Control method and device of fluid medium temperature and flow rate

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to instrument-making industry and can be used at control of fluid medium flow rate and temperature. According to this invention, materials, components and methods are aimed at manufacture and use of macro-scale channels containing fluid medium, the temperature and flow rate of which is controlled by means of geometrical sizes of the macro-scale channel and configuration of at least some part of the wall of the macro-scale channel and a flow of composite particles, which form fluid medium. Besides, the wall of the macro-scale channel and the flow of composite particles have such a configuration that collisions between composite parts and the wall can be preferably accompanied by mirror rebound.

EFFECT: improving fluid medium temperature and flow rate control accuracy.

54 cl, 18 dwg

 

The technical field

Materials, components and methods according to this invention is directed to the manufacture and use of microscale channels containing the fluid, and the temperature and flow of this fluid medium at least partially determined by the geometrical dimensions of the channel and the configuration of at least a section of the wall of the channel, and flow of the constituent particles that make up this fluid environment.

The level of technology

The volume of such fluid, as air can be characterized by the temperature and pressure. If to consider that it is the accumulation of the constituent particles, representing, for example, molecules of oxygen and nitrogen, the volume of fluid at a certain temperature can also be characterized as the distribution of velocities of the constituent particles. This distribution is usually possible to characterize the average speed, which is, of course, associated with the temperature of the fluid (such as gas).

Accordingly, the internal thermal energy of the fluid is the source of energy when used for heating, cooling and education of the fluid flow. One way to use the internal thermal energy of the fluid, as gas has been described in U.S. patent No. 7008176 and 6932564, fully incorporated in this application by reference.

If the device is for use in the morning of thermal energy such fluid, as the gas is effective, selecting the composite particles of the fluid with moving parts, to choose the direction or velocity of the particles, there is a need for method and device, which could regulate the flow and temperature of the fluid, but not with such moving parts.

Accordingly, the first aim of this invention is to provide systems and methods that benefit from cooling, heating and/or controlling the flow of fluid, but the principle of action which is not based on the use of moving parts.

This achievement was possible through the manufacture and use of systems containing one or more microscale channels (microchannels")having such a configuration, to accommodate the flow of the fluid and the walls of the microchannel and the composite particles of the fluid are configured such that collisions between the constituent particles and the walls of the microchannel was accompanied mainly mirror the rebound.

Disclosure of inventions

Typical microchannel according to this invention is formed with inlet and outlet, which are connected to each other by a duct.

Used herein, the term "cross section" of the microchannel refers to the characteristic area of the microchannel in the plane, which pass is predominantly perpendicular to the direction which moves the total flow of fluid through the microchannel.

Used herein, the term "neck" of the microchannel refers to the area of the microchannel, which shows a local minimum of the cross section. Note that there may be several openings associated with a single microchannel.

In one embodiment of the present invention, the inlet port of the microchannel has a configuration that represents his neck, and the walls of the microchannel is configured for the formation of the microchannel with a cross-section generally gradually increasing in the direction of movement of the fluid. In this exemplary embodiment (when the fluid medium is, for example, the air inlet is mostly a size of 100 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range from 0.01 to 500 μm2. In addition, the outlet is mostly a size of 3000 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range 0.1 - 50.000 μm2. The length of the walls of the microchannel (i.e. the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet of the microchannel) is preferably 30 mm, and may be, somewhere to have a size in the range of 0.01 mm - 10 m In another embodiment of the present invention the size of the inlet holes and outlet holes (and resizing pop the river cross-section depending on the length) can be reversed with respect to the above-mentioned values. For example, the inlet opening is mainly the size of 3000 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range 0.1 - 50.000 μm2and the outlet is mostly a size of 100 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range from 0.01 to 500 μm2.

In another embodiment of the present invention, the inlet port of the microchannel has a configuration that represents his neck, and the walls of the microchannel have a configuration forming a microchannel with a cross-section, rising near the neckline and remaining almost constant at the rest area of the moving fluid. In this exemplary embodiment (when the fluid medium is, for example, the air inlet is mostly a size of 100 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range from 0.01 to 500 μm2. The approximate distance from such inlet to expand into a larger hole almost constant size may be about 500 μm. In addition, the outlet is mostly a size of 3000 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range 0.1 - 50.000 μm2. The length of the walls of the microchannel (i.e. the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet of the microchannel) is preferably 30 mm and may somewhere be in diapazone,01 mm - 50 M. In another embodiment of the present invention the size of the inlet holes and outlet holes (and the change of cross-sectional dimension depending on the length) can be reversed with respect to the above-mentioned values. For example, the inlet opening is mainly the size of 3000 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range 0.1 - 50.000 μm2and the outlet is mostly a size of 100 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range from 0.01 to 500 μm2.

In another embodiment of the present invention as the inlet and outlet of the microchannel have this configuration in order to establish his neck (i.e. show a local minimum of the cross section), and the walls of the microchannel are configured to form a microchannel with a cross-section generally gradually increasing in the direction of movement of the fluid to the maximum point - preferably midway between the inlet and the outlet and then gradually decreasing in the direction of movement of the fluid to locally minimum point in the outlet. In this exemplary embodiment (when the fluid medium is, for example, air) inlet and outlet have the advantage of the public dimension of 100 μm 2and can somewhere to have a size in the range from 0.01 to 500 μm2. The maximum cross-section between the inlet and the outlet is mostly a size of 3000 μm2and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range 0.1 - 50.000 μm2. The length of the walls of the microchannel (i.e. the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet of the microchannel) is preferably 30 mm, and may be, somewhere to have a size in the range of 0.02 mm - 100 m

In another embodiment of the present invention and the inlet and outlet of the microchannel have this configuration in order to establish his neck, and the walls of the microchannel are configured to form a microchannel with a cross-section, rising near the neckline in the intake hole, remaining almost constant along the direction of movement of the fluid, and then sharply decreasing near the neckline at the outlet. In this exemplary embodiment (when the fluid medium is, for example, air) inlet and outlet are predominantly of a size of 100 μm2and can somewhere to have a size in the range from 0.01 to 500 μm2. The maximum cross-section between the inlet and the outlet is mostly a size of 3000 μm2 and maybe somewhere to have a size in the range 0.1 - 50.000 μm2. The length of the walls of the microchannel (i.e. the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet of the microchannel) is preferably 30 mm, and may be, somewhere to have a size in the range of 0.02 mm - 100 m Typical length of such inlet and outlet openings (before expansion to a larger cross-section, remaining almost constant) may be approximately 500 μm.

In another embodiment, the present invention any of the microchannel segments described above (the first segment of the microchannel may have such a configuration that it was connected by a duct with a different segment of the microchannel (the second segment of the microchannel), and configuration of the outlet of the first segment of the microchannel such that it is directly connected by a duct with the inlet of the second segment of the microchannel. In addition, the first segment of the microchannel and the second segment of the microchannel may have such a configuration that their cross sections were observed similar or almost similar dependence of the shape and size of the walls the length of the microchannel and similar or almost similar sizes of necks.

In another embodiment, the present invention any of the microchannel segments described above (the first segment of the microchannel may have such a configuration that represents m is Krokhmal, which runs almost parallel to another segment of the microchannel (the second segment of the microchannel), and configuration of the inlet holes of the first segment of the microchannel and the second segment of the microchannel such that they are connected to each other by a duct, and an outlet of the first segment of the microchannel and the second segment of the microchannel connected to each other duct. In addition, the first segment of the microchannel and the second segment of the microchannel may have such a configuration that their cross sections were observed similar or almost similar dependence of the shape and size of the walls the length of the microchannel and similar or almost similar sizes of necks.

In addition, regulation of flow and temperature in the volume of such fluid medium, which is composed of molecules, it is possible to check the molecular vibrational levels as a result of intensified heating of a volume of fluid. If permitted such relaxation of vibrationally excited molecules, the methods and systems according to the present invention are suitable for the establishment and management of the electromagnetic radiation generated during relaxation.

