Method for determination of dispersion degree for water and gas mixture

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: method includes receipt of water and gas mixture under high pressure, sampling of water and gas mixture and its transfer to a metering tank at the same pressure. Before measurement volume of the metering tank is measured and in measurement process change in free gas pressure, volume of free gas and the respective increment in free gas volume is recorded permanently, total volume of gas is determined for the taken sample; then dependency of free gas volume in the tank ΔP id determined and re-calculated to dependency of pressure change (ΔP) on relative share of the current free gas mass mig/mg, where mg is the total quantity of gas mg in the taken sample, mig is a current value of the free gas mass; then radius is determined for gas bubbles contained in the share of the current free gas mass according to the following formula: r i = 2 σ Δ P i where σ is interfacial tension and function of bubbles radius distribution determined.

EFFECT: provision of disperse degree measurement for water and gas mixture both in transparent and non-transparent dispersion medium.

4 cl, 1 ex, 1 tbl


The invention relates to the oil industry and can be used to determine the parameters of fine-gas mixture (MDGS) before injection.

It is established that the extraction of residual oil from flooding the reservoir provides mixing the displacement of hydrocarbon gases that is ultra-low interfacial tension at the contact phases. Such conditions occur when the displacement of oil by agents that virtually eliminate the negative effects of capillary forces on the displacement of oil. Process, use of associated petroleum gas (APG) for injection into oil-bearing stratum, solves a number of industrially and environmentally important issues. One of the promising applications of APG - reverse injection under high pressure for enhanced oil recovery and enhanced oil recovery. The reverse injection of the extracted gas is used as a secondary method of oil production and, despite the additional costs associated with the need for its purification, compression, at the same time, prolongs the life of the oil fields, providing additional volumes of oil production. Thus, the gas can be reused throughout the entire period of active exploitation of oil deposits. Known methods for the development of flooded oil fields at a later stage, including the injection of working agent through the injection wells in non-stationary mode, it periodically through injection wells inject water-gas mixture consisting of produced water and dispersed therein purified gas from the bubble sizes up to 5 microns (U.S. Pat of the Russian Federation No. 2236573). Also known the way of the development of oil deposits at a later stage, including the establishment of the nature of the distribution of the current saturated thickness or the current oil saturation of the reservoir, periodic operation of high water-cut wells located in areas of low values of net oil pay thickness or saturation, the operation of the wells are located in areas of elevated values of net oil pay thickness or oil saturation factor, forced modes selection of fluid injection through injection wells water-dispersed mixture (VGDS), consisting of produced water and dispersed therein purified gas, characterized in that the injection VGDS implement, periodically changing the degree of dispersion: first injection VGDS with the size of the gas bubbles, commensurate with the size of the pore channels, washed with water, up until the cut crude production will decrease by 2-6,1%, then the injection of VGDS with the size of the gas bubbles, commensurate with the size of the capillary and subscapular oily pore channels, up until production watercut after this reduction will increase by 0.5 to 2.5%, while maintaining the specified periodic variation of the degree of dispersion of VGDS during the whole period of its injection (U.S. Pat. Of the Russian Federation No. 2318997).

Mixing oil with gas formation water is provided by injection of produced water oil gas: a gas under high pressure, podsushivaet water, raspalas in her small bubbles. For more dispersion of gas used different dispersers. However, the configuration of each disperser to obtain MDGS requires calibration, i.e. the study of the distribution of the sizes of the bubbles on the configuration of the modes of operation of the ejector and dispersant in the field.

However, there is currently no reliable way of measuring the size of gas bubbles in liquids with high gas content and the presence in the analyzed mixture of foreign matter (dust, mill scale, droplets of water-immiscible liquid and the like)

Known methods for determining the dispersion of the water-gas mixtures (acoustic and optical) is suitable for measurements in carefully cleaned from impurities liquids in a fairly narrow ranges gas saturation (Acoustic journal, 1961, Vol.7, No. 4, str-427; all-Union Symposium. physics of acoustic-hydrodynamic phenomena optoacoustic. The abstracts. M.: Nauka, 1979, p.42-43; Mikhalev A.S., Rinkevicius BS, Grigory Skornyakov NM Laser interferometric method of determining parameters of gas bubbles, Metrology, 2009, No. 9, p.3-14; RF Patent №2037806).

