Method of determining water medium toxicity
SUBSTANCE: invention can be applied for bioindication and biotesting of polluted waters and separate pollutants and can be applied as an additional method to biotests of obligatory application in determination of water quality, in which (representative) dominant species is sponge (Spongia). A method includes placement of a sponge cell suspension into a tested solution, standing for a day with the following calculation of bubble-shaped cells under a microscope, a conclusion about toxicity is made by reliable increase of the bubble-shaped cells in the tested solution in comparison with the control one.
EFFECT: considerable increase of sensitivity of the method with the minimal terms of the experiment performance.
2 ex, 1 dwg
The present invention relates to aquatic toxicology and can be used for bioindication and biotesting of polluted water and individual pollutants and can be used as an additional method to biotests mandatory application in the determination of water quality, in which (representative) dominant species is Spongia.
When conducting toxicometric pollutants at the present time, it is recommended to use not only the required biotests included in the Federal register, but the tests developed as an additional, representative for the studied pond organisms. Especially it concerns the protection of the waters of this unique lake Baikal. Freshwater Baikal sponges (Lubomirskiidae) - endemic organisms that predominate in biomass among littoral benthic animals, little studied in terms of ecotoxicology.
Known methods for determining toxicity using benthic organisms, unable to move and get away from the zone of contamination, in particular sponges.
There is a method of assessing the toxicity of aquatic environments / Auth. St. USSR №1730581, G01N 33/18, AK 61, 1992/, based on the immobilization of larvae Baikal sponges Other bacillifera in a toxic environment.
The method is quite sensitive, but it has the disadvantage of limiting the period of study because the reproduction of larvae occurs only twice a year.
There is a method of determining the toxicity of water repulsion clouds of dye water, throw away sponge from the region / Patent RF №2003096 G01N 33/18, AK 61/00 from 15.11.93 1993/. Preliminary animal exhibit in the test solutions in aquariums, then, using a micropipette, at a distance of 3-5 cm from the animal's body make the dye solution in harmless concentrations, such as fluorescein. In case of unsatisfactory physiological state of the cloud slowly dropping the sponge in the control aquaria sharp repulsion cloud fluoresceine a stream of water from the region.
The reaction is insensitive, not reproducible, and requires the use of a large number of intact specimens of animals, but convenient when monitoring their status directly in native conditions, which is carried out by scuba divers using a syringe.
There is a method of biotesting toxicity aquatic environment / Patent RF №2462707, G01N 33/18, AK 61/00, 2012 / as the test object using the rotifer where environmentally corresponds to the mineral composition of the water environment. To determine the degree of toxicity of the water environment having a series of dilutions of a measured sample of water taken from the background net area of the water body. The degree of toxicity of the water among the s is estimated by the degree of dilution with clean water to remove abortions, moreover, the dilution of the sample to 1:1 analyzed water refers to non-toxic; up to 1:25 to slightly toxic; up to 1:50 - moderately toxic; up to 1:100 to strategiczny; up to 1:500 and more - very toxic.
Known biological method of determining the degree of General toxicity and key toxicants in water protection /Patent RF №2110067, G01N 33/18, AK 61/00, 1998/ as test organisms once individuals use laboratory culture of the test organisms grown by inbreeding organisms at a constant regime on artificial pure reference water and feed. Determine and compare resulting in the set of solutions of model toxicants artificial pure reference water and test the water environment spectra behavioral responses of test organisms, their locomotor activity.
The known method with the use of active dyes to determine the physiological state of the animal, based on the property proteonomix dyes to form a strong covalent bond with the substance of the sponge skeleton /Patent RF №2003097 G01N 33/18, AK 61/00, 15.11.93/. The degree of staining of the skeleton can be judged on the trophic activity of the animal, and you can use only a portion of the sponge body. Experimental and control of the aquatic environment is placed benthic sponges, able to record a physiologically the cue parameter sponges and judge the toxicity of the investigated medium on the obtained experimental data in comparison with the control, and additionally in the experimental and control environment contribute procianoy dye. Keeping sponges in environments should be performed within 8 hours, then cook the sliced sprouts sponges, and as a physiological parameter register the presence or absence of coloration of the body sponges, to include toxic experienced the environment in the absence of color on the cut bone sponge, containing in the experimental environment.