Further regulation of the flow rate and temperature in the volume of fluid suitable for many practical applications, including heating and cooling, freezing, electricity generation, emission kogerentnogo incoherent light, pumping gas, generating plasma radiation and the particle beam, the beam acceleration of particles, chemical processes.

Additional objectives and advantages of this invention will be partially set out in the following description, and in part will be obvious from that description or may occur in the practical use of this invention. The purpose of the present invention will be achieved, and its advantages realized by the use of the elements and their combinations, specifically mentioned in the attached claims.

It is understood that the foregoing General description and following detailed description are merely exemplary and explanatory and do not limit the scope of the invention set forth in the formula.

See drawings that are an integral part of this description, clearly depict embodiments of this invention and together with the description help to understand the principles of this invention.

A brief description of graphic materials

Figure 1 shows the cross-section of a variant of implementation of the present invention.

Figure 2 shows an alternative image of the three cross-sections of embodiments of the present invention, is depicted, for example, figures 1, 4, 5 and 6.

Figure 3 shows an explanatory image of the collision, the SOP is overdosages mirror bounce, according to this invention.

Figure 4 shows a variant implementation of the microchannel according to this invention.

Figure 5 shows another variant implementation of the microchannel according to this invention.

Figure 6 shows another variant implementation of the invention.

Figure 7 shows a variant implementation of the invention with a serial arrangement of the configurations used in the variants of implementation, shown in figures 1 and 4.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with a serial arrangement of the configurations used in the variants of implementation, shown in figure 5 and 6.

Figure 9 shows a variant implementation of the invention consistent with the location of the configuration used in the embodiment shown in Fig.7.

Figure 10 shows a variant implementation of the invention consistent with the location of the configuration used in the embodiment shown in Fig.

Figure 11 shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in figure 1.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the version done by the means, shown in figure 4

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in figure 5.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in Fig.6.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in Fig.7.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in Fig.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in Fig.9.

On Fig shows a variant implementation of the invention with parallel arrangement of the configurations used in the embodiment shown in figure 10.

The implementation of the invention

Here is the detailed description presents (explanatory) of embodiments, features of which are shown on the attached drawings. On all drawings will be used in the same conditional the designations for the same or similar parts.

1 shows exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 100 includes an inlet 130 and the outlet 150. Fluid 115 composed of composite particles 110, flows through the microchannel 100 in the direction 120. The wall 105 of the microchannel 100 adjacent to the flow of fluid 115. The image associated with figure 1 represents a cross-section of the microchannel 100 according to this invention. Other exemplary cross-section of the microchannel 100 according to this invention shown in figure 2, and they are cross sections corresponding to the slice 135 (shown in figure 1). For example, the cross-section of the inlet 130, i.e. section 140, and an outlet 150 may have a square shape 101, round shape 102, a rectangular shape 103 or any other form of limited two-dimensional shapes.

As shown in figure 1, moving the fluid 115 in the microchannel 100 in the direction 120 may occur due to the pressure difference between the inlet 130 and the outlet 150. In addition, the wall 105 and the flow of the constituent particles 110 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles 110 and the wall 105 that occur inside the microchannel 100 (in the inner areas, which usually represents an area of 140), mainly on ostautsya mirror bounce. Collision with mirror rebound depicted in more detail in the schematic in figure 3.

Figure 3 shows a magnified portion of figure 1. Namely, the arrow 325 shows the component of velocity of the composite particles 110 before constituent particle 110 will collide with the wall 105. Normal 305 represents an axis that is perpendicular to the plane defined by the wall 105. Arrow 335 shows the component of velocity of the composite particles 110 after a constituent particle 110 collided with the wall 105. Collision with mirror bounce between integral part 110 and the wall 105 means there is a collision in which the velocity component of the composite particles 110, parallel to the plane of the wall 105 is almost the same before and after the collision. In addition, during clashes with the mirror on the rebound speed of the composite particles 110, associated with a component of velocity perpendicular to the plane of the wall 105 may be almost the same before and after the collision. Well-versed in this field specialist should understand that the term "collision with mirror rebound" is not used here in the meaning of only elastic collisions. Because you will be (averaged) energy transfer between the wall 105 of the microchannel and many of the constituent particles 110, it is quite clear that any one collision with the grain is crucial rebound between integral part 110 and the wall 105 may or increase, or decrease the kinetic energy of the constituent particles 110 in comparison with the kinetic energy, which it had before the collision. For example, if there is energy transfer from the wall 105 to the constituent particle 110, then one should expect that the acute angle between integral part 110 and a plane parallel to the wall 105, after the collision will be more than before the collision. Similarly, if there is energy transfer from the composite particles 110 to the wall 105, then we should expect that the acute angle between integral part 110 and a plane parallel to the wall 105, after the collision will be less than before the collision. In addition, if the temperature of the fluid representing a number of the constituent particles, different from the temperature of the wall, then we should expect that there will be a transfer of internal energy or from the fluid to the wall or from the wall to the flowing medium (depending on where the temperature is above). When collisions between multiple composite particles 110 and the wall 105 to happen mostly with mirror rebound in the sense that is used here, it should be expected that the energy transfer from the fluid 115 to the wall 105 or from the wall 105 to the fluid 115 will occur mainly by the average change rate of the constituent particles 110, associated with modifications to the components of the velocity, perpendicular to the plane of the wall 105 during a collision. It should also be noted that such a change in the velocity component of the composite particles 110 during a collision will lead to a change of the overall speed of the constituent particles 110 in the process of collision.

Figure 1 is a fluid medium 115 that is fed into the microchannel 100 through the inlet 130 may be moved to the outlet 150 under the action of pressure difference between the inlet 130 and the outlet 150, if the pressure of the fluid 115 in the intake hole 130 more pressure fluid 115 in the outlet. If the temperature of the fluid 115 in the intake hole 130 is T1then the composite particles 110 (before entering the area 140) can be represented in the form of the velocity distribution whose average value is proportional to the temperature.

If the mouth of the inlet is small (for example, is from 0.01 μm2up to 500 μm2when the fluid medium is air), the composite particle 110, entering through the inlet opening 130 in the region of 140 typically has such speed that its component parallel to the direction 120, more components perpendicular to the direction 120. Therefore, fluid 115 acquires the speed of the current, which is mainly parallel to the direction 120. indicesa energy, which correlates with the movement of the fluid 115 in the direction 120, is covered by the internal thermal energy of the fluid 115, which she had at a temperature T1before entering the inlet 130. As part contained in the fluid 115 at a temperature T1thermal energy is turned into kinetic energy of the fluid flow 115, for conservation of energy requires that the temperature of the fluid 115, which we denote by T2in the area of 140 was lower temperature T1(provided that it does not change depending on flow rate). If the temperature T2less and temperature (which we denote by Twwall 105 of the microchannel 100, then fluid 115 in the region of 140 to cool the material, which is formed microchannel 100.

Microchannel 100 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the impact of this change of temperature on the fluid 115, in three ways. In particular, when the wall 105 and the composite particles 110 are configured such that the collision between the wall 105 and the composite particles 110 to happen mostly with mirror bounce, the collision - which are the means of energy transfer between the wall 105 and the fluid medium 115 - will be the order of the minimal impact on the total flow of fluid 115. In other words, when the clash between integral part 110 and the wall 105 is such that the speed of the composite particles 110 ravnomeran in any direction from the wall 105 (i.e. there is a collision without the mirror rebound), then many such collisions will have a retarding effect on the flow of fluid 115, which will be accompanied, probably, an increase in the internal temperature of fluid 115 in region 140. Microchannel 100 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the cooling effect, selectively eliminating the impact of collisions without mirror bounce.

