Humic-mineral reagent, method of its production and method of its use for cleaning of contaminated soils
SUBSTANCE: humic-mineral reagent is prepared by mixing humified organic raw materials with the solution of hydroxide of alkaline or alkaline-earth metals, followed by extraction. The extraction of humic substances is carried out at 165-220°C and pressure of 1.8-2.5 MPa while simultaneous supplying air at a rate not exceeding 5 litres per minute for 10 kg of raw material for no longer than 3 hours. The resulting reagent comprises humic acids and/or their salts, a mixture of mineral components, comprising ferric oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminium oxide, calcium oxide, and less than 1.5 wt % impurities.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain new environmentally and economically effective humic-mineral agent with a high yield of organic wastes, the use of which provides effective cleaning of contaminated soils, and to accelerate remediation processes.
7 cl, 3 dwg, 1 tbl, 3 ex
The invention relates to the field of ecology and environmental rehabilitation, in particular to methods for humic substances from natural organic substrates. Humic preparations used in the national economy for the cleanup of contaminated areas, including disturbed lands, and reclamation and remediation of contaminated soils and lands. Significantly the efficiency of cleaning of contaminated areas, including soil and ground objects, and soil and environmental effectiveness of remediation depends on bio-protecting activity of humic substances and their binding abilities towards toxicants properties.
It is known that the problem of remediation of contaminated areas is highly relevant in the sphere of nature management and environmental rehabilitation of disturbed lands on a global scale. So there are several different approaches to its solution.
One such approach is the use of specific or non-specific strains of microorganisms-destructors . Essential features of such ways is the activation of the microflora of the soil and accelerate the decomposition of the target substances (components of oils, pesticides, herbicides, and others) [2, 3].
The disadvantage of this group of methods are the short steps, climatic limitations no influence on the dynamics of inorganic pollutants in the soil [4, 5].
Along with microbiological preparations are widely used drugs on the basis of humic substances [6, 7].
These natural biological components used in remediation in comparable scales. The main known methods of remediation is directed at the cleanup of contaminated soils from the following pollutants: oil and petroleum products, sewage sludge and sludge, and other organic compounds other than petroleum (polyvinyl chlorides, nitrobenzol, manure etc), pesticides, heavy metals and their oxides, gallium, sodium and Nickel, etc. Main technical results, which are aimed at ways of remedial contaminated soils, are improving the efficiency of cleaning, restoring fertility and increasing crop yields, increase the speed of reclamation, reducing the cost of remediation. Known methods of remediation using luminova-mineral reagent and various methods of its production [8, 9].
The main difficulty when using gumina-mineral reagents during remediation of the land is a drug with optimal chemical composition, providing maximum remediation the effectiveness and shortcomings of the methods for depositing gumina-mineral reagent in the soil and the soil.
The applicant studied the world prior art in this field as in patent sources inform the tion, and in the scientific literature and the following is a brief analysis identified unique.
A method of obtaining organic-mineral fertilizers and production lines for its implementation  by cavitation dispersion of natural at 80-90°C. the Disadvantage of this method is nepostoyanstva of formula gumina-mineral drug, and in this regard, the low reproducibility of the effects of reclamation of contaminated land.
Known carbon sorbents  industrial origin which stimulate the microflora neftezagryaznennyh lands. The disadvantage of this method is the high alkalinity of an aqueous suspension of the drug (up to 9 units of pH), which may reduce the productivity of the soils due to the high alkalizing remedieshome and soils.
A known method of purification of oil-contaminated soils using the drug "Algum" , gumina-mineral reagent obtained from brown coal and bring in a water suspension into the soil. The disadvantage of this method is the high alkalinity of the aqueous slurry applied to soil, which is a negative factor when cleaning oil-contaminated soils, often with alkaline reaction initially.
A method of obtaining humic fertilizer of brown coal  with the aim of further soil application, however, there inform the tion, which makes it possible to judge about the positive effect of humic this drug specifically in relation to contaminated land.
Know the use of humic derivatives as passive agents of remediation at mining , the disadvantage of this method is the use of humic substances only as a passive reactive barriers, but not for active cleanup of soils and soil.
When analyzing unique applicant identified the closest of them for technical achievement for each of the three declared independent claims of the invention.
Known gumina-mineral reagent, closest to the proposed luminova-mineral reagent was chosen as a prototype (for the first independent claim of the invention). The essence of it consists in obtaining gumina-mineral reagent from natural hummatov and coal natural number, to obtain an luminova-mineral agent to the raw type nitrogen-containing substances.
The disadvantage of the prototype is a low proportion of humic substances in the composition of the reagent and too high a content of volatile substances contained in the produced substance, the reagent. Low content of humic substances and high percentage of volatile substances leads to reduced efficiency of remedies and in the calculation of the dose deposited luminova-mineral reagent.
