. At a temperature of <600°C significantly increases the time of heat treatment, reaching more than 10 days.
When the number of cycles from 5 to 10 percentage of the amorphous phase is from 10 to 30% of the total powder. With this ratio of amorphous and crystalline phases is possible to achieve a high intensity discharge capacity.
When the content of PMMA <2% of the alloy, the carbon content corresponds to less than 0.7%, which gives a low value of electrical conductivity of the material and, consequently, low values of specific bit of power. When the content of PMMA >5% of the alloy, the carbon content of more than 2.3%, which also gives low values of specific discharge capacity.
Figure 3 and 4 shows the results of x-ray analysis of the modified carbon cathode material, and his picture.
Example 1. To obtain nanocrystalline composite cathode materials in LixFeyMzSiO4/C selected mixture of SiO2, Li2CO3and FeCO3in the ratio of SiO255 mol.%, the rest of Li2CO3and FeCO3. Heated to a temperature of 1180°C. the Cooled air before formation of the amorphous structure. Carry out grinding with simultaneous introduction 2% PMMA from the alloy in energonaprjazhenie mill. The resulting powder is subjected to thermo is iliauni, namely heated to a temperature of 600°C, incubated for 60 min, perform 5 cycles (figure 5). The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 169 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10
Example 2. In the conditions of example 1, the ratio of SiO2- 70 mol.%, the rest of Li2CO3and FeCO3. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 139 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
Example 3. In the conditions of example 1, the ratio of SiO2- 63 mol.%, the rest of Li2CO3and FeCO3. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 165 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
Example 4. In the conditions of example 1, the grinding is carried out with the addition of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) in the amount of 5% of the alloy. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 165 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
Example 5. In the conditions of example 1, the grinding is carried out with the addition of carbon black in the amount of 3% of the alloy. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 164 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
Example 6. In the conditions of example 1 are conducted thermal Cycling in the amount of 10 cycles. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 166 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
Example 7. In the conditions of example 1 are conducted thermal Cycling of 7 cycles. As overdosed rasego connection using polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) in the amount of 3% of the alloy. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 171 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
Example 8. In the conditions of example 2 a mixture of titanomagnetite and SiO2in equal shares for a total of 70%, the rest of Li2CO3and FeCO3. The specific discharge capacity obtained cathode material is 163 mA·h/g at a speed of C/10.
The proposed method allows you to more quickly, easily and cheaply compared to the prototype to obtain nanocrystalline composite cathode material in LixFeyMzSiO4/C with a simultaneous increase in specific discharge capacity.
The method of obtaining nanocrystalline composite cathode materials in LixFeyMzSiO4A /C, which consists in mixing the starting components, their grinding, further heat treatment and cooling to the formation of the amorphous structure with the subsequent addition of high-molecular compounds, characterized in that as starting components choose SiO2or titanomagnetite and SiO2mixed with Li carbonate(Li2CO3) in the ratio of 55-70 mol.% from the source, the rest of Li2CO3and FeCO3in equal amounts, after which the powder is melted at a temperature of 1180±5°C, after cooling to carry out the grinding of the alloy with ignoreme the essential introduction as high-molecular compounds methyl methacrylate) or carbon black in an amount of from 2 to 5% of the alloy, next, carry out thermal treatment in the mode of Cycling, and it is heated to a temperature of ≥600°C, incubated for 55-65 minutes, cooled to room temperature, carrying 5-10 cycles and combining with the heating surface modification of the carbon powder.
SUBSTANCE: powdered composite Fe-C is applied to the electrode surface and synthesis is carried out for nanocrystal elements Fe-C with an average size within the range of 10-15 nm by treatment with laser pulses with wave length of 1-1.5 mcm at radiant density of 107-109 W/cm2, laser scanning rate of 8-15 cm/s, frequency of pulses of 33-60 kHz in vacuum or in argon, at that in the process melting and formation of ferric carbide Fe3C is not reached. The invention is also related to the iron-based cathode material for electrochemical production of hydrogen.
EFFECT: modification of iron surface that allows improvement of electrocatalytic activity for such material.
2 cl, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: claimed invention describes different compositions and methods of their obtaining, which can be applied, for instance, for obtaining one or more anodes in accordance with claimed invention. Such anodes can be used, for instance, for obtaining one or more batteries, which can be used, for instance, in vehicles. In at least one version of anode realisation in accordance with claimed invention anode contains lithium-based compound with formula Li4Ti5-yMyO12, where M contains alloying metal, selected from group, consisting of molybdenum, tungsten, zirconium and hafnium, where 0<y≤1. In one of invention versions claimed anode can also contain chalcogen compound in form of sulphur, selenium or tellurium. Also described is method of obtaining anode based on lithium of said composition.
