Method of construction and assembly of wooden houses, buildings, structures made of wooden units, wooden unit for its implementation and building made of wooden unit
SUBSTANCE: crowns are set, walls made of wooden units are mounted and roof is installed in the method of construction and assembly of wooden houses, buildings, structures. Binding is mounted preliminary, the upper and lower rims are connected with vertical racks to form the frame, besides the vertical racks, walls and roof are made from wooden units designed in the form of three boards of the same size, connected in such a manner that they form tenon and groove by length and width. Wooden units of upper and lower rims during the assembly are oriented so that the tenons of wooden units of vertical racks enter into the grooves of wooden units of rims, wall installation is carried out by filling the frame with wooden units, inserting the tenon of each subsequent wooden unit into the groove of the previous wooden unit.
EFFECT: increase of productivity by simplifying the technology of construction and assembly of structure while ensuring high ecological compatibility and comfort of the constructed building.
2 cl, 10 dwg
The present invention relates to the field of construction and can be used in the erection of prefabricated low-rise buildings.
Known wall element for wooden buildings, the method of manufacture and method of erection of wooden buildings with such elements (patent RF №2144113, MPK-7 EV 1/10, publ. 10.01.2000,). The method of construction of buildings on the patent of Russian Federation №2144113 is that made on the Foundation set lower crown, which is mounted outside and inside walls of the wooden blocks, then set the average crown, which is similarly mounted wall next floor, and they fix the upper crown and install the roof.
Wall element for wooden buildings on the patent of Russian Federation №2144113 has several wooden components of equal length, fastened side by side to the transverse elements laths inside wooden components located near their mutually flush trailing edges. The edges of the opposite sides of the wooden elements are made with the cooperating engagement elements, the engagement elements between two adjacent wooden components form a labyrinth seal at least two series-connected cavities. Labyrinth forms a seal against the outer side of the component discharge slit to remove the water, going from p is lost to reduce pressure, which is most closely located to the specified external side.
The disadvantages of drawable and method according to the patent of Russian Federation №2144113 are the complexity of Assembly of the house because of the complexity of the design of wall elements, the necessity of lifting devices for mounting, limited unification of technological operations.
Closest to the present invention is a method of manufacture and Assembly of wooden houses, buildings, structures of devalokam (RF patent for the invention №2400604, IPC EV 1/10, publ. 27.09.2010), including installation on the Foundation of lower crown, which is mounted outside and inside walls of devalokam. On the walls reinforce the upper crown and install the roof.
The disadvantage of this method is the complexity of its manufacture and Assembly, due to the need of using different materials for different parts of the building. For example, the mounting of the lower crown of the building is carried out on the beam, in which the profile of the ridge, similar to the slot of drawable walls. Ie uses a different material - timber, requiring additional processing.
The technical problem solved by the invention is to improve performance by simplifying the technology of manufacture and Assembly of the structure, ensuring high quality and comfort built zda the Oia.
The problem is solved in that in the method of manufacture and Assembly of wooden houses, buildings, structures of devalokam, as in the prototype, set the crowns, wall mount from devalokam, and install the roof. However, unlike the prototype, pre-install the harness, the upper and lower crowns connect the vertical posts to form the frame, with vertical racks, walls and roof are made of devalokam made in the form of three boards of the same size, connected in such a way that in both length and width to form a tongue and groove, dreamlike upper and lower crowns when the Assembly is oriented so that the spikes devalokam vertical rack into the slots of devalokam crowns, wall installation is carried out by filling the frame with drawablebase by inserting the tenon of each subsequent drawable in the groove of the previous drawable.
Installation of all elements of the building from the same devalokam provides easy Assembly by reducing operations and does not require additional processing of building elements. In this case, all elements of the building will be finished with virtually no gaps that will provide high thermal insulation performance without additional insulation, and in some cases will not be required and interior trim. This provides substantially the th increase productivity while ensuring the ecological and quality constructed buildings.
It is reasonable floor and ceiling also be mounted from devalokam by inserting the tenon of each subsequent drawable in the groove of the previous drawable, fixing drawable floor in the frame and each other, and the ceiling on the frame and each other.
This will allow for even greater performance. Moreover, the floor of such design being built at one time, without editing the sub-floor.
The overlap is advisable to use as a ceiling.
The invention is illustrated by illustrations, in which figure 1 presents the framework of the building; figure 2 and figure 3, drawable; figure 4 - building wall in section; figure 5 - floor building in section; figure 6 - connection of a building; 7 - floor building, mounted on the harness; Fig - rafter system classic gable roof; figure 9 is installed on the frame overlap; figure 10 is a General view of the building.