In addition, since the wall of the microchannel 105 100 has such a configuration that the cross-sectional area through which the moving fluid medium 115, usually increases, the specular scattering of composite particles 110 in the wall 105 will turn part of the velocity component that is perpendicular to the direction 120, the component parallel to the direction 120.

Moreover, the microchannel 100 constructively small (i.e. the area of the inner surface, which in the preferred embodiment, is from the 3-11m2linear micron to 6-10m2on line microns), so the ratio of the area of the surface, which wall 105 is turned to set the th volume of fluid 115 in the area of 140, relatively large (namely, when the volume of fluid 115, surrounded by a wall with the above surface area is from about 8-17m3linear micron to 3-15m3on line microns). Because the surface facing the wall 105 to the volume of fluid 115, is a major site of energy exchange between the wall 105 and the fluid medium 115, this leads to the maximum increase of the total energy exchange between the fluid medium 115 and the microchannel 100.

Figure 4 shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel contains 400 inlet 430 and the outlet 450. Fluid 415, consisting of composite particles 410 moves along the microchannel 400 in direction 420. Wall 405 of the microchannel 400 adjacent to the fluid flow 415. The image correlated with figure 4 represents a cross-section of the microchannel 400 according to this invention. As indicated above in respect of the microchannel 100, other exemplary cross-section of the microchannel 400 according to this invention shown in figure 2, and they are cross sections corresponding to the slice 135 (in this embodiment shown in figure 4). For example, the cross-section of the inlet 430, i.e. section 440, and the exhaust holes 450 may have a square shape 101, round forms is 102, rectangular 103 or any other form of limited two-dimensional shapes.

As shown in figure 4, the movement of the fluid 415 on microchannel 400 in direction 420 may occur due to the pressure difference between the inlet 430 and the outlet 450. In addition, the wall 405 and the flow of the constituent particles 410 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles 410 and wall 405, which occur inside the microchannel 400 (in the inner area, which is usually a region 440), mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

Fluid 415, which is a microchannel 400 through the inlet opening 430 may be moved to the outlet 450, for example, due to the impact exerted on the fluid 415 in the intake hole 430 to create a thread in the direction 420 toward the outlet 450 (for example, when the pressure of the fluid 415 in the intake hole 430 is greater than the pressure of the fluid 415 in the outlet). If the temperature of the fluid 415 in the intake hole 430 is T1then the composite particles 410 (before entering the area 440) can be represented in the form of the velocity distribution whose average value is proportional to the temperature.

In the embodiment shown in figure 4, fluid 415 subject p is remeshing parallel to the direction 420. Therefore, the composite particles 410 in fluid 415 will be more to show the component of velocity in the direction 420 (relative to the microchannel 400)than in the directions perpendicular to the direction 420.

But unlike microchannel 100 wall 405 of the microchannel 400 has such a configuration, when the cross-sectional area through which flow moves gradually decreases. In this case, accordingly, the scattering from the mirror rebound composite particles 410 from the wall 405 will turn part of the velocity component that is parallel to the direction 420, the component perpendicular to the direction 420. This transformation of the energy flow in the internal kinetic energy of the fluid 415 will lead to an increase in temperature of the fluid 415. This increase will become more noticeable near the outlet 450. Near this area, respectively, microchannel 400 is configured such that the energy flow associated with the fluid medium 415 in the intake hole 430, was largely transformed into internal kinetic energy of a fluid medium 415.

In such circumstances it may be necessary to provide thermal insulation of this section of the microchannel 400. For example, you can give the area of the microchannel 400 adjacent to the outlet, such a configuration that do not transmit thermal energy n the other sections of the microchannel 400. This insulated plot shown in figure 4 number 455.

In addition, if the composite particles 410 fluid 415 represent molecules (and, for example, if fluid 415 is a gas), then certain vibrational state of composite particles 410 may be populated as a result of increasing temperature, provided near the outlet 450.

When such vibrationally excited molecules are then passed through the outlet 450, it will emit likely to electromagnetic radiation, to switch to a lower vibrational state. It should also be noted that the microchannel 400 can be used to create additional aggregate such vibrationally excited molecules passing through the outlet 450, such a population inversion in vibrational States, which are suitable for laser generation.

Figure 5 shows another variant implementation of the invention. Microchannel 500 contains inlet 530 and the outlet 550. Fluid 515, consisting of composite particles 510 moves along the microchannel 500 in direction 520. The wall of the microchannel 505 500 adjacent to the fluid flow 515. The image that is associated with the figure 5 represents a cross-section of the microchannel 500 according to this invention. Other exemplary pop the river cross-section of the microchannel 500 according to this invention shown in figure 2, moreover, they represent cross sections corresponding to the slice 135 (shown in figure 5). For example, the cross-section of the inlet 530 and the outlet 550 may have a square shape 101, round shape 102, a rectangular shape 103 or any other form of limited two-dimensional shapes.

Moving the fluid 515 on microchannel 500 in direction 520 may occur due to the pressure difference between the inlet 530 and the outlet 550. In addition, a wall 505 and the composite particles 510 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles 510 and wall 505, which occur inside the microchannel 500, mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

Fluid 515, which is included in the microchannel 500 through the inlet 530 may be moved to the outlet 550 due to the pressure difference between the inlet 530 and the outlet 550, when the pressure of the fluid 515 in the intake hole 530 is greater than the pressure of the fluid 515 in the outlet. If the temperature of the fluid 515 in the input hole 530 is T1then the composite particles 510 (before admission' in microchannel 500) can be represented in the form of the velocity distribution whose average value is proportional to the temperature.

If the mouth of the inlet mA is a (for example, is from 0.01 μm2up to 500 μm2when the fluid medium is air, and the length of the neck in the direction of flow is about 500 μm), the composite particle 510 entering through the inlet opening 530 in the microchannel 500 typically has such speed that its component parallel to the direction 520, more components perpendicular to the direction 520. Therefore, fluid 515 acquires a velocity, which is mainly parallel to the direction 520. Kinetic energy, which is correlated with the movement of the fluid 515 in the direction 520, covered due to the internal thermal energy of the fluid 515, which she had at a temperature T1before entering the inlet 530. As part contained in the fluid 515 at a temperature T1thermal energy is turned into kinetic energy of the fluid flow 515, for conservation of energy requires that the temperature of the fluid 515, which we denote by T2in the field 540 was lower temperature T1(provided that it does not change depending on flow rate). If the temperature T2less and temperature (which we denote by Twwall 505 of the microchannel 500, then fluid 515 in the microchannel 500 will cool the material, which is formed microchannel 500.

ICRI is the channel 500 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the impact of this change of temperature on the fluid 515, in three ways. In particular, when the wall 505 and the composite particles 510 are configured such that the collision between the wall 505 and the composite particles 510 happen mostly with mirror bounce, the collision - which are the means of energy transfer between the wall 505 and the fluid medium 515 - will have a minimal impact on the overall flow of a fluid medium 515. In other words, when the clash between integral part 510 and a wall 505 happens is that the speed of the composite particles 510 ravnomeran in any direction from the wall 505 (i.e. there is a collision without the mirror rebound), then many such collisions will have a slowing effect on the fluid flow 515, which will be accompanied, probably, an increase in the internal temperature of the fluid 515 in the field 540. Microchannel 500 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the cooling effect, selectively eliminating the impact of collisions without mirror bounce.

In addition, the mean free path between the composite particles 510 in fluid 515 usually increases with the distance between the inlet 530 and the outlet 550, the poet is the dependence of the specular scattering of composite particles 510 on the wall 505 of the length along the microchannel 500 will be, likely to contribute to the transformation of part of the velocity component that is perpendicular to the direction 520, the component parallel to the direction 520.