A common disadvantage of the above methods of measuring and controlling the dispersion of the water-gas mixtures is the inability to effectively use them in the field.

In connection with the above, the main technical challenge which seeks the invention is to provide a method for determining the size of the gas bubbles in a liquid when significant gas saturation, which is insensitive to the presence in the system outside of the dispersed phase (dirt), and a simple device for its realization in the conditions of the field.

Closest to the present invention is a method of determining the degree of dispersion of the gas mixture (foam) under pressure, including the production of water-gas mixture under high pressure and translated it into a measuring container at the same pressure. (Vasiliev VK, Bykova T.N., Markin, A.A. Stability of foams under pressure. Petroleum engineering, No. 5, 1976, p.27-29).

The disadvantage of this method is the necessity of making measurements using microscopic photography that requires a microscope with recording equipment that turn iskluchau the possibility of carrying out measurements in the case of opacity of variance (continuous) phase, or when the presence of the impurities, as well as the inability for rapid measurements in field conditions

The aim of the invention is the provision of measuring the dispersion of the gas mixture for transparent and conditions with an opaque (or contaminated) of the dispersion medium.

The proposed method is as follows. The method is based on the experimental fact, namely, that when the separation of polydisperse gas mixture primarily destroyed most of the large bubbles. Since the excess gas pressure in the bubble Δ in equilibrium with the liquid, is related to the size of the bubble r and surface tension coefficient σ formula of Laplace:


when the destruction of the bubbles with the size of rithe pressure in a sealed vessel with a water-gas mixture will increase in value:


as the separation gas mixture pressure in the gas layer is formed over the layer flowing down to the bottom of the pressurized vessel and a layer of water-gas mixture will increase. Detecting a pressure change in the vessel and the volume of gas, it is possible to calculate the initial distribution of gas bubbles in size. The final value of the increment of the pressure ΔTo(after complete separation of the mixture of gas and liquid) characterizes srednevekovoi the radius of the bubbles in the gas mixture at the time of sampling and concluding it in a sealed vessel, and the ratio of the amount (level) of the liquid in the vessel to the volume occupied spin-off gas, water-gas ratio.

From the discharge line of fine gas mixture (MDGS) when the discharge pressure P0selected sample in a hermetically sealable container with volume V0(by definition MDGS preparing monodisperse or with a fairly narrow size distribution of the bubbles). In the lid and the container bottom mounted pressure sensors, temperature. The device is equipped with an ultrasonic probe volume in the form of a multibeam sonar or ultrasound scanner, a sensor which is placed in the lid of the container.

In the research process is logged to the change in pressure under the cover of the vessel ΔPiand the corresponding increment of the volume of the free gas ΔV i. The amount of gas contained in the volume ΔV1is calculated by the equation Mendeleev-clayperon


ni- the number of moles of gas, R is the universal gas constant, T is the absolute temperature.

The total amount of gas mgcontained in the selected sample, is calculated by the equation Mendeleev-clayperon(P0+ΔPK)ΔVi=n0RT;(3)

keeping in mind that mg=MP0where M is the average molecular weight of the injected gas, and n0- the number of moles of gas in the sample is calculated by the formula (3).

In the process of measurements obtained dependence Δ of the volume of free gas in the vessel. This dependence is converted (used with the eating of the above ratios) in dependence on the relative proportion of the current value of the mass of free gas m/mg


Differentiation of the latter dependence allows for the use of ratios (1A), to obtain the size distribution of gas bubbles in MDGS.

The ability of the proposed method and device proved by the use in domestic and foreign practice equipment for gas injection and gas-liquid mixtures using the pump volumetric displacement, the presence of commercially available high-precision pressure sensors and temperature, as well as precision ultrasonic scanners.