Drawable includes boards 1, 2 and 3, connected together with a shift in such a way that they form a tenon 4 and the groove 5 in length and spike 6 and the groove 7 in width.
The building is made of devalokam wall 8, the overlap 9, floor 10, the roof 11, the harness 12, top 13 and bottom 14 crowns, United serially fitted vertical posts 15. Spikes 4 devalokam uprights 14 are installed in the slots 7 of the top 13 and bottom 14 of the crowns, the walls 8, a floor 10 and a ceiling (not shown) made by C is filled frame drawablebase the same size by inserting the cleat 6 each subsequent drawable in the groove 7 of the previous one.
The proposed method is implemented as follows.
Make drawable in the form of boards 1, 2, 3 equal size, connected together such that the length and width of the form spikes 4, 6 and grooves 5, 7. Used boards are plain sawn wood of various breeds available and common in the production and construction of sizes, with a width of 10-20 cm, thickness 2.5-6 cm, length of 3.6 meters. For example, drawable for racks can be made from boards with a length of 270 cm, wall - 100 cm and/or 150 cm for the floor - 350 cm for ceiling - 400 see the thickness and width of the boards are the same. The Board is easily dried at atmospheric drying in the wind within 1-3 months, which does not significantly affect the increase in the cost of the blanks, and ultimately to the cost of the house, as is the case for the use of industrial dryers, which increases the cost of the final product.
Change the thickness of the lumber affect the change necessary parameters of the house, as the thickness of the walls, floor and other
In such parts of the house, as a gable, roof sheathing and the like, there is no need to apply the same thickness lumber for the main parts of the house, so they can be manufactured from cheaper lumber, for example, from boards.
From devalokam mount harness 12, top 13 and bottom 14 crowns and vertical posts 15. Collect the car the AC building what dreamlike top 13 and bottom 14 of the crowns when the Assembly is oriented so that the spikes 4 devalokam uprights 15 into the slots 7 devalokam rims 13 and 14. Set the frame on the harness 12, which in turn serves as a load bearing beams for the floor 10. Mount of devalokam wall 8 by filling the frame with drawablebase by inserting the tenon 6 each subsequent drawable in the groove 7 of the previous drawable. Then mount the roof 11.
Floor 10 and a ceiling (not shown) also can be mounted by filling the frame with devalokam, as with the installation of the walls 8. This ceiling can serve as the overlap 9.
Separate drawable floor 10, the ceiling and walls 8 are fixed in the frame and with each other. Drawable overlap 9 is fixed between them and the frame.
The proposed system design framework and filling his devalokam provides the use of the most common in the woodworking industry standard lumber.
The connection and bond boards in devaloka and all elements of the building can be performed, for example, by screws. The use of screws will provide a strong construction, and simple and quick Assembly, and, if necessary, dismantling of the house.
All the main parts of the house, harness, frame house, modules, walls and floor slabs, roof truss roof system, perform the descendants of the same on 90% of the thickness and width of the lumber, what determines the adaptability of the production of billets and the construction of the house.
The installation of the floor of devalokam has tangible benefits. Due to the fact that there is no need for additional insulation, and are not used insulation materials such as mineral wool, foam, and the like, the floor more durable, much stronger and more reliable. There is no disease of wooden floors - squeak when you walk. Eliminates the possibility of over time through cracks, reducing the conductivity of the floor over the years. Greater expenditure of lumber than conventional methods, is compensated by the ease of Assembly, and cost almost nothing to increase the cost, and the application of the same blanks as all around the house retains the technological integrity of the production and construction of the house. The same advantages and the overlap of devalokam.
The proposed building you can apply different designs of shed roofs, gable, attic, etc. that are assembled from standardized blanks and conveniently joined to overlap.
All elements of the building frame, walls, floors, slabs and roof truss system made of lumber pre-dried wood. Due to this and frame system eliminates the main drawback of wooden structures - shrinkage, in the period which it is impossible to finishing.
Due to the relative ease of the whole structure for the construction of the building, you can use lightweight types of Foundation. On the one hand, simplifies the construction process and reduces the time of construction, and on the other, significantly reduces the cost of the project. You can use sand and gravel Foundation, as the most simple and cheap.
The structure is assembled from pre-prepared standardized parts of certain sizes, which is essentially the constructor. This fact allows to use when assembling work even with low skills and no work experience in construction. The production process is easy to separate from the editing process, all the elements of the house is easy to fold and delivered to the site of the proposed Assembly.