A method of obtaining humic substances in the laboratory by alkaline extraction of any natural environments containing humified organic matter . The essence of it is that humified organic matter is subjected to treatment with an aqueous solution hidroxizina sodium in the ratio of organic matter-the alkaline solution is from 1:5 to 1:10 (sometimes 1:20) at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. Meanwhile, the lowest values of temperature and pressure cause the yield of humic substances as a percentage of the original weight of humified organic matter is not permanent and predictable
This method is most similar to the tasks and selected as a prototype of the second independent claim of the invention.
The disadvantage of this method is the low yield of humic substances from natural environments and its inapplicability in an industrial scale.
There is a method of remediation of soils contaminated with saline water , which consists in introducing into the soil pressed briquettes organic residual sludge and further mechanical sieving of the soil. The essence of it is that as homelegance use crumbly moist excess sludge.
This method is the prototype for the independent third is imago claim of the claimed invention.
The disadvantage of this method is the need for mechanical removal of sludge briquettes after going to happen sorption absorption of toxicants, which increases labor costs. The disadvantage of this method is the need to move large masses of soil for further screening in order to remove the sorbent.
The claimed invention free from the above disadvantages.
The technical result of the invention is to increase output luminova-mineral reagent in relation to the number of source organic materials. The involvement of organic waste in the biological cycle on disturbed and contaminated land promotes the use of cheap raw materials and its disposal. This leads to the fact that cleaned the mass of the soil does not require a move to further treatment, and the treatment is carried out at the place of pollution, which in turn leads to the reduction of chemical remediation of contaminated soils and land, and reduce the volume of soil involved in the processes of mining reclamation. By involving animal waste in the biological cycle in the remediation of land significantly reduced costs for the disposal of organic waste livestock farms.
This technical result is achieved by the fact that luminova-mineral reagent containing g is minovia acid and/or their salts and mineral components, in accordance with the declared independent by the first paragraph of the invention, as mineral components take iron oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide and the composition contains, by weight. %:
humic acids and/or their salts - not less than 60 in total, including humic acid of the aromatic series - not less than 17.5;
mineral components - fewer than 40 total, including iron oxide - to 4.0, the sodium oxide - to 17.0, magnesium oxide - up to 6.0, alumina - to 4.0 and calcium oxide - to 34.5;
impurity is less than 1.5 in total, including volatile substances up to 1, chlorides to 0.5, heavy metals - 0.1
In addition, this technical result is achieved by the fact that the total quantitative composition of humic acids and/or their salts is not more than 75%, and the total quantitative composition of the mineral component (iron oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide) is at least 25%.
This technical result is achieved declared independent by the second paragraph of the invention for a method of obtaining luminova-mineral reagent, obtained by the first independent clause of the invention, which consists in mixing the organic feedstock hydroxide solution, carrying out extraction of humic substances, filtering the resulting solution and process acid, office etc is mivka obtained precipitate, in accordance with the claimed invention according to the second independent clause because as hydroxide use hydroxides of alkaline or alkaline-earth metals, extraction of humic substances is carried out at a temperature of 165-220°C and a pressure of 1.8 - 2.5 MPa, with a simultaneous supply of air with a flow rate of 5 liters per minute per 10 kg of raw materials for a period of not more than 3 hours.
In addition, this technical result is achieved in that in the method according to the second independent clause of the claimed invention as a hydroxide of an alkaline or alkaline-earth element use the hydroxides of sodium or potassium or calcium.
In addition, this technical result is achieved in that in the method according to the second independent clause of the claimed invention, as a hydroxide of an alkaline or alkaline-earth element is a mixture of at least two of the hydroxides of sodium or potassium or calcium.
In addition, this technical result is achieved in that in the method according to the second independent clause of the claimed invention as acid using acetic acid in the ratio of one part of 5% solution of acid to 10 parts of a solution.
The specified technical result is achieved by the claimed independent third paragraph of the invention by way of using luminova-mineral reagent C is localmemory intensive tilling and amending prepared to clean the soil of the sorbent and homelegance, intensive irrigation sprinkler and subsequent sowing of phytomelioration, in accordance with the claimed invention according to a third independent clause, as sorbent use of insoluble waste from getting luminova-mineral reagent, and as homelegance use luminova-mineral reagent, obtained by the first independent clause of the invention, irrigate sprinkler 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent.
In addition, this technical result is achieved in that in the method according to independent third paragraph of the claimed invention loosening carried out after the end of the growing season corresponding to the type of phytomelioration to a depth of at least 20 cm and at the same time contribute in the treated contaminated soil insoluble waste, followed by irrigation sprinkler 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent, which is optionally repeated at least two times, the first being carried out at sowing phytomelioration, and the second not more than three weeks after the appearance of their shoots.