An example implementation of the method

Capacity - V0=0,100 m3gas CH4(M=16), P0=50000 PA, σ=0,n/m

P (PA)50000501005050051000515005200052100
Δ (PA) 01005001000150020002100
ΔVi(m3)00,0010,0030,030,070,08of 0.081
ni(mol)00,02 0,0620,6281,481,711,73
The fraction of bubbles with radius rimm≥1,460,29-1,46 0,146-0,290,097-0,1460,073-0,0970,069-0,073
%1,22,432,7to 49.313,01,4

1. How to determine the dispersion of the water-gas mixture under pressure, including the production of water-gas mixture under high pressure, the sample-gas mixture and transfer it into the measuring tank at the same pressure, characterized in that before measurement is determined by the volume of the measuring vessel, and in the process of measuring continuously registers the change in pressure of the free gas within the measuring vessel and the amount of free gas, the corresponding increment of the volume of free gas, will determine the total amount of gas contained in the selected sample is then determined by the dependence Δ of the volume of free gas in the tank, which is then translated in dependence of pressure change (Δ) from the relative proportion of the current value of the mass of free gas m/mgwhere mg-the total amount of gas mgcontained in the currently selected sample, miك -the current value of the mass of free gas, then determined the radius of the gas bubbles contained in a fraction of the current value of the mass of free gas according to the formula:
where σ is the interfacial tension,
and calculate the distribution function of the bubble radius.

2. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the quantity of gas contained in the volume is calculated by the equation Mendeleev-clayperon:
where ni- the number of moles of gas,
R is the universal gas constant,
T is the absolute temperature,
P0-the initial gas pressure in the measuring vessel,
Δi- increase pressure,
ΔVithe increase in gas volume.

3. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the total amount of gas mgcontained in the selected sample, is calculated by the equation
where M is the average molecular weight is acaciaelongi gas, and n0- the number of moles of gas in the sample.

4. The method according to claim 1, characterized in that the number of moles of gas in the sample, is calculated by the formula:
where ΔTo- the final increment of pressure;
ΣΔVi- the total volume of gas evolved.


Same patents:

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to the measurement of aerosol particle characteristics by optical methods. The method consists in measuring the optical radiation attenuation in the visible and near infrared regions of spectrum. The maximal size and concentration of aerosol particles are determined according to the formulas: Dmax=λ*πα*(λ*),Cm=ρ1061.5lτ¯*, where Dmax - maximal particle diameter, µm; Cm - particle mass concentration, kg/m3; ρ - particle material density, kg/m3; l - optical path length, m; λ∗, τ¯* - coordinates of the point of reaching the function asymptote τ¯(λ)=λτ(λ)/F(λ), mcm; τ(λ) - measured spectral optical density; α*(λ) - dependence of diffraction parameter value on the wave length α=νπD/λ, with the diffraction parameter value corresponding to the start point abscissa of the function Q(α) deviation from the function Qp(α); Q(α) - attenuation efficiency factor calculated according to exact formulas of the Mie theory for specified dependences of refraction index n(λ) and absorbance index "ж"(λ) of aerosol particle material; F(λ)=24n(λ)æ(λ)[n2(λ)æ2(λ)+2]2+[2n(λ)æ(λ)]2 - attenuation efficiency factor for Rayleigh scattering.

EFFECT: higher accuracy at the determination of submicron particle characteristics.

4 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: method for automatic control of particle size in a pulp flow includes periodical feeling of material particles with a micrometer feeler with conversion of particle value fixed by a feeling mechanism, into an electric signal proportionate to their absolute size. For this purpose pulp is sampled, filtered, sent to a conditioning tank. Then sample density is measured in the conditioning tank. At the same time the pulp sample is dissolved by water to the condition providing for getting a single layer of material particles when fixed by the micrometer feeler. Then the dissolved sample is pumped in the circulation mode along the circuit including the conditioning tank and the measurement chamber. After that they measure size of material particles in the circulating flow passing via the measurement chamber during the period of time, duration of which is set by results of preliminary calibration, and the content of controlled class is calculated by results of measurement of contents of intermediate size classes.

EFFECT: increased reliability and accuracy of measurements of grain composition of material in a pulp flow.

