Method of production of compost

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture for recycling livestock, poultry wastes and other paste-like materials. The method of production of compost comprises laying manure, droppings to the fermenter followed by injection of air oxygen into it. The initial weight with the native humidity of 76-78% is placed into the fermenter without preliminary preparing and mixing on the layer of organic carbonaceous component of fermentation in an amount providing C:N=25:1, or without this component, if the mass of manure, droppings due to the presence of food residues and litter contain above ratio C:N. The organic carbonaceous component of fermentation is used as straw, peat, sawdust, crushed plant residues.

EFFECT: method enables to reduce consumption of water-absorbing organic components in the process of aerobic fermentation.

 

The invention relates to agriculture for recycling livestock, poultry and other soft materials.

Currently, under aerobic fermentation for the preparation of the aerobic mixture before placing it in the fermenter and add manure (litter) water-absorbing organic component. This component performs a dual role: first, it reduces excess moisture, to give a mixture of the properties of porosity; secondly, balance mixing ratio of carbon to nitrogen (C:N). The natural moisture content of manure (litter) 76-78%, and paste-consistency does not contain pores for doing aerobic process. By reducing the humidity to 65% by adding, for example, sawdust, straw, etc. in the mixture formed air cells are required for aerobic fermentation. With the increase of moisture content of manure (litter), the amount of organic component comes to uneconomical sizes (up to 1 tonne of peat (straw, sawdust) per 1 ton of manure (litter). This completely ignored the desired C:N ratio for correct aerobic process.

Execute calculation.

Currently, due to high moisture content of the manure and litter due to the added technical water the calculation of the mixture of manure (litter) and water-absorbing carbonaceous components is carried out by varying one parameter is humidity. If e is ω the second component is added in excess and the need to clarify the ratio of C:N no.

The formula for calculating the composition of the mixture is given in recommendations (1)

where:

Wt, W, W respectively humidity sawdust manure and mixtures;

Article - the weight of water-absorbing component; (sawdust);

SN - weight of manure (litter).

The composition of the mixture will be calculated by the formula 1:

Per 1 ton of manure humidity 76% want add 0.2 tons of sawdust with a moisture content of 10%to obtain a mixture of humidity 65%. When the initial moisture content of manure 78% 'll need to add 0,232 tonnes of sawdust.

Let's solve the problem another way.

Given: manure with a moisture content W=76...78% and the ratio of C:N=16...18; carbonaceous component sawdust Wo=10% and the ratio of C:N=100:1. The mixture of manure with sawdust ratio C:N=25:1.

Required: determine the mass of sawdust in the mix.

Solution.

To simplify calculations the mass of manure (litter) equal to 1, and the mass of sawdust and mix in increments of 1.

In General, the solution is determined by the formula:

(Note. Indicators in fractions of dry matter.)

where x is the share of the added carbon in sawdust;

- the share of added nitrogen;

Where (1-3) proportion of organic matter in the manure;

C - ash content of manure =0,24 (reference data);

the 0.5 is the fraction of carbon in organic matter manure (medium-src the adjustment data).

Pre-solve the problem of the practical content of carbon in the manure with a moisture content W=76% and ash content of 24% of dry matter.

- Dry matter of manure = 1-0,76=0,24;

- Ash of dry matter = 0,24·0,24=0,0576;

- Organic matter = dry. thing-in - ash = 0,24-0,0576=of 0.182;

CH = org. in-in· 0,5 = 0,182·0,5=0,091.

Substitute the found value of CH in formula 2.

0,091+x=0,142+0,25x;

0,75x=0,142-0,091=0,051;

x=0,068.

Thus:

SN=0,84·0,6=0,504

Pre-solve the problem of the practical content of carbon in the manure with a moisture content W=76% and ash content of 24% of dry matter.

- Dry matter of manure = 1-0,76=0,24;

- Ash of dry matter = 0,24·0,24=0,0576;

- Organic matter = dry matter ash = 0,24-0,0576=of 0.182;

CH = organic matter· 0,5=0,182·0,5=0,091.

