System operating as per rankine organic cycle, surface-treated substrate and treatment method of boiling surface of heat exchanger

FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to heat power engineering and can be used in heat exchange systems intended for recovery and use of waste heat. A system operating as per Rankine organic cycle and intended for recovery and use of waste heat supplied from a waste heat source by means of a closed circuit of working fluid medium includes at least one evaporator. In addition, the above evaporator includes a surface-treated substrate for contribution to bubble boiling of working fluid medium to provide restriction of working fluid medium temperature to the value below the specified temperature. Besides, the evaporator is made so that evaporation of working fluid medium is provided by using waste heat supplied from the waste heat source.

EFFECT: reduction of sizes; lower cost and improvement of the system's efficiency.

21 cl, 3 dwg

 

BACKGROUND of the INVENTION

[0001] the Invention relates generally to the heat exchanger in the organic Rankine cycle and, more particularly, to a heat exchanger with a surface-treated substrate to achieve increased efficiency of heat transfer.

[0002] most of the systems operating on organic Rankine cycle (CRO), is used as upgrades for small and medium-sized gas turbines to ensure absorption of additional capacity in the upper part of the output of the main path of the turbine from the flow of hot exhaust gases of gas turbines. The working fluid used in these cycles is typically a hydrocarbon, boiling point which slightly exceeds the temperature specified by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), at atmospheric pressure. Because of concerns that such hydrocarbon fluids can be damaged by direct exposure to high temperature (≈500°C) exhaust gas flow of the turbine, is commonly used intermediate thermal path for the transmission of heat from one release to the boiler operating on the Rankine cycle. Thermal circuit requires additional capital expenditures, which can be up to one-quarter the cost of a full cycle. In addition, embedding termomeccanica circuit causes a significant decrease is the applicable temperature level of the heat source. Moreover, the intermediate hydraulic system and heat exchangers require a higher temperature differences, which leads to an increase in size and decrease overall efficiency.

[0003] Thus, it is desirable to create an improved system, working on an organic Rankine cycle (CRO)that provides the solution to the above problems.

The INVENTION

[0004] In accordance with a variant implementation of the present invention proposed system, working on an organic Rankine cycle, designed to recover and use waste heat from a source of waste heat, using a closed-loop working fluid. This system contains at least one evaporator. The specified evaporator further comprises a surface-treated substrate for promoting nucleate boiling of the working environment with the provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid to a value lower than a predetermined temperature. In addition, the evaporator is made to ensure evaporation of the working environment by using waste heat from a source of waste heat.

[0005] In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention proposed a surface-treated substrate for promoting nucleate boiling of the working fluid cf is built with provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid in the heat exchanger to a value lower than a predetermined temperature. Surface-treated substrate contains particles or fibers, designed to promote the formation of bubbles in a production environment and are suspended in a solution of a binding material. This substrate further comprises a conductive binder for binding the particles or fibers.

[0006] In accordance with another variant implementation of the invention, a method for processing the surface of the evaporating heat exchanger to promote nucleate boiling flow of the working fluid passing through the heat exchanger, with the provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid to a value lower than a predetermined temperature. This method includes preparing the surface of the heat exchanger for receiving one or more discontinuities. The method also includes applying a layer of coating on the surface of the heat exchanger.

BRIEF DESCRIPTION of DRAWINGS

[0007] These and other features, aspects and advantages of this invention will become clearer upon reading the following detailed description, given with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which identical elements are denoted by the same numbers of positions and on which:

[0008] Figure 1 depicts a schematic diagram of a variant of implementation of the system, working on an organic Rankine cycle and will contain evaporated is any direct action.

[0009] Figure 2 depicts a view in the perspective view of the tube of the heat exchanger on which part of the tube is cut to display the surface-treated substrate in accordance with an illustrative option of carrying out the invention.

[0010] Figure 3 illustrates a block diagram of a method of creating a machined surface on the side of the boiling tube heat exchanger.