4 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: by recorded pulse light image of cut plane with small thickness of the spray part, they determine parameters of drop spray in this part of the spray by means of a system of dispersion units based on the formula of the volume of ball (sphere) of a drop, for this purpose in the specified image they perform sorting and counting of number of drops of standard classes of ranges of microscopic dimensions in their adjacent sequence. For realisation of the method a double-laser plant is developed with digital devices of image signal processing and a computer.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to expand functional capabilities of the method and the plant due to measurement of speeds of dispersed drops and production of results of assessment of spray parameters by means of analysis of values of reduced integral volumes of drops per unit of area with sorting by sequence of adjacent ranges of drop size.

4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the measurement equipment, may be used in motor, agricultural, aviation, oil processing and other industries, where it is necessary to perform efficient analysis of motor oil quality. The device to analyse contamination of motor oil of the internal combustion engine by disperse particles includes a laser as a source of probing radiation, a light divider (a semi-transparent mirror), a lens, a photodetector, an analog to digital converter, a computer, an ultrasonic generator and a radiator of ultrasonic oscillations. Also the device comprises a channel to control metal particles located at the bottom of the oil tray of the engine tray, and a channel to control burn particles located at the height of minimum oil level in the tray. At the same time each of channels comprises a photodetector, an amplifier, an analog to digital converter and a radiator of ultrasonic oscillations. Also the device comprises a digital to analog converter and a switchboard for serial switching of radiators of ultrasonic oscillations in control channels. At the same time all ultrasonic radiators are controlled via the digital to analog converter by the computer, in accordance with the mathematical model of oscillations of the particle surface from radiations and with parameters of temperature produced with the help of the temperature sensor, amplifier and analog to digital converter.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of measurement of burn and metal particles, higher information value of data for assessment of concentration of weighted metal and burn disperse particles in oil, in particular, makes it possible to control quality of operation of an engine, residual resource of oil operation until its replacement.

1 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to measurement equipment, namely, to optical methods for registration of particle aggregation during performance of immunochemical reactions, for instance, using particles of micron size with reagents immobilised on them. During the reaction such particles are aggregated, formation of aggregates is recorded by turbidimetric or nephelometric method. Due to large size of initial particles their mutual approaching due to Brownian motion is slow, and formation of aggregates takes place in a non-uniform manner in the reaction volume, therefore to increase speed of aggregation and accuracy of its supervision the suspension of reagents must be mixed. Mixing is carried out by or at the expense of cyclic movement of magnetic particles placed into the mix, or the mix flow in the mode of flooded jet, or by means of reciprocal movement of the mix along the cuvette.

EFFECT: method accelerates the reaction and increases accuracy of measured kinetics.

5 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics, atomic power.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to nuclear power engineering and can be used in making fuel elements for nuclear reactors. The method involves scanning the image of spherical particles with a circular optical spot and determining the area of projections thereof. The diameter of the spot is selected to be less than the lower bound of the range of diameters of the image of the particles. Regions where the area of intersection of the scanning spot with images of particles is equal to the area of the scanning spot are selected. The area of the projection of each particle is defined as the area of the circle whose diameter is equal to the sum of the diameter of the scanning spot and the diameter of the region selected in said particle.

EFFECT: elimination of the operator and automation of image processing.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: system and method for ground material characterisation in a grinding system use an irradiation section through which at least a part of the ground material stream is fed and with irradiation means for irradiating the particles in the part of the stream with electromagnetic radiation; and a detection section for passage, having a detection means for detecting electromagnetic radiation emitted from the particles of the part of the ground material stream fed through the irradiation section The detection means comprises an imaging system and a colour image sensor for imaging the particles thereon using the electromagnetic radiation emitted by the particles. The colour image sensor comprises image elements for spectrally selective detection of the electromagnetic radiation imaged on the sensor image elements. The detection section comprises a luminous means or is made and arranged to detect particles of the ground material using a combination of transmitted and incident light.

EFFECT: high rate and accuracy of detecting properties of a stream of a grinding product.

26 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises conversion of pulse voltage into light flux for analysed medium area to be probed therewith. Measuring channel containing analysed medium and extra channel filled with gas mix cleaned of gas mix are used. Said light flux is splitted in said channels to wide and narrow fluxes to be converted into electric signals while signal proportional to reference channel narrow light flux is subtracted from measuring channel narrow light flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller. Besides, signal proportional to reference channel wide light flux is subtracted from signal proportional to measuring channel wide flux. Obtained signal is synchronously detected and processed by microcontroller to define total concentration of dust and dust particle size.