When using expensive dye sensitivity is not high enough.
The closest analogue is the method of bioindication of wastewater toxicity /A. St. No. 1578650 from G01N 33/18, AK 61/00 .1988,/. The sponge has a unique ability to regenerate from dissociated cells of the animal, forming a conglomerate of various forms. This property underlies the method of biotesting. The toxicity criterion is the absence of an Assembly of cells in the conglomerates in the test solutions.
The test is simple, rapid (Assembly time 1 day), allows the use of a small portion of an animal body, but is not sensitive enough.
Object of the present invention is to provide a method that improves its sensitivity with minimum terms of the experiment.
This object is achieved in that in the method of biotesting of water using a test OS is consistent on the reaction cell suspension sponge, including the location of the suspension in the test solution, keeping within a certain time, followed by bubble-counting cells under a microscope, on the toxicity judged by a significant increase of cells in the test solution in comparison with the control.
The method is as follows.
In Petri dishes with 20 ml of Baikal water or solution of toxicant add 1 ml of the cell suspension sponge and placed in a cooling chamber with a temperature of 8°C. the next day the resulting conglomerates with dispenser add 5 ál of the cell suspension are placed on a glass slide and counted under a microscope at magnification 20×18 number of bubble cells (diameter of about 16 microns) in the Goryayev camera or the field of view. In the control, usually 3-10 cells in field of view.
Investigated the toxicity of para-Besnainou, pollutant, formed by the oxidation of diphenols contained in the waste waters of the Baikal pulp and paper plant and the decay of lignin - waste production BPPM. Figure 1 shows the dependence of the number of bubble cells on the concentration of para-benzoquinone and mercury chloride (II).
Figure 1 shows that the test solution at a concentration of 10-1-10-4mol/l has acute toxicity and suspension cells of the sponge does not have time to react to it is ricotta release of bubble cells and dies, as evidenced by the absence of the conglomerates of the assembled cells.
If the listed test analogs are toxic concentrations of para-benzoquinone 10-5-10-6mol/l, the test for the emergence of the bubble cells 10-10mol/L.
The obtained cell suspension sponges incubated in solutions of HgCl2through the day in each sample calculate the number of bubble cells under a microscope.
Figure 1 shows that concentrations of 10-1-10-6. mol/l disastrous for the suspension and the cells are not formed.
When using the closest analogs non-toxic for sponges can be considered as the concentration of HgCl2up to 10-7mol/l, whereas the test of occurrence of bubble cells such is the concentration of 10-12mol/l, which indicates its high sensitivity in comparison with analogues.
Effect : a significant increase in sensitivity with a minimum period of the experiment.
The method of determining the toxicity of the aquatic environment using a test based on the reaction of a suspension of cells of sponges, including the location of the suspension in the test solution, keeping during the day with the subsequent bubble-counting cells under a microscope, characterized in that on the toxicity judged by a significant increase of cells in the studied solution p is compared with the control.
SUBSTANCE: filler used is chromogenic ion-exchange dispersed silica with covalently grafted hydrazones or formazans.
EFFECT: high sensitivity and selectivity of detecting metals.
3 tbl, 4 dwg, 14 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises placing the fluorescent test-objects in the control and analyzed samples, irradiation with the excitation light, definition of fluorescence characteristics, by which change the toxicity of the controlled environment is assessed. Microalgae of species Scenedesmus apiculatus are used as test-objects, which are previously isolated from environmentally safe areas of the test water reservoirs.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method enables to assess quickly and accurately the toxicity of water and bottom sediments of the Azov and Black Seas.
6 tbl, 4 ex
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology. The method of assessment of environmental safety of coastal marine benthic ecosystems is to study morphological and functional characteristics of the mass mussels, while as a parameter of safety the morphofunctional characteristics of Hamels are used: the ATP content in hemocytes is measured, as well as the hemocyte concentration in the hemolymph, the level of histopathology defined as the percentage of animals with histopathology, and the level of pollution is judged by the change in these parameters in comparison with the same parameters in Hamels living in optimal living environment, at that, the smaller the concentration of ATP and hemocytes and the greater the level of histopathology is, the less favourable situation is observed in the marine benthic ecosystem.