Moreover, microchannel 500 constructively small (i.e. the area of the inner surface, which in the preferred embodiment, is approximately 6-10m2on line microns), so the ratio of the area of the surface, which wall 505 is turned to a given volume of fluid 515 in the field 540, a relatively large (i.e. when the volume of fluid 515, surrounded by a wall with the above surface area is about 3-15m3on line microns). Since the surface of the facing wall 505 to the volume of fluid 515, is a major site of energy exchange between the wall 505 and the fluid medium 515, this leads to the maximum increase of the total energy exchange between the fluid medium 515 and microchannel 500.

Figure 6 shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 600 contains the inlet opening 630 and the exhaust port 650. Fluid 615 composed of composite particles 610 moves along the microchannel 600 in the direction 620. Wall 605 of the microchannel 600 adjacent to the fluid flow 615. The image associated with 6 represents a cross-section of the microchannel 600 according to the present invention. As indicated above in respect of the microchannel 100, other exemplary cross-section of the microchannel 600 according to this invention shown in figure 2, and they are cross sections corresponding to the slice 135 (in this embodiment shown in Fig.6). So, for example, the cross section of the inlet openings 630 and outlet openings 650 may have a square shape 101, round shape 102, a rectangular shape 103 or any other form of limited two-dimensional shapes.

Moving the fluid 615 on microchannel 600 in the direction 620 may occur due to the differential pressure between the inlet hole 630 and the outlet 650. In addition, the wall 605 and composite particles 610 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles 610 and wall 605 that occur inside the microchannel 600 (in the inner area, which is usually a region 640), mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

Fluid 615, which is included in the microchannel 600 through the inlet opening 630 may be moved to the outlet 650, for example, due to the impact exerted on the fluid 615 in the intake hole 630 to create a thread in the direction 620 toward the outlet 650 (for example, when the pressure of the fluid 615 in the intake hole 630 more hamdallaye fluid 615 in the outlet). If the temperature of the fluid 615 in the input hole 630 is T1then the composite particles 610 (before entering the microchannel 600) can be represented in the form of the velocity distribution whose average value is proportional to the temperature.

In the embodiment shown in Fig.6, is considered fluid 615 moved parallel to the direction 620. Therefore, the composite particles 610 in fluid 615 will have a greater component of velocity in the direction 620 (relative to the microchannel 600)than in the direction perpendicular to the direction 620.

But unlike microchannel 500 wall 605 of the microchannel 600 has such a configuration, when the cross-sectional area decreases sharply near the outlet 650. In this case, accordingly, the scattering from the mirror rebound composite particles 610 on the wall 605 will turn part of the velocity component that is parallel to the direction 620, the component is not parallel to the direction 620. This transformation of the energy flow in the internal kinetic energy of the fluid 615 will increase the temperature of a fluid medium 615. This increase will become more noticeable near the outlet 650. Near this area, respectively, microchannel 600 is configured such that the energy flow associated with the fluid medium 615 in itsnotwaste 630, to a large extent turned into internal kinetic energy of a fluid medium 615.

In such circumstances it may be necessary to provide thermal insulation of this section of the microchannel 600. For example, you can give the area of the microchannel 600 adjacent to the outlet, such a configuration that do not transmit thermal energy to other parts of the microchannel 600. This insulated plot shown in Fig.6 number 655.

If the composite particles 610 fluid 615 represent molecules (and fluid 615 represents, for example, gas), then certain vibrational state of composite particles 610 can be populated as a result of increasing temperature, provided near the outlet 650.

When such vibrationally excited molecules are then passed through the outlet 650, it will emit likely to electromagnetic radiation, to switch to a lower vibrational state. It should also be noted that the microchannel 600 can be used to create additional aggregate such vibrationally excited molecules passing through the outlet 650, such a population inversion in vibrational States, which are suitable for laser generation.

7 shows another variant of implementation of the present invention. MicroCan the l 700 according to a variant implementation of the present invention is configured such using a linear combination of illustrative embodiments shown in figures 1 and 4.

Accordingly, all of the above relative to the embodiments shown in figures 1 and 4, applies by reference to him.

Microchannel 700 contains the inlet opening 730 and outlet 750. Fluid medium 715, consisting of composite particles 710, moves along the microchannel 700 in the direction 720. Wall 705 of the microchannel 700 adjacent to the fluid flow 715. The image associated with Fig.7 is a cross section of the microchannel 700, as in figures 1 and 4.

Fluid medium 715, which is included in the microchannel 700 through the suction port 730 may be moved to the outlet 750 due to the pressure difference between the inlet hole 730 and the outlet 750, and the pressure of the fluid 715 in the intake hole 730 more pressure fluid 715 in the outlet. In addition, the wall 705 and the flow of the constituent particles 710 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles 710 and wall 705, which occur inside the microchannel 700, mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

If the temperature of the fluid 715 in the intake hole 730 is T1then the composite particles 710 (before entering the microchannel 700) can be represented in the form of distribution / min net is her the average value which is proportional to the temperature.

If the mouth of the inlet is small (for example, is from 0.01 μm2up to 500 μm2when the fluid medium is air), the composite particle 710, postupaiushchemu the inlet opening 730 in the microchannel 700 typically has such speed that its component parallel to the direction 720, more components perpendicular to the direction 720. Therefore, fluid 715 initially acquires a velocity, which is mainly parallel to the direction 720. Kinetic energy, which is correlated with the movement of the fluid 715 in the direction 720, covered due to the internal thermal energy of a fluid medium 715, which she had at a temperature T1before entering into the inlet hole 730. As part contained in the fluid 715 at a temperature T1thermal energy is turned into kinetic energy of the fluid flow 715, for conservation of energy requires that the temperature of the fluid medium 715, which we denote by T2in the middle of the 740 was lower temperature T1(provided that it does not change depending on flow rate). If the temperature T2less and temperature (which we denote by Twwall 705 between the inlet hole 730 and mid 740 microchannel 700, t is always fluid 715 in the area between the inlet hole 730 and mid 740 will cool the material, which is formed microchannel 700.

Microchannel 700 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the impact of this change of temperature on the fluid 715, in three ways. In particular, when the wall 705 and composite particles 710 are configured such that the collision between the wall 705 and composite particles 710 happen mostly with mirror bounce, the collision - which are the means of energy transfer between the wall 705 and fluid medium 715 - will have a minimal impact on the overall fluid flow. In other words, when the clash between integral part 710 and the wall 705 happens is that the speed of the composite particles 710 ravnomeran in any direction from the wall 705 (i.e. there is a collision without the mirror rebound), then many such collisions will have a retarding effect on the flow of a fluid medium 715, which will be accompanied, probably, an increase in the internal temperature of a fluid medium 715 in the area between the inlet hole 730 and mid 740. Microchannel 700 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the cooling effect, selectively eliminating the impact of collisions without mirror bounce.

In addition, POSCO is ku wall 705 of the microchannel 700 is configured such the cross-sectional area between the inlet 730 and mid 740, through which moves fluid medium 715, usually increases, the specular scattering of composite particles 710 on the wall 705 will turn part of the velocity component that is perpendicular to the direction 720, the component parallel to the direction 720.

Moreover, microchannel 700 structurally small (i.e. the area of the inner surface, which in the preferred embodiment, is from the 3-11m2linear micron to 6-10m2on line microns), so the ratio of the area of the surface, which wall 705 converted to the specified volume of fluid 715 in the microchannel 700, is relatively large (namely, when the volume of fluid 715, surrounded by a wall with the above surface area is from about 8-17m3linear micron to 3-15m3on line microns). Because the surface facing the wall 705 to the volume of fluid 715, is a major site of energy exchange between the wall 705 and fluid medium 715, this leads to the maximum increase of the total energy exchange between the fluid medium 715 and microchannel 700.

In the microchannel 700 between the mid-740 and the outlet 750 fluid 705 undergoes movement (which may increase due to the cooling is Astia wall 705 between the inlet hole 730 and mid 740) parallel to the direction 720. Therefore, the composite particles 710 in fluid 715 in this area will have a greater component of velocity in the direction 720 (relative to the microchannel 700)than in the direction perpendicular to the direction 720.