Introducing the found value of CH in formula 2:

x=-0,068 - the amount of carbon added to the manure.

Carry out the calculation according to the formula 2 for manure 78% humidity.

W=78%

- Dry. in = 0,22;

- Ash 0,24·0,22=0,053;

- Orge. in-0,22-0,053=0,167

- Carbon - 0,167·0,5=0,083.

After substitution of these values into the formula to get x=0,0613.

To go from a fraction of the carbon mass fraction of sawdust in the mix, pre-defined proportion of carbon (Co) in 1 t of sawdust

With=(1·0,9-0,16·0,9)·0,5=0,378; where 0,16 - ash sawdust.

If 1 t OPI is OK contains 0,378 tons of carbon, then mO=0,179 so (W=76%).

The same mixture with manure 78% humidity mO=rate £ 0.162.

IndicesFormula 1Formula 2
The moisture content of manure76%78%76%78%
The percentage of carbon added to the manure--0,0680,0613
The proportion of sawdust added to the manure0,20,232mO0,179mOrate £ 0.162
Savings0,0210,07

As a prototype of the chosen method of preparation of compost by the RF patent №2264368.

This method has the disadvantage, which is that for the normal conduct aerobic process requires a large quantity of organic water-absorbing component.

The aim of the invention is snizeni the flow of desiccant organic components in the process of aerobic fermentation and increase the efficiency of the process.

The aim is achieved in that on the bottom of the fermenter is placed a layer of organic component in an amount to provide a minimum quantity of C:N=25:1, then he incurs manure (litter) on the calculation of the nitrogen-carbon ratio. The aerobic process is carried out in a fermenter (figure 1) arbitrary shape in plan with insulated walls 1 and bottom 2, with laid on him the perforated collector tubes 3 and the cover 4. Collector pipes connected to the compressor 5, the switching on and off which time relay 6, the adjustment of which is effected based on the performance of the compressor and the volume of the fermenter and adjusted during operation. The space at the top of the fermenter is connected to the suction part of the compressor with air dryer 7, with fresh air intake 8. Integrating indicator for these adjustments is the time from the beginning of operation of the compressor until the first bubbles on the surface of the pasty mass. The technological process described device operates as follows. In the beginning of the process on the bottom of the fermenter is placed organic moisture-absorbing material 9 (straw, peat, sawdust, shredded residues and others), but in quantities that ensure optimal aerobic fermentation at a minimum, the content of C:N=2:1. In cases where manure (litter) the carbon content corresponds to the above additional laying on the bottom of the organic material is not required. After filling the fermenter manure (litter) 10 enters the compressor 5 and measured the time from the beginning up to the first appearance of bubbles on the surface of the paste mass - So This time indicates that the paste mass is saturated with air, and with it the oxygen required for the aerobic process. In accordance with the algorithm of the activity of aerobic microorganisms to oxygen consumption given time t, it takes time - 5t for its consumption. Time 5t is a pause in the operation of the compressor. Option air supply by feeding it from the top and sides using combs with injection needles.

Literature

1. Recommendations on the use of organic fertilizers in the Moscow region (“Agroprom. MO M. 1990).

The method of composting, including the laying of the initial mass of manure, litter in the fermenter and the subsequent filing of oxygen inside it, characterized in that the fermenter is placed weight without preliminary preparation and mixing with native humidity 76-78% on the layer of the organic carbon component of the fermentation in an amount to provide a C:N=25:1, or without this the th component, if the mass of manure, litter due to the presence of residues of feed and litter contains the above-mentioned ratio of C:n



 

Same patents:

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of production of liquid humic fertiliser comprises mixing the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution, suspension sedimentation and separation of the liquid fraction, at that stirring of the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution and the suspension sedimentation is carried out repeatedly, the humic-containing material is used as waste of production of the liquid phase bioagent for crop production and farming, which active ingredient is organic matter carbon Corg - 30.0-40.0, wt %, comprising macronutrients: nitrogen Ntot. - 1.15-1.80, wt %; phosphorus P2O5 - 1.4-2.2, wt %; potassium K2O - 1.0-2.3, wt %; calcium CaO - 1.1-1.6, wt %; magnesium MgO - 0.2-0.8, wt %, and trace elements, at least, boron, copper, cobalt, manganese, selenium, silicon, and mixing the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution is carried out three times, each in a ratio of 1:10 at the speed of 20 rev/min, at a temperature of 60°C for at least 1 hour, and sedimentation - after each mixing at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours, followed by separation and combining the supernatant.

EFFECT: invention enables to expand the range of liquid humic fertilisers, to improve plant growth and development, to activate soil-microbiological processes.

1 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

Anaerobic reactor // 2518307

FIELD: energy industry.

SUBSTANCE: anaerobic reactor comprises a housing with chambers of hydrolysis and methane fermentation, the device of loading and mixing the substrate in the chambers, the hydraulic valve and the column for enrichment of biogas, divided by partitions into biogas collector and sections filled with immobiliser backfilling. The housing and the column are connected by two pipes, one of which is connected between the outlet of the substrate from the reactor housing and the upper part of the column. The other is connected between the outlet of the biogas from the reactor housing and the lower part of the column. In the reactor a diaphragm electrolyser is mounted. The outlet with the hydrogen gas is connected to the lower part of the column of enrichment. The outlet with the analyte is connected to the entry of the housing into the hydrolysis chamber. The outlet of the electrolyser with the catholyte is connected to the chambers of methane fermentation. The outlet the biogas collector in the column the hydraulic valve is connected. The backfilling in the sections of the column of gas enrichment the fibrous graphite material with a large extended surface is used between the hydraulic water seal at the outlet of biogas from the column of enrichment and the pipe in the lower part of the column the pump is mounted for reblow biogas through it.

EFFECT: increase in efficiency and quality of produced biogas and serviceability.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Method of obtaining organic-mineral compost includes application of cattle manure, and addition to compost of pig manure, sediments of sewages and mineral component - phosphogypsum. All components are taken with specified ratio. Components are composted in summer period for 3 months in conditions of high average daily temperatures of compost from 35 to 45°C, with monthly mixing until ripening.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify and reduce process of compost obtaining, and increase its efficiency as ameliorator of agricultural land.

1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of preparing poultry droppings coming from poultry farms and poultry production units for subsequent anaerobic fermentation with the production of biogas and organic fertiliser provides for preparation of poultry droppings or dropping mixture to the maximum humidity of 91%, the ratio of carbon:nitrogen:phosphorus 25:1:1, pH 7÷8.5, the optimum temperature not exceeding 64°C, depending on the size of the sludge digester, the size of droppings or dropping mixture, comparable to the size of bacteria, adding the activated sludge of anaerobic origin to neutralise the effect of products of sanitisation and vaccination, using the two-stage fermentation.

EFFECT: invention enables to bring the substrate to optimum humidity, to create a certain ratio of nitrogen and carbon.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing organomineral fertiliser from sewage sludge by composting, wherein sewage sludge is mixed with sawdust (wood processing wastes) in ratio of 1:0.12 by weight or 1:0.61 by volume, or with shredded straw in ratio of 1:0.11 by weight or 1:1.82 by volume, and potassium sulphate is then added to said mixture in amount of 0.2-0.3% by weight of the substrate, followed by composting in piles.