DETAILED description of the INVENTION

[0011] these technologies generally relate to systems operating on an organic Rankine cycle to recover and use waste heat from a source of waste heat, using a closed-loop working fluid. In particular, an embodiment of this system comprises a heat exchanger with a surface-treated substrate for promoting nucleate boiling of the working fluid with the provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid to a value lower than a predetermined temperature. This technology also relates to a method for processing the surface of the evaporating heat exchanger to promote nucleate boiling flow of the working fluid passing through the heat exchanger.

[0012] When introducing elements of various embodiments of the use of their names in the singular means that there is one or more elements. The terms "comprising", "including" and "having," I who are covering, and means, that there may be additional elements other than those listed. Any examples of operating parameters are not exceptional in relation to other parameters of the described embodiments.

[0013] Figure 1 depicts a schematic diagram of an illustrative scenarios of the system 10, working on an organic Rankine cycle and is designed to recover and use waste heat from a source of waste heat, using a closed-loop working fluid 14. In the system 10 uses an organic working fluid 14 with high molecular weight that provides the ability to recover heat from the heat sources, which include the flow of exhaust gases from gas turbines. In one embodiment, the system 10 can perform heat recovery from low temperature sources, such as industrial waste heat, geothermal heat, solar ponds, etc. in Addition, the system 10 converts the low-temperature heat into useful work, which can then be converted into electrical energy. This is done by using at least one turbine 16 for expanding the working medium 14, so that is creating power to the shaft and receiving the expanded working fluid 22. Specified turbine can be a two-stage radial turbine for expanding the working medium 14. During expansion of the working medium 14 large part of the heat energy recovered from the evaporator 12 direct action, is transformed into useful work. The expansion of the working medium 14 in the turbine 16 leads to a decrease in temperature and pressure specified environment 14.

[0014] Further extended the working fluid 22 enters the condenser 18 for condensing with cooling fluid flowing through the capacitor 18, and by ensuring that the condensed working medium 24 at even lower pressures. In one embodiment, the condensation of the expanded working medium 22 can be performed using air at ambient temperature. Airflow at ambient temperature can be obtained by using a fan or blower, resulting in lowering of the temperature by an amount which can reach approximately 40°C. In another embodiment, the capacitor 18 may be used as a cooling fluid for cooling water. The capacitor 18 may contain type heat exchanger with multiple tube passes, ensuring the passage through them of the expanded working medium 22. In one embodiment, for blowing ambient air through the heat exchange section of the fan used with the engine. At the time of this process the latent heat of the expanded working medium 22 is released and is transferred to the cooling fluid, used in the condenser 18. Extended working environment 22, therefore, is condensed to the condensed working fluid 24, which is in the liquid phase at a lower temperature and pressure.

[0015] the Pressure of the condensed working medium 24 then rises from low pressure to high pressure by a pump 20. After that, the compressed working fluid 26 can flow into the evaporator direct action or boiler 12 and pass through numerous tubes, flow communicating with the closed contour of the working fluid 14, as shown in figure 1. Specified the evaporator 12 can have channels for the exhaust gases from a source of waste heat to directly heat the compressed working medium 26, passing through numerous tubes in the evaporator 12.

[0016] the Compressed working medium 26 coming into the evaporator 12 may contain a hydrocarbon with a low boiling point. Thermodynamic characteristics, such as high temperature stability of the working medium 14 in the evaporator 12 direct action of the system 10, it may be difficult to maintain, because the temperature of the working medium 14 can influence the threshold temperature of the destruction on the surface of the heat exchanger tubes of the evaporator 12, which leads to thermal degradation of the working environment 14. In one embodiment, in the execution of the evaporator 12 and the condenser 18 of the system 10 can be a typical heat exchanger, used in the cycle of the heat engine.