The claimed invention allows to obtain luminova-mineral reagents with constant composition that ensures maximum efficiency of remediation of contaminated soils and lands. When making luminova-mineral reagent in contaminated the config soil is detoxification, the increase in biological activity, optimization of physico-chemical parameters and stimulation of plant growth. The proposed reagent and method thereof is different from most existing methods that can provide a high efficiency of production and reproducibility consistency, which is achieved by the constancy of the composition of the mineral component, and, most importantly organic humic component. The claimed invention relates to a cheaper and more effective in comparison with the known analogues and technology method of producing humic substances of the claimed composition can be recommended for use in regions where the problem of remediation of land is particularly acute.
The claimed invention on the basis of the St. Petersburg state University was tested on model samples for laboratory studies, which were obtained reflecting the results of testing specific examples of implementation of the invention.
Examples of specific implementations of the composition luminova-mineral preparation, method of its production and method of cleaning soil below and illustrated in figure 1-3.
Figure 1 presents the dependence built in the coordinates: X - number of treatments of contaminated soils luminova-mi is aralnym reagent and waste of its receipt, Y - carbon content, %, where 1 is the curve based on the total carbon content of the contaminated soils from the number of treatments and 2 - curve of the carbon content of humic acids and/or their salts in contaminated soils from the number of treatments.
Figure 2 presents the dependence built in the coordinates: X - number of treatments of contaminated soils luminova-mineral reagent and waste of its receipt, Y - contaminated soil pH (curve 1) or proteasa activity contaminated soil, % (curve 2), where 1 is the curve of the pH of the contaminated soils from the number of treatments and 2 - curve by the activity of contaminated soil from the number of treatments.
Figure 3 presents the dependence built in the coordinates: X - number of treatments of contaminated soils luminova-mineral reagent and waste of its receipt, Y - germination of plants, % (curve 1) or plant biomass, g (curve 2), where 1 - curve germination of plants in contaminated soils from the number of treatments and 2 - curve of biomass plants in contaminated soils from the number of treatments.
Examples of implementation of the claimed invention
Example 1A. The method of obtaining luminova-mineral component of cattle manure
Raw materials with humidity 90%, Salinas is using 12% in the amount of 3.6 kg was mixed with 5.4 liters to 3.7% solution of sodium hydroxide. Extraction of humic substances was carried out for 2 hours at a temperature of 175°C., a pressure of 2.2 MPa air consumption of 4.5 liters per minute. After extraction, the mixture was cooled to 20°C, filtered through a paper filter. Waste, representing an insoluble precipitate of raw materials, dried and used for remediation of soils as a sorbent, which is more specifically described below in example 3. The supernatant volume of 5 liters was treated with 5% acetic acid in quantities of 1 liter. After 24 hours, the resulting suspension was separarely on flow separator at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes. The precipitate was washed out of 5.0 liters of distilled water and then again separarely, and then dried. Total yield luminova-mineral reagent in terms of absolutely dry sample of 250 grams, which is more than 40% of the original organic matter in raw materials. The composition of the obtained luminova-mineral component described in example 2, the method of application, respectively, in example 3.
Example 1B. The method of obtaining luminova-mineral component of the silt Deposit
Raw materials with humidity 68%, ash content of 14% in the amount of 2.4 kg was mixed with 6.6 liters of a 4% suspension of calcium hydroxide. Extraction of humic substances was carried out for 3 hours at 190°C., a pressure of 2.4 MPa air consumption of 4.5 liters per minute. After the wire is placed in the extraction mixture was cooled to 20°C, was filtered through a paper filter. The supernatant liquid volume of 4 liters was treated with 5% acetic acid in a quantity of 0.8 liters. After 16 hours, the resulting suspension was centrifuged at 2500 rpm for 15 minutescook washed out of 5.0 liters of distilled water and again centrifuged, and then dried. Total yield luminova-mineral reagent - 300 grams in terms of absolutely dry sample, which is more than 40% of the original organic matter in raw materials. The composition of the obtained luminova-mineral component described in example 2.