EFFECT: invention provides an extension of range of technical means for assessment of the environmental safety of coastal benthic ecosystems, using morphological and functional characteristics of Hamels.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to determination of toxicity and can be used extensively in analysis when determining toxicity of different liquid media without using expensive and laborious analysis methods. More specifically, the group of inventions relates to aqueous toxicology and determination of toxicity of aqueous media and samples. Disclosed is a kit for determining toxicity of a liquid medium in the absence of a biological object test function units of at least one biological effect, comprising: a set of cross-sensitive sensors for obtaining signals proportional to physico-chemical parameters of said liquid medium, wherein at least one sensor from said plurality has a polymer membrane containing as an active component a compound selected from a group comprising tetradodecylammonium bromide (TDAB), trioctylmethylammonium (TOMA) chloride, oleic acid, 1-hexadecanol, gallic acid, phosphoric ester, dipicolinic acid diamide (2,6-pyridine carboxylic), phosphine oxide, metalloporphyrin, calixarene; and a calibration model which establishes a relationship between values said signals in the absence of a biological object and toxicity, obtained on samples of the liquid medium using the biological object. Also described is a multi-sensor, a method of calibrating the multi-sensor and a method for qualitative and quantitative determination of toxicity of liquid samples.
EFFECT: faster, easier and cheaper analysis.
24 cl, 4 ex, 7 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of ecology and hydrobiology and is designed to assess the trophic status of ecosystems of mineralised lakes. In assessing the trophic status of the lake ecosystem with water mineralisation over 3 g/dm3 according to the level of development of aquatic communities the negative effect of mineralisation level is taken into account by calculating the amount of lost biomass using the obtained empirical dependence and its approximation in the form of a power function of the form:
where B' is the estimated biomass, X is water mineralisation, and k1 and k2 are empirical coefficients.
where Bp is potentially lost biomass with increasing mineralisation, B'' is estimated biomass with mineralisation of 3 g/dm3. From equations (1) and (2) the potential biomass is determined that would be in the absence of inhibitory effect of mineralisation as follows:
where Bm is potential biomass in the absence of inhibitory effect of mineralisation, Bav is average biomass in the foreshore of the water reservoir.
EFFECT: invention enables to estimate the real trophic status of lake ecosystems under the influence of natural and anthropogenic factors and to predict the biomass of aquatic communities when change in the water mineralisation of lakes.
1 dwg, 1 ex
FIELD: instrument making.
SUBSTANCE: invention is designed for continuous measurement of biochemical oxygen consumption (BOC), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and speed of biochemical oxygen consumption in water medium (k1). Essentially a new method is proposed, as well as a device making it possible to continuously measure at the same time BOC, BOD and k1 both in running water (river, waste water header, etc.), and in a water reservoir. The method for continuous measurement of specified indices is characterised by the fact that a continuous flow of water taken for analysis is organised from a water object into a pipeline, besides, the speed of water flow in the pipeline is selected so that within the required period of time T (where T - duration of biochemical consumption) water passes the distance between two adjacent transits of the pipeline, where sensors are installed for continuous measurement of concentration of dissolved oxygen in running water. The device for realisation of this method consists in a water-intake module and a pipeline with non-transparent walls, on which in transits there are sensors of continuous measurement of concentration of dissolved oxygen, making it possible to keep monitoring of simultaneously three specified indices of water quality.
EFFECT: device improvement.