With the standard design elements and use of common types of timber is achieved a reduction of working operations, as in the manufacture of the elements themselves, and when they are installed.
With such a design of a frame house can easily change the location of the racks, and accordingly can be easily changed location of doors and Windows.
The design provides the possibility of building a house in 1 to 3 floors. Roof covering any possible available roofing materials: slate, metal, Onduline and d In the manufacture of the parts of the house, and the Assembly can be used in almost basically just miter saw and screwdriver.
1. The method of manufacture and Assembly of wooden houses, buildings, structures of devalokam, namely, that set crowns, wall mount from devalokam and install the roof, wherein the pre-set harness, upper and lower crowns connect the vertical posts to form the frame, with vertical racks, walls and roof are made of devalokam made in the form of three boards of the same size, connected in such a way that in both length and width to form a tongue and groove, dreamlike upper and lower crowns when the Assembly is oriented so that the spikes devalokam uprights included in the slots of devalokam crowns, wall installation is carried out by filling the frame with drawablebase by inserting the tenon of each subsequent drawable in the groove of the previous drawable.
2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the mount floor and ceiling of devalokam by inserting the tenon of each subsequent drawable in the groove of the previous drawable, and dreamlike floor attached to the frame and to each other, and the ceiling on the frame and each other.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the construction, in particular the construction of buildings on permafrost, weak and heaving soils, as well as in seismic zones. The building includes ventilated foundations, walls and cover made with the spatial structure of the core and combined into a single closed fully meshed with slatted frame of diagonally-rod type. The building is erected from the core element by element, of plate and beam elements made of wood materials. Elements are assembled into a single collapsible spatial shield-rod structures bolted through a system of prefabricated moulded node elements with bolt holes. A regular shaped nodal element having a hollow core with four plates attached to it along the outer edges of tetrahedral packing, having a shelf and wall units with bolt holes, adjacent walls being docked with a gap in each of which there is a diagonal tip of the rod member.
EFFECT: technical result is to increase fire resistance and corrosion resistance, to increase portability and expanding field of architectural shaping.
19 cl, 29 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect multi-layer walls includes formation of at least one wall from at least two rows of lengthy elements laid onto each other. Each row is formed by means of coupling of lengthy elements at the angle by means of connecting units. At the same time the connecting unit is made in each lengthy element in the form of at least one lock slot, having depth and width equal to the sum of thicknesses of at least two lengthy elements coupled with it and forming a wall layer. At least one coupled lengthy element is installed with a lock slot upwards, where at least two lengthy elements are laid as coupled with it, from which at least one is laid by the lock slot downwards, and the other one is laid with the lock slot upwards.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of wall erection process and reduced time for their erection.
12 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in a wooden building the elements perceiving load are attached to inner side surfaces, limited with structural elements of the building, comprising stands, ties and horizontal elements so that to make it possible to close the front surface of the bearing wall panel on the outer side with front surfaces of structural elements on the outer side and front surface of the adjacent non-bearing wall on the outer side.
EFFECT: improved earthquake stability of a building.
7 cl, 26 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: match-boarding in mating parts is executed by sawing. Half timber and cant are also sawn at log angle joints. Identical sections are made at all joints. In machining, size between dap top and bottom is varied over log length. Peeling is performed in the last turn. Timber falloff is compensated in assembling log house: butt-top, top-butt.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and yield of industrial wood, reduced costs.
5 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of panels fixation includes arrangement of panels on a surface and their fixation. Fixation of panels with rabbets on the upper and lower sides is carried out bottom-up by application of an adhesive compound onto a surface, where panels are fixed. At first the lower panel is fixed with simultaneous fixation on its upper rabbet of at least two connection elements mounted as protruding beyond the rabbet. The upper panel is installed above the lower panel, pressed to the wall with an adhesive compound and displaced downwards to close rabbets and entrance of protruding parts of connection elements into an upper panel body. Afterwards the upper side along the rabbet is fixed with simultaneous fixation of connection elements for the next upper panel.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify the technology of panels fixation, having increased its reliability and tightness at the same time.
7 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: wooden precast element comprises at least two longitudinal parts joined to each other by embedded joints, and such parts are arranged in parallel at the specified distance from each other. Embedded links are discretely installed along the length of the precast element in oppositely arranged slots of a rectangular cross section, besides, each slot is cut in the middle part of the longitudinal part and is arranged as continuous along its entire length; fibres of the longitudinal part are aligned along the longitudinal axis of the precast unit, and fibres of embedded links are perpendicular to the direction of vertical fibres of the longitudinal part.