Example 2. Luminova-mineral reagent (composition)
Obtained according to examples 1A and 1B luminova-mineral reagents were characterized by the following composition, calculated on dry weight of products:
|Index||The reagent of Example 1||The reagent according to Example 2|
|Humic acids and their salts, including:||64,2%||71,6%|
|Aromatic humic acids and their salts||26,4%||19,8%|
|Minerals, misrepresented the number:||34,5%||27|
|Iron oxide||1,3%||to 3.8%|
|The sodium oxide||16,5%||2,2%|
|Magnesium oxide||2,4%||of 3.9%|
|Low molecular weight impurities||0,9%||0,5%|
Example 3. Luminova-mineral reagent (application)
For experiment used 8 vessels of size 40×40×20 cm, Controlled parameters of the experience: the content of organic matter, including humic acids, pH, microbiological (proteina) activity, survival of plants, plant biomass (total vessel). With the court 1 was used as a control. At the bottom of 2-8 vessels were placed departure from the extraction of humic substances from example 1A in the amount of 100 g in terms of dry sample (the first treatment of contaminated soil). The waste is a non-oxidized remains of plants, consisting mainly of cellulose and lignin and is the response of 10.4. All the vessels were placed pounded air-dry peritoneal acidic medium loam Borovichesky deposits of refractory clays in 2 kg in each vessel. The mixture in the vessel was intensively stirred for 5 minutes. Next, the mixture in the vessels 1 and 2 are watered using a watering can in the amount of 0.5 liters, and the mixture in the vessel 3-5 - 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent of example 1 And the mixture in the vessel 6-8 - 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent according to example 1B (second treatment of contaminated soil). The mixture in the vessel was should be composted for 21 days at room temperature. After this mixture in vessels 1, 2, 3, and 6 were moistened using a watering can, and the mixture in the vessel 4-5 similarly processed 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent according to example 1A, in vessels 7 - 8 - 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent according to example 1B (third treatment). Next, all the vessels were planted plants oats in the amount of 100 seeds per vessel; experience continued in standardized lighting conditions. After 1 week on the moment of planting was carried out by watering the pots with a watering can, moreover, the vessels 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 7 was moistened with water, the vessel 5 is 0.003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent according to example 1A and the vessel 8 is 0.003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent according to example 1B (fourth process). The experience ended on the 28th day from planting. The results obtained in this term for vessel 1, was used for option "0 processing", for vessel 2 is "1 treatment"averaged results for the vessels 3 and 6 "2 processing", for vessels 4 and 7 "3 processing", for vessels 5 and 8 4 processing.
As can be seen from Figure 1, the introduction of waste from getting luminova-mineral reagent contributes to a significant increase in the content of organic matter in the soil, and the processing liquid luminova-mineral reagent promotes fixation of organic matter in the form of the most kinetically stable compounds of humic substances.
Figure 2 illustrates the change of pH of the original acid mixtures and their microbiological activity during the processing luminova-mineral reagent. The most effective method to normalize the pH is the introduction of waste from production luminova-mineral reagent with subsequent three-watering mixture of 0.003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagents according to examples 1A and 1B. The introduction of reagents increases microbiological activity of soils in the forest due to changing pH environment.
As can be seen from Figure 3, the source piridostigmina loam unsuitable for holding phytoremediation (no plantlets). Making a departure from getting luminova-mineral reagent (1 treatment) allows to obtain the shoots of plants, and three-time processing luminova-mineral reagent to achieve maximum biomass of plants.
Thus, as shown by the results of numerous studies simulating natural conditions in the laboratory, the claimed luminova-mineral reagent is permanence and effective for cleaning contaminated soil as homelegance increasing microbiological activity of soils, survival, and biomass plants. The method of its production is characterised by rapid and high yield of humic substances, simultaneously processed organic waste.
Technical and economic efficiency of the claimed invention is to develop eco-efficient preparation of humic substances derived from waste, as well as in the development of more cheap in comparison with the known analogues method of application of humic substances in contaminated soils and the development of the method of obtaining humic preparation with constant composition that, in General, is a self-contained and complete technological cycle, allowing the high yield reagent, obtained on the basis of raw materials, requiring for its utilization of high labor costs, to conduct an environmental certification system and monitoring quality control of treated contaminated land. In this case, as shown by studies in real conditions, virtually eliminating the need for costly operations recycling of raw materials, has been successfully used to obtain cheap and high yield effective luminova-mineral reagent independent first paragraph of the claimed invention. The claimed invention can be widely used and recommended as an effective technology to solve environmental problems by cleaning depending on the characteristics of the contaminated soil.
Sources of information
1. Russian Federation patent RU 2376084 C1
2. Russian Federation patent RU 2376083 C1
3. Russian Federation patent RU 2355488 C1
4. Russian Federation patent RU 2320430 C1
5. Russian Federation patent RU 2311237 C2
6. Russian Federation patent RU 2365077 C1
7. Russian Federation patent RU 2296731 C2
8. Russian Federation patent RU 2258687 C1
9. Russian Federation patent RU 2205158 C1 Y. the Russian Federation Patent RU 2 414 313 C2 11. Russian Federation patent RU 2174454 C2 12. Russian Federation patent RU 2201416 C2 13. Russian Federation patent RU 2429068 C2
14. The patent of the Russian Fe is erali EN 2002131896 (the prototype for the first independent clause)
15. Orlov D.S., Grishina L.A. workshop on the chemistry of humus. Publisher: Moscow state University, 1981 ISBN: UDC: 631. 273 p. (prototype for the second independent clause)
16. Russian Federation patent RU 2459398 (prototype for independent third paragraph)
1. The method of obtaining luminova-mineral reagent, namely, that humified organic raw material is mixed with the hydroxide solution, carry out the extraction of humic substances, the resulting solution is filtered and treated him with acid, and then separated and washed precipitate, characterized in that as hydroxide use hydroxides of alkaline or alkaline-earth metals, extraction of humic substances is carried out at a temperature of 165-220°C and a pressure of 1.8-2.5 MPa, with a simultaneous supply of air with a flow rate of 5 liters per minute per 10 kg of raw materials for a period of not more than 3 hours.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that as a hydroxide of an alkaline or alkaline-earth element use the hydroxides of sodium or potassium, or calcium.