EFFECT: invention simplifies and reduces the cost of producing organomineral fertiliser and increases fertilising value of the end product.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The device for disposal of waste products of animals and poultry comprises a hopper of loading of starting material, a reactor of pyrolysis consisting of a horizontal cylindrical housing with units of drain of steam gas mixture and the solid carbon-mineral residue, an air-cooled condenser, a cyclone, a gasholder for collecting uncondensed part of the steam gas mixture, at that the bottom of the reactor of pyrolysis is made in the form of a sieve with through holes under which the load-carrying body of the vibrator is mounted, under it a horizontal pipe is placed with holes at the upper part for supplying the coolant, closed on one side with the cap, and on the other side connected through the heater with the blower and a branch pipe for supplying the coolant, at the upper part of the reactor a chamber is located for collecting the combustion and pyrolysis gases, connected by the unit of drain of steam gas mixture to the air-cooled condenser, which is connected in its lower part to the container for collecting the fuel and in the upper part through the cyclone and the absorber - to the gasholder.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the pyrolysis rate, and dispose waste products of animals and poultry.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: poultry droppings is dehydrated in a device of mechanical dehydration (1) which is connected by the collector of refined liquid (2) by means of sequentially located steriliser (3) constituting the autoclave, and a concentrator (4) through the saturation device (15) with the device of coal unloading. The resulting liquid is subjected to the 10-12 fold evaporation at a temperature of 130-140°C in the concentrator (4). The condensate deflected from the concentrator (4) enters the collector (5). The preliminarily dewatered droppings is supplied to the drier (6), where the drying agent is a mixture of passing through the heat exchanger (13) flue gases and air, formed in the device of preparation of the drying agent (14). Dry poultry droppings and a part of uncondensed fraction of the steam gas mixture, which is the heat conductor and the transport medium, is fed to the fluidised bed reactor (7), where the pyrolysis stage is carried out at a temperature of 450-550°C and a heating rate of 1000°C/s followed by separation of the degradation products on oil-carbon sludge and steam gas mixture. The oil-carbon sludge is separated from the gaseous products in a cyclone (8) and fed to the coal collector (11) from which the fine carbon is discharged and packed in the container cassettes. The container cassettes are saturated with the evaporated liquid in the saturation device (15) to a degree of saturation which does not exclude flowability. The steam gas mixture is deflected to the condenser (9).

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of oil-carbon sludge as fertiliser, as well as to reduce pollution of oil-carbon sludge and to provide reliable sterilisation of the product.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: universal soil mixture comprises lignin hydrolised, manure and peat, and the composition comprises pig litter or liquid manure of any freshness and additionally the mixture comprises urea hydrogen peroxide. All the components are taken at a certain ratio.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of the mixture with simplification of its composition.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method producing organic fertiliser involves fermentation of a raw product, removing biogas, separation, wherein the raw product used is in form of bird or animal excrement which undergoes preliminary fermentation; after fermentation and removal of biogas, the dense component of the raw product is separated from the fermentation product and the liquid component is mixed with a flocculant; the flocculation product is settled until achieving separation of the solid fraction and the liquid fraction in a ratio from 1:3 to 1:5; the liquid fraction is removed and the remaining product is decanted to moisture content of 40-50%; the liquid component is removed and the decanted mass is mixed with the dense component of the separation product and pressed with an auger device or is first pressed with an auger device and then mixed with the dense component of the separation product that has been pressed with an auger device, wherein at the outlet of the auger device, the product has moisture content of 20-30%, after which the product is heat dried at temperature of 40-60°C to moisture content of 10-15%.

EFFECT: invention reduces power consumption when generating heat energy for thickening a product of fermenting bird and animal excrement, enables to preserve organic and mineral substances in the end product, improves environmental friendliness of the method.

5 cl, 2 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of use of wastes of oil-extraction production as fertiliser for growing tomatoes in black soil lies in the application of fertilisers in the soil, and ash of sunflower husk is applied as fertiliser under every bush locally at a dose of 50 grams or manure and ash of sunflower husk, and the dose of application is 4.5 t/ha of manure and 50 g of ash locally under the plant.

EFFECT: invention enables to improve the efficiency of agriculture, to reduce the disease incidence of plants.