EFFECT: higher precision of measurement.

2 dwg

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: device for measurement of dielectric particle geometrical size comprises radiation source, detector and amplifier and, additionally, it incorporates circulator, horn receiving antenna, low-pass filter and microcontroller. Radiation source output is connected with circulator first arm. Circulator second arm is connected to transceiver horn antenna. Circulator third arm is connected to detector input. Detector output is connected via low-pass filter to amplifier input. Amplifier output is connected with microcontroller input.

EFFECT: higher precision.

1 dwg

FIELD: instrumentation.

SUBSTANCE: flow of particles is illuminated by light flux to record light signal parameters (amplitude-time analysis and analysis of modulation duration or depth) generated by particles in their transit through isolated area. Photoelectric pulse flux is subjected to primary amplitude discrimination with upper and lower threshold levels. Then, pulse selector allows transit of pulses with length exceeding aforesaid threshold. This allows extra suppression of 20% of dark current pulses. Device for correction of multiple coincidences subjects photoelectric pulses to forced interruption in intervals equal to transit of particles through counting volume. Additionally added are two DACs: one for control over air blower and forced pulse interruption duration and another for changing the illuminator radiation amplitude and adjustment of upper amplitude discrimination threshold. Besides, it incorporates extra ADC, PC for amplitude analysis, count of incoming pulses and control over DACs.

EFFECT: higher precision of measurements, ruled out errors.

6 dwg

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to technical physics, namely, to define physical and chemical parameters of metal melts by measurement of density and surface tension of a melt sample drop in ellipse shape lying still on the substrate by means of photoelectronic volumetry. The melt sample in the form of a drop is put on the substrate in the vacuum chamber of the electric furnace of the horizontal type, and the melt drop silhouette is made by means of a photodetector. Upstream the vacuum chamber they place a switched optical emitter, which is put on at the moment when registration of the internal glow of the melt sample drop stops during its cooling. With the help of the emitter they light the melt drop and by the reflected optical signal of the drop silhouette they determine the volume and density of the drop until the temperature of its cooling.

EFFECT: increased temperature range of melt density measurements.

5 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: measuring equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention belongs to devices for research of temperature and concentration dependences of superficial properties of metal melts with participation of components with high elasticity of steam and can find wide application in research practice on physics, physical chemistry, materials science, metallurgy of fusible metals, factory laboratories etc. The combined device for joint determination of temperature and concentration dependences of superficial tension and work of electron output of liquid-metal systems with participation of components with high elasticity of saturated steam contains the main tank with cups-substrates for formation of big drops of studied liquid alloys. Also the device contains electrodes for fixing of photoemission currents, plane-parallel optical windows for photography of a drop and illumination of its surface from above with monochromatised beams of light. Thus a "comb" is tightly attached to the casing of the tank in vacuum manner from necessary quantity of vacuumised ampoules with the hemispherical glass partitions blocked in them with dosed batch weights of the second component with the increased elasticity of saturated steam according to the plan of experiment.

EFFECT: complete elimination of free and uncontrollable mass transfer of a volatile component in a device, exact fixing of structures of each of alloys in investigated double and (or) triple systems with participation of volatile components, repeated reduction or complete elimination (depending on specifically studied systems) of extent of dustiness of optical windows and electrodes of a measuring compartment of the device at measurements of emission properties of studied alloys and work of electron output, expansion of a temperature range of measurements of PN and RVE at the expense of reduction of time and intensity of influence of volatile components vapours of studied alloys on internal walls of the device, increase in durability and the operational period of the device without loss of the main characteristics, and also possibility of reuse of the device for studying of other systems at the expense of repeated reduction of the general time of influence of vapours of aggressive volatile components of studied alloys on a material, of which the device is made.