3. The method according to claim 2, characterized in that as a hydroxide of an alkaline or alkaline-earth element is a mixture of at least two of the hydroxides of sodium or potassium, or calcium.
4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the acid using acetic acid in the ratio of one part of 5% solution of acid to 10 parts of the races is the thief.
5. Luminova-mineral reagent, obtained by the method according to claims 1 to 4, containing humic acid and/or their salts, a mixture of minerals, including iron oxide, sodium oxide, magnesium oxide, aluminum oxide, calcium oxide, and additives, including volatile substances, chlorides and heavy metals, with the following content, wt.%:
humic acids and/or their salts of at least 60 - 75, including humic acids of the aromatic series of not less than 17.5
the mixture of mineral components is not less than 25 to less than 40,
including iron oxide to 4.0, the sodium oxide to 17.0, magnesium oxide up to 6.0, the aluminum oxide to 4.0 and calcium oxide to 34.5
impurities of less than 1.5, including volatile substances up to 1, chlorides to 0.5, heavy metals up to 0.1.
6. The way to use luminova-mineral reagent for the purification of contaminated soils, consisting of intensive tillage and making prepared for clearing the ground of the sorbent and homelegance, intensive irrigation sprinkler and subsequent sowing of phytomelioration, characterized in that the sorbent used is insoluble waste from getting luminova-mineral reagent, and as homelegance use luminova-mineral reagent according to claim 5, irrigate sprinkler 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent.
7. The method according to claim 6, characterized those who, that tilling is carried out after the end of the growing season corresponding to the type of phytomelioration to a depth of at least 20 cm and at the same time contribute in the treated contaminated soil insoluble waste, followed by irrigation sprinkler 0,003% aqueous solution luminova-mineral reagent, which is optionally repeated at least two times, the first being carried out at sowing phytomelioration, and the second not more than three weeks after the appearance of their shoots.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of agriculture, ecology and land reclamation. The method comprises application into the soil of soil-fertilising material which is used as organo-mineral compost containing pig manure and cattle manure, sewage sludge, and phosphogypsum with the following component ratio (wt %): phosphogypsum with pH 5.0-5.5 - 10-13, pig manure - 11-13, sewage sludge - 6-8, cattle manure - the rest, that are composted in the summer period for 3 months under conditions of high average daily temperatures of compost from 35 to 45 °C, stirring every month till ripening. Then, the resulting compost is applied to the soil on one occasion for 5 years at a dose of 60 t/ha, embedding it in the late summer - early autumn at a depth of 14-18 cm.
EFFECT: method enables to improve the properties of soil, to improve soil fertility and crop yield.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture for recycling livestock, poultry wastes and other paste-like materials. The method of production of compost comprises laying manure, droppings to the fermenter followed by injection of air oxygen into it. The initial weight with the native humidity of 76-78% is placed into the fermenter without preliminary preparing and mixing on the layer of organic carbonaceous component of fermentation in an amount providing C:N=25:1, or without this component, if the mass of manure, droppings due to the presence of food residues and litter contain above ratio C:N. The organic carbonaceous component of fermentation is used as straw, peat, sawdust, crushed plant residues.
EFFECT: method enables to reduce consumption of water-absorbing organic components in the process of aerobic fermentation.
SUBSTANCE: method of production of liquid humic fertiliser comprises mixing the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution, suspension sedimentation and separation of the liquid fraction, at that stirring of the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution and the suspension sedimentation is carried out repeatedly, the humic-containing material is used as waste of production of the liquid phase bioagent for crop production and farming, which active ingredient is organic matter carbon Corg - 30.0-40.0, wt %, comprising macronutrients: nitrogen Ntot. - 1.15-1.80, wt %; phosphorus P2O5 - 1.4-2.2, wt %; potassium K2O - 1.0-2.3, wt %; calcium CaO - 1.1-1.6, wt %; magnesium MgO - 0.2-0.8, wt %, and trace elements, at least, boron, copper, cobalt, manganese, selenium, silicon, and mixing the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution is carried out three times, each in a ratio of 1:10 at the speed of 20 rev/min, at a temperature of 60°C for at least 1 hour, and sedimentation - after each mixing at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours, followed by separation and combining the supernatant.
EFFECT: invention enables to expand the range of liquid humic fertilisers, to improve plant growth and development, to activate soil-microbiological processes.