6 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of production of liquid humic fertiliser comprises mixing the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution, suspension sedimentation and separation of the liquid fraction, at that stirring of the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution and the suspension sedimentation is carried out repeatedly, the humic-containing material is used as waste of production of the liquid phase bioagent for crop production and farming, which active ingredient is organic matter carbon Corg - 30.0-40.0, wt %, comprising macronutrients: nitrogen Ntot. - 1.15-1.80, wt %; phosphorus P2O5 - 1.4-2.2, wt %; potassium K2O - 1.0-2.3, wt %; calcium CaO - 1.1-1.6, wt %; magnesium MgO - 0.2-0.8, wt %, and trace elements, at least, boron, copper, cobalt, manganese, selenium, silicon, and mixing the humic-containing material with 1.5-2.0% aqueous potassium hydroxide solution is carried out three times, each in a ratio of 1:10 at the speed of 20 rev/min, at a temperature of 60°C for at least 1 hour, and sedimentation - after each mixing at a temperature of 60°C for 2 hours, followed by separation and combining the supernatant.

EFFECT: invention enables to expand the range of liquid humic fertilisers, to improve plant growth and development, to activate soil-microbiological processes.

1 dwg, 4 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: composition comprises insecticides Aktellic and Mospilan, fungicide Infinito, adhesive MiBAS, complex of micronutrients Aquamix, immunomodulator Silk, plant growth stimulator potassium humate in the following ratio of components, wt %: Aktellic 33.90-36.23; Mospilan 6.78-7.25; Infinito 16.95-17.30; MiBAS 28.98-33.90; Silk 3.39-4.35; Aquamix 1.45-1.69; potassium humate 3.39-4.35. The composition is used at a dose of 6.9 l/t of seeds.

EFFECT: invention enables to protect seedlings of linseed flax from its pests and diseases, in particular from crucifer flea beetles and fusariose, to increase its productivity.

2 cl, 5 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The silicon-containing chelate microfertiliser for top dressing is obtained by mixing ad diluting in tap water in a given ratio two mother component aqueous solutions: a mother solution of trace elements and a mother solution containing silicon, wherein the mother solution of trace elements contains iron sulphate, boric acid, manganese sulphate, copper sulphate, cobalt chloride, zinc sulphate, ammonium molybdate and a complexing agent in an amount which sets the pH of the solution of trace elements at 2.5-3, wherein the mother solution of trace elements contains humic acids as the complexing agent. All components are taken in a defined ratio. The mother solution containing silicon is 1% potassium or sodium silicate solution; a working solution of a silicon-containing chelate microfertiliser is obtained by diluting and mixing the mother solutions in tap water. All components are taken in a defined ratio. The pH of the working solution becomes 5.5-6.0.

EFFECT: invention enables to produce a silicon-containing chelate microfertiliser with improved plant-protection and adaptogenic properties, prolongs the shelf life of the mother solutions.

2 cl, 11 tbl

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of production of structured peat-sapropelic concentrate comprises cavitational dispergating of humate-containing agent using an alkaline solution of potassium hydroxide, at that in a moving stream of water the fragmented peat with a particle size of not more than 5 mm, as well as putrid mud, potassium hydroxide, white mud is fed. All the components are taken at a certain ratio. The resulting solution is subject to cavitational dispergating to temperature of 90°C.

EFFECT: invention enables to simplify the method of preparation of high-quality organo-mineral complex fertiliser, to reduce the energy consumption of the process while increasing its ecological compatibility.

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic preparations involves ultrasonic dispersion of humate-containing substances. At least one jet or vortex flow of humate-containing substances is created, which is treated with an air or steam stream using a jet-edge generator with ultrasonic radiation intensity greater than 10 W/cm2.

EFFECT: invention provides an efficient technique of processing humate-containing substances, which enables to obtain water-soluble organic substances with high content of fulvic and humic acids with a simple process for production thereof, low labour input and material consumption of the process.