2 dwg

FIELD: medicine.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to medicine, namely to pulmonology, and can be applied for estimation of state of pulmonary surfactant. For this purpose components of pulmonary surfactant are collected by barbotation of exhaled air through a layer of isotonic physiological solution, placed into glass burette and tray of Langmuir barrier system. After that, static surface tension of obtained exhaled air barbotate is measured in burette by anchor ring method. After that, in Langmuir barrier system tray surface pressure Δσ is measured by Wilhelmy method with reduction of area between barriers by 90%. If static surface tension decreases to 37±8 dyn/cm after 5 minutes of barbotation and/or surface pressure Δσ increases from 4.5±1.0 dyn/cm after first inhalation to 17.0±3.0 dyn/cm after fifth inhalation, normal antiatelectatic function of pulmonary surfactant is diagnosed.

EFFECT: method ensures increase of efficiency of pulmonary surfactant aerosol collection from exhaled air with reduction of time for test performance.

3 ex

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: determination of concentration and identifying surfactants in aqueous solutions involves determining, in the analysed aqueous solution, the relationship between instantaneous values of surface tension and the increase in the surface area of the "solution-air" phase boundary and the relationship between instantaneous values of surface tension and time for adsorption of the surfactant into the solution. Surfactants are then identified using a database of reference relationships obtained similarly with solutions containing known surfactants in set concentrations. The difference between instantaneous values of surface tension in the analysed aqueous solution is additionally measured with reduction of the surface area of the "solution-air" phase boundary, from which concentration is determined using calibration curves plotted beforehand to determine surfactants most likely to be detected in the analysed aqueous solutions. Further, a calibration curve is selected based on the identification results. The experimental and reference curves of instantaneous values of surface tension in the aqueous solution versus time for adsorption of the surfactant into the solution are plotted at minimum surface area of the "solution-air" phase boundary.

EFFECT: high probability of correct identification and accuracy of determining concentration of surfactants in aqueous solutions.

3 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: liquid droplets are deposited onto a solid horizontal surface. The height of the peak of the droplet and the radius of the contact spot of the droplet with the substrate are measured from the image of the droplet. The surface tension coefficient and the wetting angle are determined with given accuracy by solving equilibrium equations. There are no restrictions on the size of the droplet and wetting angle values.

EFFECT: simple measurement procedure and high accuracy of results.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: in the first version, before loading the sample, a reflector is placed onto a substrate, an emitter of orthogonal optical lines is placed in front of the lens of a photodetector and a semitransparent plate with photosensors, connected to a setup control and signalling unit, is placed between the emitter and a vacuum chamber. Further, the horizontality of the substrate is adjusted, the emitter is switched off, the reflector, the emitter and the semitransparent plate are removed and operation continues. A laser level is also used and the semiconductor plate used is a target for said laser level, including with slits and photosensors. Geared stepper motors are also used and the reflector is in form of a prism. In the second version, a sample is loaded onto the substrate, measuring apparatus is switched on and the image of the silhouette of the ellipsoid-like droplet is obtained on a display using a photodetector and a computer. The substrate is adjusted until the line of the substrate on the display becomes horizontal or the vertical coordinate of one of the edges of the image of the substrate is equal to the vertical coordinate of another, after which subsequent operations are continued.

EFFECT: high objectivity, reliability and accuracy of determining density of high-temperature metallic melts using a large droplet geometry technique.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises immersing vertical capillary bottom end into analysed fluid and measuring fluid capillary lift height. Note here that, additionally, measured is the difference in fluid lift height (hm-hn) for two or several vertical sections in flat slit capillary formed by two converging flat surfaces, capillary width being constant in vertical section. Note that horizontal section varies from 0 to d capillary length equal to x, with x>>d. Note also that fluid lift heights hm and hn correspond to capillary vertical sections with zero width at distances equal to xm and xn, respectively, while capillary width in these sections equals dm and dn, where m=1, 2, 3…, n=1, 2, 3… are numbers of relevant vertical sections (n≠m), while surface tension is determined by formula: where α is fluid surface tension, N/m; ρ is fluid density, kg/m3, g is free fall acceleration, m/s2; (hm-hn) is difference in lift height corresponding to capillary vertical sections distance from capillary zero-width section equal to xm and xn, m; d is calibrated capillary width corresponding to vertical section spaced from zero-width section by distance x, m.