1 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: composition comprises insecticides Aktellic and Mospilan, fungicide Infinito, adhesive MiBAS, complex of micronutrients Aquamix, immunomodulator Silk, plant growth stimulator potassium humate in the following ratio of components, wt %: Aktellic 33.90-36.23; Mospilan 6.78-7.25; Infinito 16.95-17.30; MiBAS 28.98-33.90; Silk 3.39-4.35; Aquamix 1.45-1.69; potassium humate 3.39-4.35. The composition is used at a dose of 6.9 l/t of seeds.
EFFECT: invention enables to protect seedlings of linseed flax from its pests and diseases, in particular from crucifer flea beetles and fusariose, to increase its productivity.
2 cl, 5 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The silicon-containing chelate microfertiliser for top dressing is obtained by mixing ad diluting in tap water in a given ratio two mother component aqueous solutions: a mother solution of trace elements and a mother solution containing silicon, wherein the mother solution of trace elements contains iron sulphate, boric acid, manganese sulphate, copper sulphate, cobalt chloride, zinc sulphate, ammonium molybdate and a complexing agent in an amount which sets the pH of the solution of trace elements at 2.5-3, wherein the mother solution of trace elements contains humic acids as the complexing agent. All components are taken in a defined ratio. The mother solution containing silicon is 1% potassium or sodium silicate solution; a working solution of a silicon-containing chelate microfertiliser is obtained by diluting and mixing the mother solutions in tap water. All components are taken in a defined ratio. The pH of the working solution becomes 5.5-6.0.
EFFECT: invention enables to produce a silicon-containing chelate microfertiliser with improved plant-protection and adaptogenic properties, prolongs the shelf life of the mother solutions.
2 cl, 11 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of production of structured peat-sapropelic concentrate comprises cavitational dispergating of humate-containing agent using an alkaline solution of potassium hydroxide, at that in a moving stream of water the fragmented peat with a particle size of not more than 5 mm, as well as putrid mud, potassium hydroxide, white mud is fed. All the components are taken at a certain ratio. The resulting solution is subject to cavitational dispergating to temperature of 90°C.
EFFECT: invention enables to simplify the method of preparation of high-quality organo-mineral complex fertiliser, to reduce the energy consumption of the process while increasing its ecological compatibility.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic preparations involves ultrasonic dispersion of humate-containing substances. At least one jet or vortex flow of humate-containing substances is created, which is treated with an air or steam stream using a jet-edge generator with ultrasonic radiation intensity greater than 10 W/cm2.
EFFECT: invention provides an efficient technique of processing humate-containing substances, which enables to obtain water-soluble organic substances with high content of fulvic and humic acids with a simple process for production thereof, low labour input and material consumption of the process.
2 cl, 1 tbl
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Organomineral complex fertiliser contains peat, mineral components and nutritional microelements as humate-containing substances, with nitrogen-ammonia constituent in form of urea and water, processed with UV-irradiation, being introduced into complex composition. All components are taken in specified ratio.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of complex fertiliser action on crop yield due to application of high and balanced content of quickly-soluble potassium humates and elements of mineral nutrition in fertiliser.
2 cl, 8 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil involves preparation of a treatment area, collecting, excavating and delivering oil-contaminated soil to the treatment area, preparing the oil-contaminated soil, adding a humic-mineral complex and providing processes for biological decomposition of the oil-contaminated soil. The method of decontaminating spent drilling mud involves lime treatment, reagent coagulation, adding flocculants and a humic-mineral complex, step-by-step cutting of the drilling mud into a buffer layer while laying the mud in a layer of not more than 8-10 cm, drying the drilling mud and stacking into piles for subsequent recycling. The humic-mineral complex is obtained by low-temperature mechanochemical extraction of humic acids with by crushing brown coal in a dispersion machine while mixing the crushed brown coal with an alkali.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of methods in which a humic-mineral complex is used.
2 cl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic fertiliser for organic farming, meant for treating soil and vegetative plants, wherein said fertiliser is obtained in two steps: at the first step, natural humic acids contained in brown coal are transferred into an aqueous solution in form of ammonium humate by treating with 1.5-2.0% aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution to pH 6.9-7.1 with the ratio of the liquid component to the solid component of 7-7.5:1, and the obtained solution is separated from the mineral ballast which is not chemically bonded to the humic acids; and at the second step, metal cations chemically bonded to the ammonium humate are removed from the ammonium humate solution by treating with a cationite to pH 4.0-4.2.
EFFECT: invention enables to obtain water-soluble humic acids which do not container both the mineral ballast and metal cations.
2 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of production of the concentrate of humic acid from brown coal, including its crushing to obtain microparticles, preparing the suspension in the diluted solution of alkali, and extraction, with mechanical stirring of the suspension in the reactor-mixer from the microparticles of humic acid coal. The coal is subjected to two-stage crushing, and at the second stage of crushing the microparticles with ragged surface are formed, and in stirring the suspension in the reactor-mixer it is simultaneously affected with ultrasound for 7-15 min., then the solid phase is separated from the liquid phase by precipitation of insoluble coal-ash in the sediment basin for 15-20 min., and the liquid phase is fed in the cracking reactor, the catalyst-hydrochloric acid is added, the liquid phase is resolved to water and humic acid of 90%, 70% and 40% concentration after sedimentation for at least 24 hours.