EFFECT: increase of thermal stability and protection against overcharging lithium battery due to application of anode composition with spinel type structure is technical result of claimed invention.
FIELD: electrical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: solid state battery consists of the layer (1) of active material of the positive electrode which includes active material (4) of the positive electrode; the layer (2) of active material of the negative electrode which includes active material of the negative electrode; and the layer (3) of solid-state electrolyte placed in-between the layer (1) of active material of the positive electrode and the layer (2) of active material of the negative electrode. Then the layer (1) of active material of the positive electrode or the layer (3) of solid-state electrolyte contains solid electrolytic material (5). Part (6) that suppresses the reaction is placed at interface surface between active material (4) of the positive electrode and solid electrolytic material (5). Part (6) that suppresses the reaction is a chemical compound consisting of a cationic part formed from metal-type element and polyanionic part formed from the central element which generates covalent links with oxygen-type elements.
EFFECT: battery having high energy density due to suppression of resistivity increase at interface surface between active material of the positive electrode and solid electrolytic material.
14 cl, 23 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to inorganic materials. Disclosed is iron (III) orthophosphate of general formula FePO4•nH2O, where n≤2.5. Iron (II) compounds, iron (III) compounds or mixed iron (II) and iron (III) compounds selected from hydroxides, oxides, hydroxy oxides, oxide hydrates, carbonates and hydroxycarbonates react with phosphoric acid with concentration of 5-50%. After reaction, the present iron (II) is converted to iron (III) by adding an oxidant and iron (III) orthophosphate is extracted.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain a product with a highly developed surface and high packed density.
17 cl, 2 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: material contains lithium-iron-phosphate as a substrate, a conducting alloying ion and an alloying ion of voltage rise, with a common chemical formula: (Lix[M1-x])(Fey[N1-y])PO4, where: x=0.9-0.96; y=0.93-0.97; where M represents the conducting alloying ion; N represents the alloying ion of voltage rise. The material is produced by a reaction in solid phase, in which all raw materials are mixed to homogeneous condition, and then ground into powder, afterwards, shaped into pellets, isothermically sintered for 2-3 hours at the temperature of 200-400°C in inert atmosphere, cooled and again ground in powder, shaped into pellets, isothermically sintered for 15-20 hours at the temperature of 500-780°C in inert atmosphere, cooled, ground into powder and finely ground with an air flow, afterwards sorted.
EFFECT: higher conductivity of a lithium element in a positive electrode, actual discharge capacitance.
9 cl, 3 dwg, 3 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to an active material for a positive electrode, having a composition of formula LiFe(P1-xO4), where P has molar ratio from 0.910 to 0.999. The disclosed active material for a positive electrode has operational efficiency levelled to operational efficiency of active material of a negative electrode, which is relatively low, which improves energy density of the active material of the positive electrode. The Fe2+ and Fe3+ ions contained in the disclosed material prevent structure destruction caused by shortage of phosphorus (P), resulting in improvement of ion conduction of the material and achieving excellent current properties and inhibiting voltage drop on the active resistance during charging/discharging, thus improving energy density.
EFFECT: material is obtained using a supercritical hydrothermal method and can be used in cathode material for lithium secondary batteries.
21 cl, 4 dwg, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to produce a fluoridated carbon material (FCM) includes thermal treatment of a carbon material with a reaction gas, containing fluorine and (5÷2) vol. % of fluoric hydrogen, taken at the ratio with inert gas (2÷20)-(80÷98) vol.% accordingly, and treatment is carried out under pressure of 20÷100 kPa, at the same time the carbon material is fullerene C60, treatment is carried out at the temperature of 240°C for 7 hours, and the produced fluoridated carbon represents a mixture of polyfluorofullerenes, and has a chemical composition C60Fn, where n is equal to 18, 36, 44, 48. The carbon material may be a mixture of fullerenes C60 and C70, containing 10% of fullerene C70, fluoridation is carried out at the temperature of 245°C for 10 hours, the produced fluoridated carbon represents a mixture of polyfluorofullerenes C60Fn, where n is equal to 18, 36, 44, and C70Fn, where n is equal to 46, 52. The carbon material may be fullerene soot saturated with fullerenes C60, C70, the total content of which makes 5-15%, treatment is carried out at the temperature of 230÷350°C for 7-15 hours, and the produced fluoridated carbon represents a mixture of fluoridated soot with the composition (CF0.95)n and polyfluorofullerenes C60P18÷44 and C70F46-52.
EFFECT: production of high-technology fluoridated nanocarbon materials.