[0017] Figure 2 depicts a view in the perspective view of the tube 30 of the evaporator direct action on which part of the tube is cut to display the surface-treated substrate 32 in accordance with the illustrative option of carrying out the invention. The evaporator 12 direct action, shown in figure 1, can contain numerous tube 30. Surface-treated substrate 32 in the tube 30 of the evaporator helps nucleate boiling of the working fluid with the provision limiting the temperature of the working medium 14 (1) to a value lower than a predetermined temperature. Therefore, the occurrence of high temperatures on the surface 38 of the boiling tube wall of the evaporator 12 is prevented by the use of a specified substrate 32, which is designed to promote nucleate boiling, which further increases the intensity of the heat flux during the boil to achieve the best cooling surface 38 of the boiling tube 30 of the evaporator. Thus, this technology improves the heat transfer from the heated surface of the evaporator direct action to boiling working medium 14. The phenomenon of nucleate boiling caused by using the surface-treated substrate 32, described in detail below.

[0018] In one embodiment, the surface-treated meanly the ka 32 has a cover 36, deposited on the surface of the boiling point 38 of the tube 30 of the evaporator direct action and used to promote nucleate boiling of the working fluid with the provision limiting thereby the temperature of the medium to a value lower than a predetermined temperature specified in the evaporator 12. In one embodiment, the preset temperature of the working medium 14 can vary from 200°C to 300°C. the Surface-treated substrate 32 may contain numerous particles or fibers 34 that are suspended in a binder substance. In one embodiment, the surface-treated substrate 32 can also contain many fibers that are suspended in a binder substance. When working these particles or fibers 34 act as nuclei for the formation of bubbles when it is necessary to ensure the evaporation of the working environment. This leads to the formation of a larger number of locations, in which the formation of vapor bubbles, creating at the same time, a larger heat flux, since it is known that the flow of heat to the fluid, in which there is a phase change, almost an order of magnitude higher than the heat transfer fluid to the environment due to convection. Higher heat flow helps to cool the surface of the heat exchanger is more efficient, which leads to a lower equilibrium temperature is ur surface of the heat exchanger, since the heat transfer coefficient on the hot side remains almost the same. In addition, the heat flux slightly increases due to the higher temperature gradient. Metal particles 34, acting as germ evaporation, also help to destroy the adhesive contact of the bubbles with the surface of the heat exchanger, so that the vapor bubbles are detached from the surface, while still small, resulting in the flow of heat to the cooler side wall of the heat exchanger rises further. Such embryos evaporation contribute not only nucleate boiling, but also increase the wettability of the surface compared to a smooth surface and, thus, inhibit the occurrence of film boiling. Another positive effect of improving the separation of vapor bubbles from the surface of the boiling is that it prevents the merging of bubbles in a continuous film of steam, which would otherwise significantly reduced convective heat transfer, such as heat transfer in the vapor layer on the order of magnitude smaller than in the liquid film.

[0019] in Contrast, in the case of the smooth surface of the boil there are only a few bubble points, and due to the compressive force of the surface tension of the liquid at a very small bubble for the early growth of bubbles you want a large extent the ü overheating. Heat for the growth of the bubble must be transmitted by convection and conduction from the smooth surface of the boiling towards the distant boundary of the liquid-vapor bubble, which is almost completely surrounded by the bulk of the liquid. Thus, we can say that the uneven surface of the walls of the heat exchanger available due to the presence of surface-treated substrate, increases the heat flux on the side of the boiling or evaporation, which leads to the low temperatures of the walls of the heat exchanger or evaporator 12 direct action, shown in figure 1, which in turn are lower than the degradation rate of the working medium 14 in the CRO.

[0020] In one embodiment, the particle size may vary from 1 μm to 100 μm. Department of vapor bubbles from the surface 38 boil additionally improved by coating 36, which results in increasing the area of the active heat transfer surface, which further leads to a higher heat flux. Surface-treated substrate 32 also contains a heat-conductive binder for binding numerous particles or fibers 34. In another embodiment, the heat-conducting binder contains a material with high thermal conductivity varying from 1 W·m-1·K-1up to 300 W·m-1·K-1. Another option is to run fiber 34 contain fiberglass, quartz, mineral crystals and a metallic compound. In yet another embodiment, the fibers 34 may contain ceramic connection.