EFFECT: invention enables to create a complete cycle of industrial production of humic acids, to improve the performance and efficiency of their extraction of brown coal, to extend the scope by improving the quality of the finished product.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: mixed fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing peat, household sewage sediments, manure, and marble filings (0.5 to 10%) followed by composting in storage piles.
EFFECT: improved consumer's properties.
FIELD: biologically active substances.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to isolation of humus acids (humin acids and fulvene acids) from natural-origin humate-containing substances, in particular from sapropel, to use them in manufacture of organomineral fertilizers, biologically active additives used in manufacture of therapeutic preparations and pharmaceutical products. Method comprises treating wet sapropel with potassium pyrophosphate solution and simultaneously affecting sapropel with ultrasound with frequency 22-23 kHz and emission power 50-160 W/dm3 for at least 90 min. Weight ratio of wet sapropel to potassium pyrophosphate does not exceed 100:1.
EFFECT: simplified process and increased productivity.
3 cl, 1 tbl, 9 ex
FIELD: mixed fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: fertilizer contains brown coal with particle size 0.001 to 5 mm and additive, in particular biological humus, at weight ratio 1:(0.001-0.05). Prior to be mixed with additive, brown coal is ground to required particle size. Mixing is carried out until homogenous free flowing product is obtained. Fertilizer can be used to raise fertility as product accessible for any user from individual summer residents to large agricultural economies.
EFFECT: reduced cost of product.
7 cl, 3 tbl, 6 ex
FIELD: agriculture, in particular, methods for obtaining of organic fertilizers and growth promoters from natural humate-containing substances, such as peat.
SUBSTANCE: method involves exposing peat suspension to electric current; preparing peat suspension by mixing peat with solution of salts of weak acids of potassium, and/or sodium, and/or ammonium in various ratios and combinations; placing into vessel equipped with N-pairs of opposite-polarity electrodes; exposing liquid phase of suspension to electric current of density sufficient to provide for alkaline reaction of cathodes and acidic reaction of anodes, with current being supplied in the form of sequence of rectangular pulses of duration sufficient for alteration of partial pressure of gases generated in suspension volume and interval between pulses being sufficient for relaxing of said pressure; while acting upon suspension with electric current, mixing suspension and continuously controlling pH value of its liquid phase; stopping said action, when acidity reaches predetermined value; separating suspension into liquid and solid products. Weak acid salts used are salts of carbonic acid and phosphoric acid. Method allows mineral and organic peat components to be more completely converted into mobile chemical compounds.
EFFECT: provision for keeping of agrophysical and agrochemical properties of peat solid phase, full-value utilization of liquid and solid products and increased effectiveness of process.
FIELD: coal-chemical products.
SUBSTANCE: weathered vitrinite brown coals from Baga-Nursk coal field having ash level 36-48% and moisture 20% are ground to granule size 0.5-0.9 mm. Resulting powder us sulfurized for 6-8 h with 98% sulfuric acid at 60-80°С and coal-to-acid weight ratio from 1:3 to 2:3. Sulfurized coal is neutralized and treated with 10-15% sodium hydroxide aqueous solution at weight ratio of alkali solution to initial coal (10-15):1 to form water-soluble sodium sulfohumate, after which water-soluble residual coal is separated by centrifugation. Centrifugate is mixed with 10-15% aqueous hydrochloric acid at volume ratio (10-15):6 to form precipitate, which is allowed to settle into compact form during 40-60 min. After decantation of liquid phase, solid residue is partially dried at 40-60°С until pasty mass is obtained.
EFFECT: increased content of tanning substances in humate-containing compounds and enabled utilization of oxidized brown coal in open-cut production of brown coals.
4 tbl, 5 ex
FIELD: peat industry.
SUBSTANCE: the invention is dealt with peat industry, in particular, with production of nutrient mediums on the basis of peat for growing of seedlings of forest cultures and garden species and bushes with the closed root systems and a non-polluting vegetable production in a glass-covered ground. The method of preparation of the peat substrate provides for clearing of the peat raw material from large remains of wood and other impurities, introduction of a bio-activator, commixing, fermentation, gauging, packing. In the capacity of peat raw material a weakly decomposed high sphagnum peat or a mossy waste are used and in the capacity of the bio-activator they use a nutrient yeast or a compost ferment in amount of 0.9-1.1 kg per 1 m3 of peat with a density of 0.02-0.1 g / cm3. Fermentation is conducted at the temperature of 10-36°C and moistures of 50-60 %, and gauging after fermentation - up to the particle size of no more than 24 mm. The method ensures production of a product of a loose fibrous structure with the optimal hygroscopic properties, optimal concentration of the nutrient substances and a low toxicity.