3 cl, 2 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, synthesis of cathode materials LixFeyMzPO4/C with olivine structure is carried out by means of carbothermic reduction of Fe2O3 with application of highly-stressed mechanochemical activator, and surface modification with carbon is carried out by highly conductive soots and/or organic compounds with pyrolysis temperature below 700°C, used simultaneously as a reducing agent and a coating agent.
EFFECT: improved electrochemical properties of specified cathode materials with olivine structure, simplification and reduction of their production process cost.
16 cl, 7 dwg, 11 ex, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to chemistry. Carbon material which is suitable for making electrodes for electrolytic capacitors is obtained via single-step carbonisation of biopolymers with high content of heteroatoms, where there is neither the need to add an activating agent during carbonisation nor subsequent gas-phase activation. Certain biopolymers, which are available through extraction from seaweed, are suitable precursors, or seaweed containing such biopolymers are carbonised directly.
EFFECT: invention simplifies the process of producing the material.
31 cl, 2 dwg, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: according to the invention, a battery separator comprises a microporous membrane made by coextrusion, consisting of at least two layers made of extrudable polymers, and having a uniform thickness with a root-mean-square deviation <0.80 micron (mcm) or layer adhesion determined by peel strength.
EFFECT: creation of the multilayer separator exhibiting homogeneous physical properties.
9 cl, 3 tbl
SUBSTANCE: membrane is made of a tetrafluoroethylene copolymer with functional perfluorinated comonomers of the general structural formula: where R: (D), (E), (K), M-H, Li, K, Na; a=24.75-18.38 mol.%; b=78.62-81.12 mol.%; c=5.0-0.5 mol.%; and is from 10 mcm and higher thick, density is 1.93-2.10 g/cm3, mechanical strength is 16-22 MPa and a coefficient of gas permeability by hydrogen (K) is 1-3.7×10-16 m3m m-2Pa-1s-1 at 20-90°C. A method of obtaining consists in combination of a porous polytetrafluoroethylene film with a perfluorosulphocationite polymer in a medium of an organic or a water-organic solvent in the presence of a modifier. The modifier is represented by hydrocarbon polymers, fluoropolymers, perfluoropolymers or their mixtures, inorganic compounds or their mixtures.
EFFECT: high drops of pressure, high current density and efficiency of an electrolysis cell exploitation.
13 cl, 3 tbl, 28 ex
SUBSTANCE: asphalt-concrete mixture containing oil viscous bitumen, a filling agent, sand with fraction to 5 mm, crushed stone and an additive contains as crushed stone crushed granite with fraction 5-15 mm, as sand - sweepings of rock crushing, as the filling agent - sludge of HES water preparation and as the additive - a homogeneous short-fibre cellulose fibre and an organomineral modifier, containing sludge of HES water preparation, Portland cement, a polymer additive Butonal NS 198 and sodium pyrophosphate, with the following component ratio, wt %: oil viscous bitumen 6.3-6.9, crushed granite with fraction 5-15 mm 62.8-67.5, sweepings of rock crushing with fraction 0-5 mm 13.5-17.6, homogeneous short-fibre cellulose fibre 0.2, filling agent - sludge of HES water preparation 12.47-12.48, sludge of HES water preparation 0.0158-0.0238, Portland cement 0.0016-0.00235, polymer additive Butonal NS 198 0.0024-0.00357, sodium pyrophosphate 0.0002-0.00028.
EFFECT: increased water resistance of asphalt-concrete mixtures.
SUBSTANCE: material consists of several layers: an inner layer is made from chitosan nanofibres/superfine fibres, and an outside layer are used as an electrical forming substrate and exercise the protective function. The chitosan layer is made from herbal or mixed herbal and animal chitosan and can contain antibiotic. The multilayer material can contain at least one more layer of biopolymer nanofibres/superfine fibres electroformed of cellulose diacetate or gelatin. The three-layer material with the chitosan layer of the nanofibres/superfine fibres is applicable for local wound and burn healing.
EFFECT: material resistance to mechanical stress.
15 cl, 4 dwg, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to a method of modifying envelopes of polyelectrolyte capsules with magnetite nanoparticles. The disclosed method involves producing a container matrix in form of porous calcium carbonate microparticles, forming envelopes of polyelectrolyte capsules by successive adsorption of polyallyl amine and polystyrene sulphonate and modifying with magnetite nanoparticles on the surface of the container matrix or after dissolving the matrix through synthesis of magnetite nanoparticles via chemical condensation.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain modified polyelectrolyte capsules, designed to deliver medicinal substances which do not harm the human body.