2 cl, 1 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. Organomineral complex fertiliser contains peat, mineral components and nutritional microelements as humate-containing substances, with nitrogen-ammonia constituent in form of urea and water, processed with UV-irradiation, being introduced into complex composition. All components are taken in specified ratio.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of complex fertiliser action on crop yield due to application of high and balanced content of quickly-soluble potassium humates and elements of mineral nutrition in fertiliser.

2 cl, 8 tbl

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: method of decontaminating oil-contaminated soil involves preparation of a treatment area, collecting, excavating and delivering oil-contaminated soil to the treatment area, preparing the oil-contaminated soil, adding a humic-mineral complex and providing processes for biological decomposition of the oil-contaminated soil. The method of decontaminating spent drilling mud involves lime treatment, reagent coagulation, adding flocculants and a humic-mineral complex, step-by-step cutting of the drilling mud into a buffer layer while laying the mud in a layer of not more than 8-10 cm, drying the drilling mud and stacking into piles for subsequent recycling. The humic-mineral complex is obtained by low-temperature mechanochemical extraction of humic acids with by crushing brown coal in a dispersion machine while mixing the crushed brown coal with an alkali.

EFFECT: invention increases efficiency of methods in which a humic-mineral complex is used.

2 cl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of producing humic fertiliser for organic farming, meant for treating soil and vegetative plants, wherein said fertiliser is obtained in two steps: at the first step, natural humic acids contained in brown coal are transferred into an aqueous solution in form of ammonium humate by treating with 1.5-2.0% aqueous ammonium hydroxide solution to pH 6.9-7.1 with the ratio of the liquid component to the solid component of 7-7.5:1, and the obtained solution is separated from the mineral ballast which is not chemically bonded to the humic acids; and at the second step, metal cations chemically bonded to the ammonium humate are removed from the ammonium humate solution by treating with a cationite to pH 4.0-4.2.

EFFECT: invention enables to obtain water-soluble humic acids which do not container both the mineral ballast and metal cations.

2 cl, 4 tbl, 8 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture. The method of production of the concentrate of humic acid from brown coal, including its crushing to obtain microparticles, preparing the suspension in the diluted solution of alkali, and extraction, with mechanical stirring of the suspension in the reactor-mixer from the microparticles of humic acid coal. The coal is subjected to two-stage crushing, and at the second stage of crushing the microparticles with ragged surface are formed, and in stirring the suspension in the reactor-mixer it is simultaneously affected with ultrasound for 7-15 min., then the solid phase is separated from the liquid phase by precipitation of insoluble coal-ash in the sediment basin for 15-20 min., and the liquid phase is fed in the cracking reactor, the catalyst-hydrochloric acid is added, the liquid phase is resolved to water and humic acid of 90%, 70% and 40% concentration after sedimentation for at least 24 hours.

EFFECT: invention enables to create a complete cycle of industrial production of humic acids, to improve the performance and efficiency of their extraction of brown coal, to extend the scope by improving the quality of the finished product.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method of obtaining the biologically active humic product that includes crushing and screening of organic materials, as which peat is used with a moisture content close to the natural, and the peat processing is performed by the preliminary granulation with the subsequent holding the granules in closed containers for cooling for 12 hours, and then the cooled granules are repeatedly granulated to produce granules with a diameter smaller than the diameter of the granules obtained during the preliminary granulation, then hot granules obtained during the second granulation are poured into water to form an aqueous solution, the resulting mixture is subjected to stirring by the submerged mixer to form a homogeneous viscous flowable paste, alkali is added to the resulting paste to the pH of 10-10.5, and the resulting product is obtained after cooling of the resulting paste to the ambient temperature.

EFFECT: invention enables to increase the concentration of biologically active humic substances in the finished product, and to simplify the technology of its production.

1 dwg

FIELD: mixed fertilizers.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises mixing peat, household sewage sediments, manure, and marble filings (0.5 to 10%) followed by composting in storage piles.

EFFECT: improved consumer's properties.

Up!