EFFECT: increased stiffness of a wooden element and a cladding structure assembled from specified elements.
19 cl, 8 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of building construction includes the following: preparation of a foundation and attachment of multiple panels to it. Each panel at least partially forms a building wall. The stage of panel attachment to the foundation includes the preliminary stage of attachment at angle sections of the angular panels connection, having at least two parts installed at the angle to each other and attached to each other at one edge. The method also includes the stage of applying marks onto the foundation, which comply with the walls position. Besides, along the marks to the foundation connection elements are attached, so that they are spaced relative to each other by the specified distance.
EFFECT: higher resistance of building panels during their assembly.
8 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: on an upper rib and a coupled end side of a wooden building element there are jointing accessories in the form of two longitudinal combs, and two longitudinal slots are arranged on a lower rib and a coupled end side. End sides of the building element are arranged in the form of wave-bent matched surfaces with inclined upper and lower sections, where bent surfaces are arranged as reversely symmetrical relative to the longitudinal axis of the element. A building wall is erected on a foundation using a wooden building element, end sides of which are coupled with other building elements in walling by imposition of matching wave-bent surfaces one onto the other, combs and slots of which are joined into locks.
EFFECT: higher strength of a wall structure.
22 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: laminate structure includes outer long lamels, which are connected to each other by means of three short inner lamels of the same thickness and width. Length of extreme inner lamels makes 1/6 of outer lamels width, and the middle inner lamel located in the middle of the structure has the length equal to 2/6 of the length of outer lamels. All inner lamels are displaced relative to outer lamels in vertical plane by value equal to S width, and all elements of structure are connected between each other by means of dowel and laminate joint.
EFFECT: better use of low-quality wood and simplified design.
SUBSTANCE: method for manufacturing of wooden houses consists in the fact that in addition to laying of board layers into massif of panel and crosswise arrangement of boards in neighbouring layers, required external contour of finished element of massive wall is formed at the stage of layers arrangement and fixation with account of roof bevels, as well as required contours of internal openings for windows and doors. Contours for windows and doors are arranged as required relative to external contour of wall element, and then layers are laid into space between external contour of element and contours of windows and doors.
EFFECT: reduced material and labour inputs in manufacturing of houses.
FIELD: building, particularly to construct structures including wooden elements.
SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling holes in timbers, logs and other lumber; piercing timbers, logs and other lumber with transversal ties and tensioning thereof with nuts secured to ties; offsetting timbers, logs and other lumber in groups including two or more timbers, logs and other lumber relative previous ones during building erection so that extensions and depressions are formed in walls; applying glue between timbers, logs and other lumber; installing longitudinal ties in slots and connecting ends of each longitudinal tie not terminating at wall ends with one transversal tie; mounting walls on foundation; connecting all walls, intermediate walls and partitions; packing all joints along with mating extensions of one wall with depressions of another one; pressing all building components together with the use of ties and nuts; passing transversal ties through extensions of walls to be connected; tightening all joints by nuts through resilient members with force application thereto and securing floor, ceiling and roof panels to corbels having orifices for ties receiving. Above panels have vertical holes for ties insertion. Floor and corbel are supported by timbers or logs or other lumber. Walls are connected to foundation, floor, ceiling or roof through resilient members by transversal ties or nuts adapted to move in slots due to wood shrinking or becoming wet.
EFFECT: increased tightness of building joints, strength, reliability, service life, improved ecological safety, quality of building finishing, enhanced appearance, reduced time and cost of building erection.
5 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly timber structures.
SUBSTANCE: timber member includes balks with horizontal and vertical bores, liquid distribution pipe and electric slider. Bores are communicated in vertical and horizontal directions. The main bore extends through the full member length and has closed ends. Vertical bores have opened ends.
EFFECT: increased fire resistance and load-bearing capacity.
FIELD: timber building structures, particularly adapted to erect individual houses, namely in severe Siberian climate with taking into consideration family formation traditions of residential population.
SUBSTANCE: wall comprises inner and outer panels. Each panel is composed of several horizontal elongated timber members laid one upon another and fastened one to another. Inserted between inner and outer panels is heat-insulation material. The panels may be formed of poles and fastened in transversal direction by partitions. The partitions are made of pole cuts. The heat-insulation material is mixture of saw dust with slag or with ashes mixed with limewater.
EFFECT: reduced cost of house erected without the use of special building technique and decreased labor power industrial intake, possibility to use in-site building materials and industrial wood residue, improved ecological safety.