3 cl, 4 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: bitumen-concrete mixture contains crushed rock, sand and oil bitumen BND 90/130, nano-modified with a mechanically activated mixture of rubber crumbs with an additive, where the bitumen is modified using rubber crumbs with size of 0.25 mm and the additive is natural zeolite, with the following ratio of ingredients, wt %: said bitumen 93.0 of the weight of the rubber-bitumen mixture, said crumbs 7.0 of the weight of the rubber-bitumen mixture, natural zeolite 2.0 of the weight of the rubber crumbs.
EFFECT: high plasticity at subzero temperatures.
1 ex, 6 tbl
SUBSTANCE: magnetoresistive gradiometer head has a substrate with a dielectric layer on which there are four rows of thin-film magnetoresistive strips connected in series by nonmagnetic low-resistance jumpers in each arm of a bridge circuit, said rows being connected into a bridge circuit by said jumpers, each of said strips having top and bottom protective layers with a ferromagnetic film in between, where in all thin-film magnetoresistive strips, the easy magnetisation axis of the ferromagnetic film is directed at an angle of 45° relative to the longitudinal axis of the thin-film magnetoresistive strip, a first insulating layer on top of the thin-film magnetoresistive strips on which is formed a conductor with two contacts with working parts lying over the thin-film magnetoresistive strips with working parts of the conductor, lying over the thin-film magnetoresistive strips, a second insulating layer and a protective layer, wherein all thin-film magnetoresistive strips are arranged in one row, and the row of thin-film magnetoresistive strips closest to the edge of the substrate lies at a distance from the other three rows of thin-film magnetoresistive strips of not less than a tenth of repetition periods of said rows, the second insulating layer is provided with a calibration conductor placed over the working thin-film magnetoresistive strips of the bridge circuit.
EFFECT: design of a magnetoresistive gradiometer head with a planar calibration conductor which enables to determine operating capacity of the head without using an external source of a local magnetic field.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions refers to a drug preparation used as a photosensitiser (PS), and to a method for photodynamic therapy with using it. The preparation represents a nanostructured water dispersion of methyl ether of O-propyl oxime-N-propoxybacteriopurpurinimide C40H50N6O6.
EFFECT: invention provides high photoinduced anti-tumour activity in the system in vitro and in vivo, complete tumour growth inhibition and recovery in animals ensured by the selective collection in the tumour and fast washout.
7 cl, 5 dwg, 8 ex
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to quantum electronics and more specifically to active laser media. The active laser medium includes metal nanoparticles and a phosphor, wherein the laser active centres used are metal nanoparticles surrounded by a cladding which is silica and contains a phosphor whose luminescence spectrum overlaps the surface plasmon resonance peak of the metal nanoparticles.
EFFECT: lowering the laser generation threshold.
3 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises illuminating an object vibrating at frequency Ω with laser radiation; converting radiation reflected from the object into an electric autodyne signal, decomposing the signal into a spectral series, wherein laser radiation with frequency ω0 is modulated with frequency Ω, which is equal to the oscillation frequency of the object; matching the initial phases of oscillations of the object and modulation frequency of the laser; measuring the amplitude of the second C2 and fourth C4 harmonic of the spectrum of the autodyne signal; using the relationship C2/C4(σ) to calculate the value of the argument of a first order Bessel function σ; illuminating a non-vibrating object with the modulated laser radiation; measuring the value of the amplitude of the second C2cal and fourth C4cal harmonic of the spectrum of the reflected autodyne signal; using the relationship C2cal/C4cal(σM) to calculate the value of the argument of a first order Bessel function σM; calculating the amplitude of nanovibrations ξ using a certain mathematical expression.
EFFECT: high accuracy of determining amplitude of nanovibrations.
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measuring equipment and can be used to measure pressure of liquid and gaseous corrosive media under the action of wide range of stationary and nonstationary temperatures. A device comprises a casing, a nano- and microelectromechanical system (NaMEMS) set in it and consisting of a diaphragm with a force-transferring stem connected with a beam having holes and slots, on the flat surface of the latter there is a heterogeneous structure formed from thin films of materials, terminal block, connecting leads. Resistance strain gages are formed within the heterogeneous structure of NaMEMS, they consist of identical strain elements connected by thin film jumpers included in the bridge measuring circuit. The strain elements are made as two trapeziums connected by their smaller bases by their central line. Note that layout of the strain elements on the beam flat surface depends on certain relations.
EFFECT: improved accuracy and sensitivity of a sensor.
FIELD: magnetic materials whose axial symmetry is used for imparting magnetic properties to materials.
SUBSTANCE: memory element has nanomagnetic materials whose axial symmetry is chosen to obtain high residual magnetic induction and respective coercive force. This enlarges body of information stored on information media.
EFFECT: enhanced speed of nonvolatile memory integrated circuits for computers of low power requirement.
4 cl, 8 dwg