[0021] in Addition, in one embodiment, the coating 36 may have a hydrophilic layer, which further comprises implanted ions. Ion implantation can modify the surface energy and, thus, affects whether the surface is hydrophilic or hydrophobic. In another embodiment, the multiple ions can contain ions on the basis of nitrogen. Ions on the basis of nitrogen are one of the most common classes of ions, which surface may be saturated, to provide support for the adhesion of the liquid.

[0022] Figure 3 depicts a block diagram 40 illustrating various embodiments of the preparation of the processed surface 42 on the surface 38 of the boiling tube 30 of the evaporator direct action, shown in figure 2. Block diagram 40 mainly illustrates the method of processing the surface 38 of boiling evaporator 12 direct action (figure 1) to promote nucleate boiling of the fluid flow through the tube 30 of the specified evaporator. In one embodiment, as reflected by block 44, illustrated by way of preparing the surface of the heat exchanger or evaporator 12. In another embodiment, as reflected by b the eye 46, illustrated method of coating 36, shown in figure 2, on the surface 38 of the boiling tube 30 of the evaporator direct action or heat exchanger. In an additional embodiment, the coating 38 may be layered on the surface 38 of the boiling tube 30, where the evaporation of the compressed working medium. In yet another embodiment, the preparation of the wall surface of the evaporator for receiving the inhomogeneities may include chemical etching, as shown in block 48. In yet another embodiment, the preparation of the wall surface of the evaporator for receiving the inhomogeneities may include machining, as shown in block 50. Mechanical processing includes at least one of the processes of rolling, milling, grinding or turning.

[0023] In another embodiment, the coating on the surface 38 of the boiling tube 30 of the evaporator or heat exchanger includes spraying numerous particles or fibers on the surface of the heat exchanger, as illustrated in block 52 figure 3. In a specific embodiment, numerous particles 34, shown in figure 2, can contain metal particles. In yet another embodiment, the coating on the surface 38 of the boiling tube 30 of the evaporator or heat exchanger includes sintering, as illustrated in block 54 figure 3. In exactly the embodiment, the sintering 54 may include heating the metal particles to a temperature below the melting point until while they will not stick to each other or fused with each other. When the particles or fibers 34 can act as nuclei for nucleate boiling, so instead of big bubbles formed larger number of small bubbles of steam. This phenomenon leads to an increase in heat flux through the wall of the evaporator 12.

[0024] Mainly in the present invention is applied surface-treated substrate containing coating, or machined surface, or chemically treated surface in the evaporator direct action system, working on an organic Rankine cycle, to obtain significant efficiency of heat transfer from the surface of the boiling or evaporation of the heat exchanger to the working environment 14. Thus, the surface temperature of the evaporating heat exchanger or evaporator 12 direct action remains relatively low, which prevents the decomposition of the working medium 14. Another advantage of this invention is to eliminate the intermediate closed termomeccanica circuit, which makes this invention is less complex and cost effective. By eliminating the closed termomeccanica outline capital costs in the system with the CRO can be reduced to one quarter of the total cost.

[0025] it Should be understood that all that is their purpose or benefits, as described above, may not necessarily be achieved in accordance with any specific option run. Thus, for example, specialists should be understood that the devices and methods described herein may be implemented or performed in a manner that achieves or optimization of one advantage or group of advantages specified herein without necessarily achieving other objectives or advantages set forth or alleged in this document.

[0026] Although herein illustrated and described are only some of the features of the invention, the specialists will be apparent various modifications and changes. Thus, it should be understood that the appended claims cover all such modifications and changes as are within the scope of the invention.