EFFECT: higher accuracy, simplified procedure.

1 dwg

FIELD: machine building.

SUBSTANCE: device for determination of surface tension of liquids consists of main part filled with reservoir of system. Also, the device consists of piezo-electric converter sealing a volume containing reservoir and connected to an electron unit of data processing. Additionally, the device has a membrane pump including a pump reservoir and a valve with insertions for valve gates; the valve is equipped with an additional piezo-electric converter as a drive and is connected to the above said electron unit. The device includes a throttle connected to the reservoir of the system and a buffer reservoir with a sealing cover; the buffer reservoir is positioned between the membrane pump and throttle. The device has a place for connection of a capillary interacting with the reservoir of the system.

EFFECT: upgraded accuracy of measurement of surface tension of liquids.

9 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: gas is fed to the inlet of a gas-carrying pipe immersed at a given depth into the monitored liquid. Maximum pressure in the pipe is then measured. Repetition periods of gas bubbles are also measured at two different gas flow rates into the gas carrying pipe. Further, surface tension, density and viscosity of the monitored liquid are then determined from the value of maximum pressure in the pipe and repetition periods of gas bubbles.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of determining surface tension of liquid and broader functional capabilities of the method through possibility of determining density and viscosity of the liquid.

1 dwg

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method of forming an interface between first and second essentially immiscible liquids comprises five steps. At the first step a volume of the first liquid is added to the first or lower cavity made in a body which has a horizontal surface. The cavity has a closed bottom section and a wall section or sections passing from the bottom section and forming the opening of the cavity. At the second step a volume of the second liquid is added to the second or upper cavity which has a wall section or sections passing from the upper opening of the cavity to the lower cavity. The said lower opening in the first position is made with possibility of sealing the said horizontal surface. At the third step the sealed upper cavity and the said surface are moved relative each other so as to level the lower opening of the upper cavity with the upper opening of the lower cavity for depositing the second liquid over the first liquid and formation of an interface between the first and second liquids. At the fourth step a probe is put into the interface between the first and second immiscible liquids. At the fifth step surface tension at the interface is measured.

EFFECT: increased sensitivity, provision for accuracy and fast measurement of surface tension at the interface between first and second essentially immiscible liquids.

38 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: bottomhole zone treatment method for a horizontal well includes running-in into the treated bottomhole zone of a hydroperforator with a one-way acting pipe string with nozzles faced upwards, impact of hydrocarbon solvent jet through it, then impact by acid solution, process withhold for reaction with acid, running-out of the equipment from the well, swabbing and bringing the well into production. Before running-in, at the head of a horizontal well, the lower end of the pipe string is equipped bottom upwards with a centralising tube, the one-way acting hydroperforator with nozzles faced upwards, a pulsed liquid pulsator, a valve consisting of a saddle and body with openings covered tightly by the saddle fixed by a shear pin in regards to the body, the pipe string is run in into the bottomhole of a horizontal well until it backs the centralising tube. Then in pulse mode, in two stages, the bottomhole zone is impacted through the hydroperforator at first by a hydrocarbon solution jet, then by a jet of hydrochloric acid. While implementing two stages with simultaneous injection of hydrocarbon solvent or hydrochloric acid the pipe string is moved from the bottomhole to the head at constant speed along the length of the horizontal well screen. When injection of hydrochloric acid is completed the hydroperforator is placed at the well screen end from the well head side, then a plug is set at the head to the pipe string and flushed by process liquid through the pipes till it sets at the valve saddle and the shear pin is destroyed under pressure in the pipe string. Then the process is withhold during 1 hour, at that in process of this withhold the pipe string is run in until the hydroperforator rests in the bottomhole of a horizontal well. Then, during three cycles, 0.5 m3 of process liquid is injected to the pipe string and tubing-casing annulus in turn. When withhold time is over reaction products are washed out by return circulation in one and a halve volume of the well.

EFFECT: effective treatment for bottomhole zone of a horizontal well due to expansion of the stratum area treatment, exclusion of the well screen clogging, reduction of the process duration when this method is implemented.

2 dwg