SUBSTANCE: group of inventions relates to systems and means for control of safety of using objects of industrial and household purpose. System for control of water discharges contains multiple objects, connected with discharge pipeline with water purifiers, each of which is located on the object territory and is connected with main pipeline. Output of each discharge pipeline is located in drain well, in which analyser of maximum allowable concentration of drain water pollutants contacting with drain water is placed on its input. Robot sampler for sampling drain water, supplied into drain well, is fixed in the wall of each drain well. Robot contacts with supplied into well drain water periodically by command, obtained from it from central control unit of control system. Drain well is located beyond the limits of object territory, is covered with hermetic lid with lock, excluding unauthorised access to well. Water analyser, robot-sampler and water-distributor, connected with discharge pipeline, are located in well. Analyser and robot-sampler are connected with electromagnetic or electric bonds to each other and with unit of system control, equipped with GSM module. Robot-sampler contains hermetic case, in which reservoir for reception of drain water is placed, under reservoir in case installed in membrane, fixed on upper end of rod with possibility of its travel together with rod in vertical direction. Lower end of rod is by means of hinge connected with upper end of bar, lower end of which is by means of hinge connected with handle, with rotary cams being installed in places of hinge joint of bar with rod and handle. Water intake flexible silicone tube, upper end of which is connected with reservoir cavity, and lower end is located below lower end of handle, is fixed to bar and handle. Vacuum pipe for supply of drain water in reservoir cavity is installed in case under membrane, pump is connected to accumulator by means of electric bond via unit of robot control. Accumulator is electrically connected with control unit, and accumulator and control unit are located in case plane under membrane and electrically connected to each other. Unit of robot-sampler control is equipped with controller with GSM module, and case id provided with rod fixer.
EFFECT: provision of environmental safety of water drainages by increase of their control efficiency.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of biotechnology and may be used to determine level of toxicants in water, food or physiological liquids. The method is carried out by performance of enzyme immunoassay in a column of a test system, and this enzyme immunoassay includes placement of a carrier with inoculated anti-species antibodies in the column, treatment of the carrier with a blocking solution, immobilisation of specific antibodies on the carrier, introduction of tested samples, treatment of the carrier with a conjugate-containing solution and analysis of the treated carrier. The carrier is an activated porous substrate with inoculated anti-species antibodies, and the conjugate-containing solution - the solution of conjugate of antigen - toxicant, chemically linked to luminescent quantum points or with liposomes containing luminescent quantum points. The level of toxicants is determined by intensity of luminescence excited in quantum points during illumination of the treated carrier by exciting radiation. The test system for this method includes a column, which is equipped with a device to measure the level of luminescence including a source of exciting radiation and a photodetector. In front of the photodetector there is additionally a focusing optical system, and the output of the photodetector is electrically connected via a signal amplifier and an analog-digital converter to a controller, to the outlet of which an indication unit and a source of exciting radiation are connected.
EFFECT: invention increases efficiency and validity of determination.
4 cl, 3 ex, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: test plant is chosen, uniform seeds of test plant placement is carried out on the filter paper in the control and test Petri dish of 10 cm in diameter. Then 5.0 ml of water is poured in each control and the test Petri dish with 4-8 replicates of watering, at that the level of liquid in the dishes must be below the surface of the seeds. At that in the control Petri dish the water sample with a zero concentration of crude oil is taken, and in the test dishes before watering the water emulsions of test crude oil with different concentrations are prepared. Then the seeds of test plant in Petri dishes are watered with prepared water emulsions with the specified concentration of crude oil for 72 hours, and the concentration of crude oil in different water emulsions is increased until the moment of measurement of root length when the germination of round red radish is not less than 50 %.
EFFECT: assessment of dangerous levels of contamination of water objects with crude oil, by means of improving the accuracy of indices of effects of crude oil of different volume concentration in the aqueous solution on the root growth of plants in a particular area.
3 cl, 12 dwg, 3 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: hydro-biological indicators - Pantle-Buck saprobity index in modification of Sladechek is measured. At the same time the hydro-chemical parameters - the pH factor, chemical oxygen demand, dissolved oxygen level and electroconductibility are measured. The composite index is calculated by the formulas. The obtained value of the composite index is compared to the data of table 1 and according to the results the ecological state of the water reservoir is determined.
EFFECT: invention enables to accelerate the determining of the ecological state of the water reservoir by hydrochemical and hydrobiological indicators.