But unlike the area between the inlet hole 730 and mid 740 wall 705 of the microchannel 700 has such a configuration, when the cross section through which flow moves between mid 740 and the outlet 750, gradually decreases. In this area, respectively, specular scattering of composite particles 710 on the wall 705 will lead to the partial transformation of the velocity component that is parallel to the direction 720, the component perpendicular to the direction 720. This transformation of the energy flow in the internal kinetic energy of a fluid medium 715 will lead to an increase in the temperature of the fluid 715. This increase will become more noticeable near the outlet 750. Accordingly, near this area microchannel 700 is configured such that the energy flow associated with the fluid medium 715 in the middle 740 (which includes a small amount of energy associated with cooling wall 705 between the inlet hole 730 and mid 740), have largely turned into internal kinetic energy of a fluid medium 715.

In such circumstances may sweat aboutsa to provide thermal insulation of this section of the microchannel 700. For example, you can give the area of the microchannel 700 adjacent to the outlet, such a configuration that do not transmit thermal energy to other parts of the microchannel 700. This insulated plot is shown in Fig.7. number 755. In addition, thermoelectric device 770 may have such a configuration that it can take the heat energy accumulated in the field 755. thermoelectric device 770 may be, without limitation, any commercially available device of this kind, for example a product company Custom Thermoelectric number 1261G-7L31-04CQ.

If the composite particles 710 fluid 715 represent molecules (and fluid 715 represents, for example, gas), then certain vibrational state of composite particles 710 can be populated as a result of increasing temperature, provided near the outlet 750.

When such vibrationally excited molecules are then passed through the exhaust hole 750, it will emit likely to electromagnetic radiation, to switch to a lower vibrational state. It should also be noted that the microchannel 700 can be used to create additional aggregate such vibrationally excited molecules passing through the exhaust hole 750, such a population inversion in oscillating the States, which is suitable for laser generation.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 800 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used a linear combination of the illustrative embodiments depicted on figure 5 and 6.

Accordingly, all of the above relative to the embodiments shown in figure 5 and 6, is by reference to him.

Microchannel contains 800 inlet 830 and the exhaust port 850. Fluid 815, consisting of composite particles 810, moves along the microchannel 800 in the direction of the 820. Wall 805 microchannel 800 adjacent to the fluid flow 815. The image associated with pig is a cross section of the microchannel 800, as figure 5 and 6.

Fluid 815, which is included in the microchannel 800 through the inlet 830, can be moved to the outlet 850 due to the pressure difference between the inlet 830 and the outlet 850, and the pressure of the fluid 815 in the intake hole 830 more pressure fluid 815 in the outlet. In addition, the wall 805 and composite particles 810 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles 810 and wall 805, which occur inside the microchannel 800, mainly maint is ydautsya mirror bounce.

If the temperature of the fluid 815 in the intake hole 830 is T1then the composite particles 810 (before entering the microchannel 800) can be represented in the form of the velocity distribution whose average value is proportional to the temperature.

If the mouth of the inlet is small (for example, is from 0.01 μm2up to 500 μm2when the fluid medium is air), the composite particle 810 entering through the inlet 830 in microchannel 800, usually has such speed that its component parallel to the direction 820, more components perpendicular to the direction 820. Therefore, fluid 815 initially acquires a velocity, which is mainly parallel to the direction 820. Kinetic energy, which is correlated with the movement of the fluid 815 in the direction 820, covered due to the internal thermal energy of the fluid 815, which she had at a temperature T1before entering into the inlet hole 830. As part contained in the fluid 815 at a temperature T1thermal energy is turned into kinetic energy of the fluid flow 815, for conservation of energy requires that the temperature of the fluid 815, which we denote by T2before the 845 area (which will be discussed below) was lower than the temperature T1(provided what she does not change depending on flow rate). If the temperature T2less and temperature (which we denote by Twwall 805 between the inlet 830 and section 845 of the microchannel 800, then fluid 815 in the area between the inlet 830 and section 845 will cool the material, which is formed microchannel 800.

Microchannel 800 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the impact of this change of temperature on the fluid 815, in three ways. In particular, when the wall 805 and composite particles 810 are configured such that the collision between the wall 805 and composite particles 810 occur predominantly with mirror bounce, the collision - which are the means of energy transfer between the wall 805 and fluid medium 815 - will have a minimal impact on the overall flow of the fluid 815. In other words, when the clash between integral part 810 and the wall 805 happens is that the speed of the composite particles 810 ravnomeran in any direction from the wall 805 (i.e. there is a collision without the mirror rebound), then many such collisions will have a retarding effect on the flow of fluid 815, which will be accompanied, probably, by increasing the wew is Enna temperature of the fluid 815 in the area between the inlet 830 and 845 area. Microchannel 800 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration, to enhance the cooling effect, selectively eliminating the impact of collisions without mirror bounce.

In addition, the mean free path between the composite particles 810 in fluid 815 usually increases with the distance between the inlet 830 and 845 area, so the dependence of the specular scattering of composite particles 810 on the wall 805 along the length of the microchannel 800 is likely to contribute to the transformation of part of the velocity component that is perpendicular to the direction 820, the component parallel to the direction 820.

In addition, the microchannel 800 structurally small (i.e. the area of the inner surface, which in the preferred embodiment, is approximately 6-10m2on line microns), so the ratio of the area of the surface, which wall 805 converted to the specified volume of fluid 815 in the microchannel 800, is relatively large (i.e. when the volume of fluid 815, surrounded by a wall with the above surface area is about 3-15m3on line microns). Because the surface on which the wall 805 converted to the volume of fluid 815, is a major site of energy exchange between the wall 805 and fluid medium 815, this drive is to maximize the total energy exchange between the fluid medium 815 and microchannel 800.

In the area near 845 outlet 850 microchannel 800 fluid 815 undergoes movement (which may increase due to the cooling effect of the wall 805 between the inlet 830 and 845 area) parallel to the direction 820. Therefore, the composite particles 810 fluid 815 in the area between the inlet 830 and 845 area will have a greater component of velocity in the direction 820 (relative to the microchannel 800)than in the direction perpendicular to 820.

But unlike the area between the inlet 830 and 845 area wall 855 microchannel 800 has such a configuration, when the cross section through which flow moves sharply decreases at the outlet is 850. In the field 845, respectively, specular scattering of composite particles 810 on the wall 855 and subsequent clashes between the composite particles 810 in the 845 area will lead to the partial transformation of the velocity component that is parallel to the direction 820, the component perpendicular to the direction 820. This transformation of the energy flow in the internal kinetic energy of the fluid 815 will lead to an increase in the temperature of the fluid 815. This increase occurs at Fig in the 845 area adjacent to the exhaust hole 850. Accordingly, in the area of 845 microchannel 800 is configured such that the energy of the flow, correlated with the fluid medium 815 between the inlet 830 and 845 area (which includes a small amount of energy associated with cooling wall 805 between the inlet 830 and 845 area), have largely turned into internal kinetic energy of the fluid 815.

In such circumstances it may be necessary to provide thermal insulation of this section of the microchannel 800. For example, you can give the area of the microchannel 800 adjacent to the outlet, such a configuration that do not transmit thermal energy to other parts of the microchannel 800. This insulated plot shown in Fig number 855. In addition, thermoelectric device 770 may have such a configuration that it can take the heat energy accumulated in the field 855. thermoelectric device 770 may be, without limitation, any commercially available device of this kind, for example a product company Custom Thermoelectric number 1261G-7L31-04CQ.

If the composite particles 810 fluid 815 represent molecules (and fluid 815 represents, for example, gas), then certain vibrational state of composite particles 810 can be populated as a result of increasing temperature, provided near the outlet 850.