The LIST of ITEMS

10 System running on an organic Rankine cycle

12 Evaporator direct action

14, the working fluid

16 Turbine

18 Capacitor

20 Pump

22 Expanded working fluid

24 Condensed working fluid

26 Compressed working fluid

30 Tube evaporator direct action

32 Surface-treated substrate

34 Particles or fibers

36 Floor

38 is again boiling

40 the Method of preparation of the machined surface on the surface of the boiling tube evaporator direct action

42 surface Treated

44 Step of preparing the surface of the heat exchanger or evaporator direct action to obtain one or more inhomogeneities

46 Phase coating on the surface of the boiling tube heat exchanger or evaporator direct action

48 the Stage of preparation of the wall surface of the evaporator direct action to obtain inhomogeneities by chemical etching

50 the Stage of preparation of the wall surface of the evaporator direct action to obtain inhomogeneities by means of mechanical processing

52 Phase coating on the surface of the boiling tube heat exchanger or evaporator direct action by spraying numerous particles or fibers

54 Phase coating on the surface of the boiling tube heat exchanger or evaporator direct action by sintering.

1. The system, working on an organic Rankine cycle, designed to recover and use waste heat from a source of waste heat, using a closed-loop working fluid and containing:
at least one evaporator containing a surface-treated substrate for promoting nucleate boiling of the working tech is whose environment with provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid to a value lower than a predetermined temperature, moreover, the specified evaporator is additionally performed to ensure evaporation of the working fluid by using waste heat from a source of waste heat.

2. The system according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one turbine for expanding the working fluid to ensure power on the shaft and receiving the expanded working fluid, and specified the working fluid is a hydrocarbon.

3. The system according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one condenser for condensing the expanded working fluid by exposure to the air stream at ambient temperature to ensure that the condensed working fluid at low pressure.

4. The system according to claim 1, additionally containing at least one pump for pumping the condensed working fluid to the evaporator.

5. The system according to claim 1, in which the evaporator contains a tube, a flow communicating with the specified closed loop working fluid, and has an additional channel for exhaust gases from a source of waste heat for direct heating of the working fluid passing through the evaporator.

6. The system according to claim 1, in which the surface-treated substrate includes coating, layered article is Ron boiling surface of the evaporator.

7. The system according to claim 6, in which the said coating contains particles or fibers for the formation of bubbles of the working fluid in the evaporator.

8. The system according to claim 1, in which the surface-treated substrate has an uneven surface for the formation of bubbles of the working fluid in the evaporator.

9. Surface-treated substrate, designed to promote nucleate boiling of the working fluid with the provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid to a value lower than a predetermined temperature in the heat exchanger and containing:
particles or fibers to facilitate the formation of bubbles in the working fluid, which is suspended in a binder substance, and
conductive binder for binding of these particles or fibers.

10. Surface-treated substrate according to claim 9, in which the particle size ranges from 1 μm to 100 μm.

11. Surface-treated substrate according to claim 9, in which the preset temperature of the working fluid varies from 200°C to 300°C.

12. Surface-treated substrate according to claim 9, in which the heat-conducting binder contains a material with a high conductivity ranging from 1 W·m-1·K-1up to 300 W·m-1·K-1.

13. Surface-treated substrate according to claim 9, in which the fibers contain Steklova the window, quartz, mineral crystal, metal or ceramic compounds.

14. Surface-treated substrate according to claim 9, in which the heat exchanger includes at least the evaporator or the condenser.

15. Surface-treated substrate according to claim 9, further containing coating applied to the side of the boiling point of the evaporator and having a hydrophilic layer, which additionally contains ions on the basis of nitrogen.

16. The method of processing the surface of the evaporating heat exchanger, designed to promote nucleate boiling flow of the working fluid passing through the heat exchanger, with the provision limiting the temperature of the working fluid to a value lower than a predetermined temperature, comprising:
preparation of the surface of heat exchanger for one or more inhomogeneities and
applying a layer of coating on the surface of the heat exchanger.

17. The method according to clause 16, in which during preparation of surface heat exchanger perform chemical etching.

18. The method according to clause 16, in which during preparation of surface heat exchanger perform mechanical processing.

19. The method according to clause 16, which at the time of machining perform at least one of the following processes: rolling, milling, grinding or turning.