5 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly erection of wooden houses in areas characterized by strong winds.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises steel pre-stressed frame control rods adapted for structure tightening to base by anchoring lower control rod ends in foundation and by connecting upper ends thereof to structure top. The control rods are provided with spring-loaded clutches, which create and regulate tightening force applied to control rods. The control rods are formed of chains, which provide control rod length change for value equal to chain length. Upper control rod ends are connected to upper parts of roof timbers connected to log house. Spring-loaded clutch formed of steel pipe is provided with manual regulation lever, orifice for above lever installation and disc spring set.
EFFECT: prevention of stability losses and separation of joints between log house timber sets under the action of strong wind and as a result of natural log house shrinkage.
2 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect buildings of elongated timber members.
SUBSTANCE: building wall includes profiled beams laid one on another and provided with dovetail spikes formed on beam surfaces. The beams create inner and outer vertical wall rows. Opposite beams of each row are mutually displaced in vertical plane and interlocked with each other by means of spikes created along inner joining surfaces thereof so that elongated labyrinth joint is formed. The labyrinth joint provides good thermal insulation of the wall.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics due to wind-resistant joints creation without the use of heating materials, reduced source material costs due to usage of building structure, which provides necessary thickness of wall formed of thin beams, as well as reduced costs of beam production and mounting due to reduced beam weight.
5 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly building structure members.
SUBSTANCE: building comprises outer walls, inner walls, floor panels and roof panels including wooden panel members, namely outer and inner ones. The inner and outer wooden panel members are secured in spaced apart relation by spacing members. The wooden panel members are solid in at least one direction. The wooden panel members have predetermined dimensions and predetermined edge profiles. Cavities are defined between inner and outer panel members. Arranged in the cavities are fittings to be connected to heating or cooling systems. Cavities defined in outer wall panels, inner wall panel members, floor panels and/or roof panels communicate with each other through orifices formed in connection area between floor panel and outer wall in floor panel edge area. The orifices connect cavities in floor panel with that of outer wall. Above communication between cavities is also provided by means of orifices located in cave area between outer wall and roof in one roof panel. Above orifices connect cavities of outer wall with that of roof panels.
EFFECT: possibility to create building having arbitrary room location of wooden panel members.
24 cl, 41 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly wooden structures of profiled beams.
SUBSTANCE: wooden building comprises double-length beam of square cross-section. The beam comprises installation slots formed in each beam side and mating member, which provides connection of the same beam lengths to previous one. The mating member is formed as board with support projections on one board side. The projections define trapezes in cross-sections, which provide plane and inclined surfaces alternating during serial beam stacking. Mating member having greater length is laid on beam with lesser length and corresponding beam width having corner and other connections. Next beam is laid on mating member having the same length.
EFFECT: increased reliability of beam tightness and junction with each other in corner and other connection areas without transversal member forming at beam ends.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the sphere of construction technologies and immediately deals with glued wooden structures. The suggested method of pre-tension of glued wooden packages in the across-grain direction presupposes their compression with the help of steel rods. The element of novelty consists in applying to the wooden package being forced together a pressure of 0.5 MPa with the help of steel rods gummed down inside the pre-drilled holes arranged along the whole of the package length (the spacing being equal to 300-500 mm.). The length of the rods is equal to the package width with due allowance for its eventual reduction after application of force-together pressure.
EFFECT: minimisation of material and labour expenditures related to pre-tension of glued wooden packages in the across-grain direction without distortion of their overall dimensions.
SUBSTANCE: individual wooden steam bath includes washing and steaming rooms, recreation room, furnace, which are installed on foundations, has heat insulating screen and partitions, doors, windows and ceilings performed with increased heat resistance. Besides, it is equipped with sewage floor drain under washing room, provided with drain tube that supplies to external drain tank, and vertical heat insulating wall arranged under partition in the zone between recreation room on the one side and washing and steaming rooms on the other side. Heat insulating screen is made as 0.2-0.3 m thick and is installed under washing and steaming rooms as wall lying on foundation. At that inside in zone of washing and steaming rooms, base part of foundation of external walls is equipped with heat insulating walls.
EFFECT: improvement of thermal shielding and preservation of temperature-moisture mode inside the device.
5 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: construction industry.
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to construction industry, and namely to timber constructions erection methods. Construction is made from machined wooden planks which are put one onto the other along the whole construction's perimeter. Required construction height is reached step by step. In this case planks of the subsequent row overlap the joints of preceding row at interface points. Adhesive coat is applied to each row of planks. Erected construction is held under pressure until adhesive coat is cured.
EFFECT: manufacturing of solid wooden block construction under workshop conditions and providing its strength.