When such oscillatory-vazbu is effected molecules are then passed through the outlet 850, it will emit likely to electromagnetic radiation, to switch to a lower vibrational state. It should also be noted that the microchannel 800 can be used to create additional aggregate such vibrationally excited molecules passing through the exhaust hole 850, such a population inversion in vibrational States, which are suitable for laser generation.

Figure 9 shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 900 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used a linear combination of the illustrative embodiments shown in Fig.7.

Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in Fig.7, is by reference to him.

Microchannel 900 contains inlet 930 and the outlet hole 950. Fluid 915 moves microchannel 900 in the direction of the 920. Wall 905 of the microchannel 900 adjacent to the fluid flow 915. The image associated with Fig.9 is a cross section of the microchannel 900, as in Fig.7.

Fluid 915, which is included in the microchannel 900 through the inlet 930 may be moved to the outlet 950 due to the pressure difference between the inlet 930 and an outlet hole 950, PR is than the pressure of the fluid 915 in the intake hole 930 more pressure fluid 915 in the outlet. In addition, the wall 905 and the composite particles of the fluid 915 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles and the wall 905 that occur inside the microchannel 900, mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

As in the case of the variant implementation, shown in Fig.7, you may need to provide thermal insulation of those portions of the microchannel 900 that can be heated fluid medium 915. In the embodiment shown in Fig.9, the sections of the microchannel 900 near the area of 965 and outlet openings 950 are configured such that they do not transmit heat energy to other parts of the microchannel 900. These insulated parts shown in Fig.9 number 955. As mentioned above, thermoelectric device 770 may have such a configuration that it can take the heat energy accumulated in the field 955. thermoelectric device 770 may be, without limitation, any commercially available device of this kind, for example a product company Custom Thermoelectric number 1261G-7L31-04CQ.

As mentioned above, if the composite particles of the fluid 915 represent molecules (and fluid 915 represents, for example, gas), then certain vibrational state of the composite particles can be populated as a result of increasing temperature, ensuring the line near section 965 and outlet openings 950.

When such vibrationally excited molecules are then passed through a section 965 and the outlet hole 950, it will emit likely to electromagnetic radiation, to switch to a lower vibrational state. To use electromagnetic energy generated as a result of this electromagnetic radiation can be applied photovoltaic device 975. Near the photovoltaic device 975 microchannel 900 may be configured to be transparent to the emitted radiation.

Figure 10 shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1000 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used a linear combination of the illustrative embodiments shown in Fig.

Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in Fig relates by reference to him.

Microchannel 1000 contains the inlet opening 1030 and the exhaust port 1050. Fluid 1015 moves microchannel 1000 in the direction of the 1020. Wall 1005 microchannel 1000 adjacent to the fluid flow 1015. The image associated with figure 10 is a cross section of the microchannel 1000, as Fig.

Fluid 1015, which is included in the microchannel 1000 through the inlet 030, can be moved to the outlet 1050 due to the pressure difference between the inlet opening 1030 and the outlet 1050, and the pressure of the fluid 1015 in the intake hole 1030 more pressure fluid 1015 in the outlet. In addition, the wall 1005 and the composite particles of the fluid 1015 are configured such that the collision between the composite particles and the wall 1005 that occur inside the microchannel 1000, mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

As in the case of the variant implementation, shown in Fig, you may need to provide thermal insulation of those portions of the microchannel 1000 that can be heated fluid medium 1015. In the embodiment shown in figure 10, the sections of the microchannel 1000 near field 1065 and outlet 1050 are configured such that they do not transmit heat energy to other parts of the microchannel 1000. These insulated areas are shown on figure 10 number 1055. As mentioned above, thermoelectric device 770 may have such a configuration that it can take the heat energy accumulated in the field 1055. thermoelectric device 770 may be, without limitation, any commercially available device of this kind, for example a product company Custom Thermoelectric number 1261G-7L31-04CQ.

As mentioned above,if the composite particles of the fluid 1015 represent molecules (and fluid 1015 represents for example, gas), then certain vibrational state of the composite particles can be populated as a result of increasing temperature, provide near plot 1065 and outlet 1050.

When such vibrationally excited molecules are then passed through a region 1065 and the exhaust port 1050, it will emit likely to electromagnetic radiation, to switch to a lower vibrational state. To use electromagnetic energy generated as a result of this electromagnetic radiation can be applied photovoltaic device 975. Near the photovoltaic device 975 microchannel 1000 may be configured to be transparent to the emitted radiation.

Figure 11 shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1100 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments, is shown in figure 1. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in figure 1, applies by reference to him. In the embodiment shown figure 11, the fluid enters through the inlet BREATH in and out through the outlet opening 1150.

On Fig shows another illustrative options, the ant implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1200 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments, is shown in figure 4. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in figure 4, applies by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, fluid enters through the inlet 1230 and exits through outlet 1250.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1300 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments, is shown in figure 5. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in figure 5, is by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, fluid enters through the inlet 1330 and exits through outlet 1350.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1400 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments shown in Fig.6. Relevant to the military, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in Fig.6, is by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, fluid enters through the inlet 1430 and exits through outlet 1450.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1500 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments shown in Fig.7. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in Fig.7, is by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, portions of the microchannel 1500 marked on Fig as an area of 1555, can be insulated from the other parts.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1600 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments shown in Fig. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in Fig relates by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, portions of the microchannel 1600 denoted by N. Fig as the area 1655, can be insulated from the other parts.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1700 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments shown in Fig.9. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in Fig.9, is by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, portions of the microchannel 1700 marked on Fig as an area of 1755, can be insulated from the other parts.

On Fig shows another exemplary variant of implementation of the present invention. Microchannel 1800 according to a variant implementation of the present invention has such a configuration that used the parallel combination of the illustrative embodiments, is shown in figure 10. Accordingly, all of the above in relation to option implementation, shown in figure 10, is by reference to him. In the embodiment shown in Fig, portions of the microchannel 1800 marked on Fig as the area 1855, may be insulated from the other parts.

A summary of experimental data

We have carried out measurements on the device according to Dan the WMD invention. This device is a MEMS device size 30×30×1 mm, containing 100 parallel microchannels. Each microchannel contains inlet neck, which narrowed to about 10×10 μm. The mouth opened to access gas (air) from a source and has a small cross-section to limit the mass flow rate of gas. Neck short (in the direction of flow), in order to prevent the sound speed of the gas stream. The distance between the inlet and the outlet is about 30 mm. He has such a configuration to provide a large number of collisions between molecules within the microchannel of the source gas and the wall of the microchannel.

A wall section of each channel adjacent to the gas flow, made of hard, dense, high-melting material. In the device used for measurement was used tungsten. Tungsten was deposited by methods used for the production of MEMS, to make the surface flat as a whole. Although the walls of the microchannels of the device were made of tungsten, the rest of the material behind tungsten (selected to provide a low thermal resistance) was a copper. In the device used for measurement, the microchannels and their walls were formed as follows. The slo is silicon, put on an ordinary plate (such as plate with single-sided polishing), deposited a layer of tungsten. Then on a layer of tungsten was applied to photomask to form photoresist layer, consisting of a number of relief channels. The dimensions of each relief channel correspond to the dimensions of the microchannel. Then on the plate with the silicon substrate deposited tungsten, put a layer of tungsten and a layer photoresist channels. Then a layer of tungsten deposited copper, and the sputtered copper layer was applied by an electrolytic method, another layer of copper. Cutting the plate into pieces of the desired size (in this case on square pieces of 30×30 mm), removing the photoresist using acetone ultrasonic bath. In the above-described process sequence instead of the silicon substrate can be used a copper substrate to improve thermal conductivity properties of the device.