20. The method according to clause 16, which when applied coating layers perform sputtering metal is a mini-particles on the surface of the evaporating heat exchanger.

21. The method according to clause 16, which when applied coating layers perform sintering.



 

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EFFECT: higher efficiency.

FIELD: engine and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: heat-pipe jet engine relates to power engineering and can be used to recover secondary and natural thermal resources, particularly to convert thermal power into mechanical power. Proposed engine comprises housing coated with wick from inside and plugged by a bush, evaporator chamber in contact with hot medium, closure with inlet hole, condensation chamber incorporating rod with valve and staying in contact with cold medium. Portion of the housing outer surface is coated with bellows in the area of condensation chamber. Lower end face wall edges are jointed to the edge of inner board of circular reservoir with its outer board edge being rigidly jointed to the bellows lower edge. Reservoir outer board center is connected to working member. Spaces between bellows and housing, as well as condensation chamber vapor space are intercommunicated via branch pipes passing the openings of the bush, wick and housing.

EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability.

3 dwg

FIELD: engines and pumps.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to machine building. Proposed engine comprises evaporation chamber, its inside being coated with wick from inside. Top face wall of aforesaid chamber is coated with porous material strips. The said chamber houses perforated separation shield, final section of pressure line with nozzle and working chamber, in contact with hot medium and separated from it by wick. Aforesaid working chamber accommodates housing with power turbine, its impeller and feed pump rotor being fitted on turbine shaft. Working chamber houses also cylindrical tank communicating with wink via perforated walls, condensation chamber, also coated with wink to make continuation of aforesaid wink, also in contact with cold medium. Evaporation chamber accommodates pressure pipeline. Aforesaid feed pump communicates with pressure pipeline, its housing being arranged in cylindrical tank. The cylindrical tank bottom is arranged on power turbine housing top wall. The shaft furnished with impeller and linked with working member passes through evaporation chamber, along its lengthwise axis and through bottom face wall center.

EFFECT: higher reliability and efficiency.

3 dwg

FIELD: electricity.

SUBSTANCE: invention is attributed to power engineering and can be used for electric and heat power generation by solid fuel gasification. Power generation plant comprises gas generator with fuel-loading and fixed residuals discharge pockets, module for purification of generator gas created in gas generator and power unit. Generator gas purification module comprises device for fixed residuals separation, heat exchanger for generator gas cooling and drying and generator gas fine purification device which outlet is connected with accumulator; these devices are installed in series and connected by conveyor systems. Accumulator outlet can be connected to power unit and unit for excess generator gas utilisation. At the same time the plant is equipped with recuperative exhaust gas heat exchanger, mixer and damper which primary circuit inlet is connected with gas outlet of gas generator, primary circuit outlet - with device for separation of fixed residuals from fuel, recuperative heat exchanger inlet is connected with power plant outlet and its outlet is connected with mixer primary inlet the secondary inlet of which is connected with damper secondary circuit outlet. Mixer outlet is connected with gas generator inlet. This plant can be installed on vehicle or trailer which has possibility to be connected with vehicle.

EFFECT: heat and electric energy generation through solid fuel gasification and providing plant mobility and environmental security.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: manufacture of engines.

SUBSTANCE: proposed engine has reservoir filled with heat-transfer agent and heat exchanger located inside this reservoir; heat exchanger has chamber containing working medium; reservoir is connected with radiator and heat-transfer agent heater forming closed hot and cold heat-transfer agent loops; actuating mechanism is made in form of cylinder with constant pressure chamber and working pressure chamber connected with working medium chamber; heat exchanger is made in form of tubes whose holes are connected with heat-transfer agent reservoir. Hot heat-transfer loop includes heater, hot heat-transfer agent supply control unit and pipe lines. Cold heat-transfer agent loop includes radiator, cold heat-transfer agent supply control unit and pipe lines. Used as heat-transfer agent is water; oil AMГ-10 may be used as working medium.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency; increased service life of engine; simplified construction.

4 cl, 1 dwg

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