2 tbl, 1 ex
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises: sampling, acidifying samples with HCl/H2SO4 mixture, adding Ce(SO4)2 as oxidant and removing its excess with reducing agent NH2OH·HCl, adding rhodamine C as organic reagent, extracting resulting complex, separating organic phase from aqueous phase, and measuring optical density. Extraction is performed with carbon tetrachloride/methyl isobutyl ketone mixture at 5:1 volume ratio and extractant-to-sample volume ratio 1:1 under dynamic conditions by way of washing away complex with extractant. Content of antimony is judged of from difference of optical densities of extractant and mixture.
EFFECT: lowered measurement threshold to values comparable with allowable limits, increased reliability, reduced analysis time, and automated analytical procedure.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 3 tbl, 3 ex
FIELD: environmental monitoring.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hygiene and sanitary of freshwater reservoirs and is meant to be used for microbiological testing of condition of water source in an agricultural enterprise effluent zone, in particular in the effluent zone of poultry factories and pig-breeding farms. For this aim, water is sampled at least in two zones: in the effluent zone of agricultural enterprise and in the zone, where influence of agricultural enterprise effluent over different periods is excluded. Then, contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities of urease-carbamidamidohydrolase in samples are measured. Obtained data are processed: contents of ammonia compounds and enzymatic activities in different samples are compared to each other and dynamic of changes in data in samples taken from different zones are compared.
EFFECT: enabled quick testing at high accuracy in estimations and minimized labor and means involved.
FIELD: toxicology, in particular determination of water flea sensibility to toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals.
SUBSTANCE: claimed method includes detection of water flea death time (min) caused by water-soluble chemicals, wherein concentration (C, mol/l) of chemical under consideration fluctuates according to logarithmic scale with interval of 0.1. Plot of Y versus X is made, wherein Y-axis represents average death time with scale of 1 point = 1 min; X-axis represents reverse concentration (1/C) of chemical under consideration; and scale is proportional to log increasing by 0.1. Water flea sensibility to toxic effect (tgα) is calculated according to equation: tgα = TL(min):1/KL = TL(min)xKl (I), wherein α is inclination of straight line to X-axis; TL(min) is death time (min) being determined according to point of hypothetical crosspoint of straight line with Y-axis; KL is lethality constant (mol/l) defined as chemical concentration wherein water flea death time is equal to 2TL(min).
EFFECT: Method allowing evaluation of toxic effect evolution dynamics and comparison of toxic effect of water-soluble chemicals in equal concentration ranges.
2 tbl, 1 ex, 1 dwg
FIELD: analytical methods in industrial sanitation.
SUBSTANCE: method envisages bringing solution to be analyzed into contact with potassium bichromate, sulfuric acid, and mercuric sulfate, ageing resulting mixture and allowing it to cool to ambient temperature, adding ferroin indicator, titration of excess of potassium bichromate with 0.125 n. Moor salt solution, and calculating chemical oxygen demand value from amount of Moor salt consumed in the titration. Method is characterized by that initial solution is preliminarily homogenized until diameter of suspended particles therein become as large as 0.03 mm, after which solution is allowed to stay for 4 min.
EFFECT: reduced determination inaccuracy.
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns estimation of environmental pollution using bioassay methods. In particular, method is accomplished through bioindication of controlled area using, as bioindicators, internals (muscles, kidneys, liver) of wild hoofed animals (elk, dear, wild boar). One determines content of heavy metals in these organs placed within an area, compares thus obtained data with maximum permissible concentrations of heavy metals in foods, and estimates heavy metal pollution level of the area from resulted difference. Existence of long-term pollution of a region is judged of from excess concentration of heavy metals in wild hoofed animal kidneys and existence of single release of mercury and lead from that in muscles and liver.
EFFECT: enabled multiple estimation of considerable areas at reduced effort.
2 cl, 3 tbl
FIELD: analytical methods in environmental protection and toxicology.