According to the present invention geometrical profile and the materials used to create the neckline in the intake hole and the surface of the walls of the microchannel device was chosen so as to provide a mirror and the interaction between air molecules and the relatively smooth surface of the tungsten, and the transformation of a certain part of the internal heat energy of the air and heat of the microchannel in the flow velocity, d is ha, passing through the microchannel.

It has been shown that collisions between gas molecules and the surface of various materials (for example, gold, copper, silicon, tungsten and lead) are accompanied mirror bounce.

The material surrounding the microchannel (i.e., the copper in the device used for measurement), was chosen to provide good heat transfer between the ambient air and the surface of the microchannel and his neck. Typically, suitable materials are those which have a high heat transfer coefficient and which provide structural integrity of the device in air and in an environment with low blood pressure.

As it turned out, the efficiency of the device according to the invention for cooling may depend on properties of the surface, which moves fluid medium and with which she is faced. For example, the preferred surface according to this invention is relatively smooth surface, so you can hope that the collision between the composite particles of the fluid and the walls will have a minimal impact on the internal speed of the constituent particles of the fluid in the direction of its flow. In this sense, the more "percolatedown wall of the microchannel in a random collision with composite particles in the fluid medium, the greater the probability of transfer of thermal energy from the microchannel fluid and Vice versa.

It is believed that the reflectivity of the walls of the microchannel may be influenced by the composition of the material. For example, when the fluid medium is a gas, consider that the extent to which the collision gas with the surface accompanied mirror rebound increases, if the micro-channels created in very hard materials with a high melting point such as tungsten or diamond. Accordingly, when you achieve a high rate of heat transfer between the fluid medium and the microchannel, the quality of the material directly behind the walls of the microchannel and any surrounding structures it is possible to use materials with high thermal conductivity.

Accordingly, believe that the rate at which energy is absorbed by the gas flow from the environment, is proportional to the speed at which heat transfer occurs the collision with the surface. And still believe that this speed can be increased in microchannels, maximizing surface area in contact with the current gas. Therefore, the microchannels MEMS essentially provide a high ratio of surface area to volume flow and can have macroscopic length in the manufacture of existing methods of production.

In addition to the, consider that the efficiency of this device is proportional to the effective temperature difference between the fluid medium and the wall of the microchannel. The effective temperature of the fluid is lower the greater the initial kinetic energy of the fluid was used to move the fluid through the microchannel. Since kinetic energy is proportional to the square of the velocity, it is believed that this temperature difference is proportional to the square of the velocity of the fluid through the channel. In other words, a linear increase in velocity leads to a disproportionately greater increase in the amount of energy absorbed by collisions.

To ensure sound of the axial flow velocity at the entrance to this device, you can use the creation of openings in the form of a nozzle or giving her stoplooping geometric shapes. Known to be competent in this area the flow velocity through the mouth of a nozzle or a high-speed nozzle are sound up until the ratio of the pressures at the high pressure and low pressure ends of the microchannels remains below a critical value, which is for air 0,528.

At room temperature, the molecules of gas (such as air) have a speed of about 500 m/s and temperature (about 300 K), which is proportional to the square of the speed. When the gas is moving with a velocity of sound or 340 m/s, the effective temperature at which assumes full mirror bounce, reduces to:

300 K-300 K*((340 m/s*340 m/s)/(500 m/s*500 m/s))=162 K.

From this calculation it follows that the sound velocity of the gas provides a relatively low effective temperature, in order to achieve the energy absorption of the walls of the microchannel device in air at room temperature.

Another advantage of the sound velocity at the inlet is the fact that many conventional piston pumps provide very high performance in this regard pressures.

However, the rate of energy absorption provided by moving with a velocity of sound, were exceeded due to the stability of the process of intermolecular collisions and skewness of the velocity collisions. The collision processes continuously transform some of the energy of the random movement of fluid into energy directional movement along the microchannels. Although growth begins with the sound speed, it increases to supersonic values, because the energy is fed continuously from the surface of the microchannels in the bounce gas molecules, and then converted into a flow rate, moving along the microchannel. This process of continuous transformation of energy significantly increases the amount of energy absorbed by each molecule of gas. We calculated h what about the devices length 3 cm output speed reaches 2000 m/s, if the input speed is 4 m/s the Average value of the kinetic energy absorbed from the environment of each molecule was approximately eleven times the initial kinetic energy of the gas molecules. This is the amount of energy absorbed is approximately 3 times greater than the average energy absorbed during the evaporation of molecules of the refrigerant in a typical compression refrigeration system.

The most effective energy absorbing device will provide a high rate of collisions between molecules and maintain the asymmetry of the velocity of the collision over the entire device. One way to achieve this combination of conditions is the use of architecture diverging microchannels, when the cross section of the flow increases from the mouth of the microchannel in its inlet opening in the direction of its exit through the outlet. The rate of change of the cross-section of the channel depends on the composition of the gas, the rate of heat transfer along the surface of the microchannel, the extent to which the collision with the surface accompanied mirror bounce, and the axial velocity at each point along the length of the microchannel.

Another advantage of the geometry of the diverging microchannels is that the gas density gradually drops to smaller values along the surface of the microchannels. is unigene gas density reduces boundary effects and enhances the energy transfer per collision. Reducing the thickness of the boundary layer along the surface of the microchannels or stator device was manifested in a considerable reduction of the surface temperature in a working device.

Demonstrated the absorption of energy from the air at room temperature and is proportional to the temperature decrease in the device according to calculations appeared in 4.130 times lower, which could be due to the Joule - Thomson at the same pressure drop value 1 ATM along the microchannels of the device.

Using used for a measurement device has been demonstrated to increase the speed of air molecules from 4 m/s to more than 2,000 m/s in the MEMS device containing multiple parallel microchannels length of 30 mm, the temperature of the supplied air was 296 K. the Velocity of the air exiting reached approximately 2,000 m/s on average when moving along the microchannel length of 30 mm, the molecule has experienced an increase in its initial values of the kinetic energy in eleven times. Energy speed can be prevented from increasing its speed of molecules without any reduction of the mass flow at the inlet of the device.

It is well known that coherent and incoherent radiation of light in the gas is a quantum reduction of the vibrational kinetic energy of the atom or m is likely. A prerequisite is the presence of atoms or molecules of gas at a certain vibrational energy level before reducing it to ensure that the emission of a photon. One method of achieving the required vibrational level is the acceleration of the atom or molecule to a sufficiently high speed with subsequent collision. Collision converts some of the energy of the translational motion of the atom in the desired high vibrational energy state. The rest energy of the translational motion allows the atom to continue moving if the collision frequency is not large enough to oscillatory fashion has reached its point of relaxation and emit a photon. Gaseous carbon dioxide in the CO2the laser is typically heated to 500 K in the distribution of Maxwell-Boltzmann, in order to achieve a high vibrational energy level required for radiation. The gas then undergoes relaxation to create the conditions for radiation.

Energopostachalna device has demonstrated its ability to increase the temperature of air molecules from the middle of the room value 300 K to more than 4000 K, i.e. a higher temperature than is required to provide radiation at a variety of gases.

One of these structures according to the present izobreteny who reaches the desired translational energy and vibrational energy levels, providing a first nicking thread to increase the frequency of intermolecular collisions, and hence the vibrational energy, and then providing an increasing cross-section to reduce the frequency of intermolecular collisions, to create conditions for quantum relaxation, which leads to the subsequent emission of photons.

Energy speed can also be absorbed by thermoelectric device. It was shown that the dispersed gas molecules with an angle of attack relative to the normal to the surface of less than 45 degrees to increase the surface temperature. Thermoelectric device with a thermal channel to such heated surfaces can be used for energy absorption speed and conversion of heat into electricity.

Similarly, the decrease and increase of the cross section of flow can be used to supply energy for the reactions in gases. The chemical reactions between the gases in the flow of gaseous or negatory materials in microchannels can be achieved by increasing the gas velocity in such a device, and by changing the energy of fashion in the increase and decrease of the cross section of the stream.