EFFECT: the invention ensures production of a product with a loose fibrous structure, optimal hygroscopic properties, optimal concentration of the nutrient substances and a low toxicity.
FIELD: plant growing.
SUBSTANCE: invention is intended for use in manufacture of plant growth stimulator and liquid complex organomineral fertilizers from humus-containing substrates comprising living soil microorganisms, in particular from vermicompost (biohumus), zoocompost, other composts, brown coal, peat, and sapropel. Method comprises preliminarily watering of humus-containing substances and subsequent alkali extraction, separation of alkaline extract, and neutralization thereof. According to invention, after preliminary watering of humus-containing substances and stirring, material is subjected to microbiological fermentation for 3-24 h at 20-35°C and continuous aeration increasing biomass of soil microorganisms. Thereafter, suspension is settled to give enriched aqueous extract. Extract is separated from humus-containing substance and added to neutralized alkali extract of humus-containing precipitate. Alkali extraction is effected with 0.02-0.23 N alkali solution at 60-100°C and separated alkali extract is then neutralized to pH 8.0-9.5. Resulting enriched aqueous extract is stirred and settled to produce desired liquid product.
EFFECT: improved quality of product due to increased amount of humin substances, increased proportion of low-molecular fraction thereof, and enlarged biomass of useful soil microorganisms.
6 cl, 2 tbl, 13 ex
FIELD: agriculture, fertilizers.
SUBSTANCE: method for preparing the complex microfertilizer involves stirring humin-containing components with alkali an aqueous solution. Sodium (potassium) hydroxide an aqueous solution is used as alkali. Method involves addition trace elements for plants nutrition to the solution, among them copper sulfate and accessory substances - elements for mineral nutrition, among them zinc sulfate or magnesium sulfate. Method involves additional using manganese sulfate, polyvinyl alcohol as a sticking agent and Trilon B as a chelating agent. Lignin is used as a humin-containing component that is added to alkali solution by portions at constant stirring, brought about to boiling, converted to the state of stable suspension and kept for 50-60 min. Then water is added, brought about to boiling and kept for 20 min followed by mixing the suspension with solution of zinc sulfate, manganese sulfate, ammonium molybdate, copper sulfate, cobalt sulfate, Trilon B in water heated to 50°C. Stirring is carried out for 20 min followed by addition to microfertilizer organic sticking agent as solution of polyvinyl alcohol in water heated preliminary to 70°C being polyvinyl alcohol is kept to the complete dissolving. Prepared microfertilizer comprises polyvinyl alcohol as a sticking agent in 5% solution in the following ratio of components, wt.-%: zinc sulfate, 0.44; copper sulfate, 0.05; cobalt sulfate, 0.02; manganese sulfate, 0.05; ammonium molybdate, 0.04; Trilon B, 1.0; sticking agent, 5.0; humic acids, 93.0. Invention provides enhancing quality of microfertilizer, to reduce cost, to exclude evolving harmful substances to the environment and to increase the yield of the ready product. Invention can be used in manufacturing ecologically pure complex lignin-base microfertilizers.
EFFECT: improved method for preparing, improved and valuable properties of microfertilizer.
3 cl, 3 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the natural catalyst of ecological equilibrium of agrocenosis that comprises the natural activating agent of soil formation prepared by mixing turf, solid alkali and cellulolytic enzyme. Catalyst comprises additionally biologically active mixture of triterpenic acids obtained from coniferous species trees and cellulose-containing substrate in the ratio = 1:0.5:0.5, respectively. Product provides enhancing the productivity of agricultural crops up to 25% by enhancing their resistance against diseases and different unfavorable physical-climatic factors and to reduce ripening time by 15-20 days. Also, the preparation intensifies formation of ecologically pure humus. Invention can be used in manufacturing fertilizers, agents for plants protection and preparations reducing negative results of technogenic effect on the nature.
EFFECT: valuable properties of natural catalyst.
3 cl, 2 ex
FIELD: ecology, agriculture.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to soil ecology, namely, to producing agents based on natural components used for elimination of technogenic pollutions of soils. The biopreparation based on humus substances is prepared by mixing and milling turf, avian dung and alkali with addition of water in disintegrating device. Turf, avian dung, alkali and water are taken in the ratio, mas. p. p. = (15-20):(11-16):(0.3-0.6):(0.3-0.6), respectively. Mixing and milling all components in disintegrating device can be carried out with addition of wood saw-dust taken in the amount 3 mas. p. p. per 1 mas. p. of mixture of other components. The biopreparation elicits the strongest reductive function with respect to heavy metal oxides and can be used for improvement of soil ecology after technogenic emergency and for prophylaxis aims for neutralization of oxides and enhancing the humus content in soils. Invention can be used in carrying out measures for reducing pollution degree and toxicity in forest, agricultural and other soils with recovery of biota.
EFFECT: valuable properties of biopreparation.
2 cl, 3 ex