SUBSTANCE: subject of invention is drinking, natural, and waste water quality monitoring. Toxicity of aqueous medium is determined from variation in activity of animal brain plasma membrane Mg2+-ATPase activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions. In one embodiment of invention, toxicity of aqueous medium is determined by mixing above plasma membranes with test aqueous medium adjusted to physiologic pH with phosphorus-free buffer followed by addition of solution containing Tris-ATP and magnesium ion source as well as chloride and/or bicarbonate ion(s) source, incubation until inorganic phosphorus is formed, and determination of toxicity from concentration of inorganic phosphorus. Brain plasma membranes used as indicator contain Mg2+-ATPase capable of being activated by chlorine and/or bicarbonate ions.
EFFECT: extended functional possibilities of method and use of reagent, increased sensitivity, and enabled determination of toxicity at lower concentration of various-type toxicants.
20 cl, 6 tbl
FIELD: environmental protection.
SUBSTANCE: invention concerns evaluation of pollution of areas with pesticides involving bioassay techniques. To that end, area under control is subjected to bioindication using wild hoofed animals (mainly elks, deer, wild boars) as bioindicators. Within specified period of time, animal internals are sampled, pesticide content therein is determined, and thus obtained results are compared with maximum permissible pesticide levels for food products. Comparison data are used to estimate quality of media.
EFFECT: increased representativeness of monitoring results, enabled evaluation of a vast region or local area or local agrocenosis at lower effort.
2 cl, 2 tbl
FIELD: chemistry, water quality control, method for quantitative estimation of organic substance properties in aqueous solutions.
SUBSTANCE: indicator plate is immersed in aqueous solution and according to alteration of aqueous solution composition chemical activity of organic substances in this solution is determined. In clamed method tree vessels are used. Two vessels contain aqueous solution to be tested and the third vessel contains control aqueous solution free from organic contamination. In aqueous solutions containing in the second and third vessels indicator plates are immersed, then aqueous solutions in all vessels are heated up to 95-105°C, held at this temperature for 55-65 min, cooled to 15-25°C, filtered though membrane filter with pore size of 0.46 mum, then iron content is measured in all vessels and chemical activity of organic substances in aqueous solutions is calculated according to equation ka=ΔFe/Fe1, wherein ΔFe = Fe2- Fe1- Fe3; Fe1 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the first vessel; Fe2 is iron content in the tested aqueous solution of the second vessel; and Fe3 is iron content in the aqueous solution of the third vessel.
EFFECT: simplified method with enhanced functionality.
3 ex, 4 tbl
FIELD: ecological engineering, particularly river monitoring with taking into consideration river pollution with sewage water within the limits of cities and other inhabited localities.
SUBSTANCE: method involves choosing river observation points relative single pollution source or pollution source array; aligning one observation point with single pollution cross-section or pollution cross-section array; taking water samples; conservation the samples and preparing thereof for following analysis; cultivating test-organism, namely one-celled green algae - Chlorella vulgaris, inside cultivator at temperature of 36±0.5°; measuring optical density thereof in red light; analyzing and estimating the measurement results. The observation points are transversal to river and set in front of single sewage pollution source or sewage pollution source array, in center of each source and behind them. All three observation points are located within the limits of a city or other inhabited locality. The optical density is measured before and after one-celled green algae cultivation in water samples. After measurement termination overall river water pollution index is determined.
EFFECT: possibility to compare overall river water pollution index obtained in particular observation point with that obtained from pollution source on river bank; extended functional capabilities and extended range of application.
5 cl, 4 tbl
SUBSTANCE: the present innovation deals with testing biological activity of water, preliminary treatment of water, division into control and tested portions, ionization of tested portion with silver ions, detection of the quantity of sprouted wheat grains per time unit pre-impregnated in both mentioned portions and calculation of relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water according to the following ratio: where d - relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water, %; Ntested - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in tested portion of water, pcs.; Ncontrol - the quantity of sprouted grains per time unit in control portion of water, pcs. Moreover, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being above 0 means increased biological activity of water, relative alteration for the value of biological activity of water being below 0 means its decrease, and equation of the mentioned relative alteration to 0 means intact nature of biological activity of water being different by the fact that pre-treatment of water should be carried out due to precipitation for 23-24 h at 23-26 C.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of investigation.