It was also shown to accumulate energy sufficient to from the teachings of the photon and plasma formation. The emission of photons can also be facilitated by the use of gas mixtures containing components, the molecular structure which contributes to the radiation at the required power levels and wavelengths.

The energy transfer from the walls of the microchannel in the flow reduces the temperature on the surface of the microchannel and in the surrounding material. This cooling effect allows you to use the device for freezing. Was demonstrated microchannel with an effective temperature of the gas stream far below 100 K using as a source gas of air with room temperature of 296 K and the creation of a supersonic flow in microchannels.

It was demonstrated as a high-energy flow in microchannels energy absorbing device for instantaneous evaporation of the liquid to additional enhance the cooling effect. High-speed flow of gas above the liquid surface provides a sharp decrease in pressure in the perpendicular direction, which leads to rapid evaporation.

The energy absorption increases stronger than in direct proportion to the increase of the flow velocity. In the same way the velocity of the gas will continue to increase in the absorption of gas additional energy from the environment.

The increase in the rate of gas flow through notesto serially connected rows of microchannels has been demonstrated using MEMS devices. The results showed that gases can be transported with a velocity of sound at a distance without loss of speed due to friction. This configuration will consist of a single pump of sufficient capacity to produce the necessary low pressure on the outlet side at low speed, is equal to the specific mass flow in the hole at the entrance to the row of microchannels. The advantage over the prior art lies in the fact that there is no need to install additional pumps between rows to compensate for friction losses. In addition, the energy velocity increase can be absorbed with the aim of turning it into electricity for the entire length of the microchannel device.

The surface used to absorb energy from the gas stream in the form of heat, can be used to heat other gas, liquid or solid substances in thermal contact with the surface subjected to collisions. This surface is exposed to collisions, can be so designed that it is removed from a gas stream only the energy of the previous speed. The remaining energy flow allows you to continue moving with the sound speed or even faster.

Materials and components according to the present invention, such as exemplary device opican the e above, provide the solution to all problems that have been identified.

Other embodiments of the invention will be apparent versed in the art from the description outlined here and the practical use of the invention. It is clear that the description and ways of implementation should be considered only illustrative, but not limiting the nature and scope of the invention set forth in the following claims.

1. The cooling device containing:
microchannel comprising a wall section, the inlet and the outlet; and
gas, consisting of a composite particle;
moreover, the microchannel has such a configuration that accommodates the flow of gas moving from the inlet to the outlet in the first direction mainly perpendicular to the cross section of the microchannel;
moreover, the inlet opening has a first cross-sectional area and the outlet opening has a second cross-sectional area, mainly different from the first cross-sectional area; and
the section of the wall and the flow of the constituent particles are configured such that the collision between the composite particle and the wall section is mainly accompanied mirror bounce.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the gas is air.

3. The device according to claim 1, Otley is aldeasa fact, the first cross-sectional area less than the second cross-sectional area.

4. The device according to claim 1, wherein the particle is selected from the group comprising the molecule and the atom.

5. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that at least part of the cross-section of the microchannel varies with distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet.

6. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is predominantly linearly-increasing.

7. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the intake opening, an almost constant between a region adjacent to the inlet hole and an outlet hole, while the cross-section of the microchannel between the area adjacent to the intake hole and the exhaust hole is larger than the cross section of the microchannel in the region adjacent to the intake opening.

8. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on distance is in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mostly sharp in the field, adjacent to the outlet, almost constant between a region adjacent to the outlet, inlet, while the cross-section of the microchannel between the intake hole and the exhaust hole is larger than the cross section of the microchannel in the region adjacent to the outlet.

9. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is predominantly linear and mostly increasing in the first area and the predominantly linear and mostly descending in the second region, the first region is adjacent to the intake opening, and a second region adjacent to the outlet.

10. The device according to claim 5, characterized in that the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the intake opening, mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the outlet, and an almost constant between a region adjacent to the inlet hole, and the area adjacent to the outlet, and the cross-section of the microchannel between the region adjacent to the inlet hole is, and the area adjacent to the exhaust hole, more of the cross-section of the microchannel in the region adjacent to the intake opening.

11. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that it further comprises a thermoelectric device, adjacent to the outlet.

12. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that it further comprises a thermoelectric device, adjacent to the outlet.

13. The device according to claim 9, characterized in that it further comprises a photovoltaic device adjacent to the exhaust hole.

14. The device according to claim 10, characterized in that it further comprises a photovoltaic device adjacent to the exhaust hole.

15. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall section contains material deposited by sputtering.

16. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall section contains a material with a high melting point.

17. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall section contains material with high density.

18. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall section contains the coating material.

19. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the wall section contains the coating material deposited on a substrate by sputtering, and in which the collision between the composite particle and the wall section, the advantage of the public accompanied mirror bounce, includes a clash between the composite particle and the coating material, mostly accompanied mirror bounce.

20. The device according to claim 19, characterized in that the substrate contains copper.

21. The device according to claim 20, characterized in that the coating material contains tungsten.

22. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the first cross-sectional area has a size in the first range of about 0.01-500 μm2and the second cross-sectional area has a size in the second range of about 0.1-50000 μm2.

23. The device according to item 22, wherein the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet along the length of the microchannel has a value in the range of about 0.01 mm - 10 m

24. The cooling method by which:
create a microchannel containing surface, the inlet and the outlet, and the surface includes a wall section, the inlet opening has a first cross-sectional area and the outlet opening has a second cross-sectional area, mainly different from the first cross-sectional area;
create a gas containing composite particles; and
the movement of gas from the inlet to the outlet in the first direction mainly perpendicular to the cross section of the microchannel;
moreover, the Astok wall and/or a composite particle have the same configuration, that collision between the component of the composite particle and the wall section is mainly accompanied mirror bounce.

25. The method according to paragraph 24, characterized in that:
part of the gas adjacent to the intake opening has a first temperature;
part of the gas adjacent to the exhaust hole has a second temperature;
the composite particle is a molecule with many vibrational States; and
when creating a gas containing composite particles:
create a part of the gas, consisting of many molecules, and many of the molecules has a first distribution of vibrational States associated with the first temperature, and
many of the molecules has a second distribution of vibrational States associated with the second temperature.

26. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the gas is air.

27. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the first cross-sectional area less than the second cross-sectional area.

28. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the particle is selected from the group which includes the molecule and the atom.

29. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein at least a portion of the cross-section of the microchannel varies with distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet.

30. The method according to clause 29, wherein the change in Aracinovo cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is predominantly linearly-increasing.

31. The method according to clause 29, wherein the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the intake opening, an almost constant between a region adjacent to the inlet hole and an outlet hole, and the cross-section of the microchannel between the area adjacent to the intake hole and the exhaust hole is greater than a cross section of the microchannel in the region adjacent to the intake opening.

32. The method according to clause 29, wherein the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the outlet, almost constant between a region adjacent to the outlet, and an inlet hole, and the cross-section of the microchannel between the inlet and the outlet is greater than a cross section of the microchannel in the region adjacent to the outlet.

33. The method according to clause 29, wherein the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mainly inano-growing in the first area and predominantly linearly-decreasing in the second region, the first region is adjacent to the intake opening, and a second region adjacent to the outlet.

34. The method according to clause 29, wherein the change of the cross-section of the microchannel depending on the distance in the first direction between the inlet and the outlet is mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the intake opening, mostly sharp in the region adjacent to the outlet, and an almost constant between a region adjacent to the inlet hole, and the area adjacent to the outlet, and the cross-section of the microchannel between the region adjacent to the inlet hole, and the area adjacent to the exhaust hole, more of the cross-section of the microchannel in the region adjacent to the intake opening.

35. The method according to p, characterized in that it generates a thermoelectric device, adjacent to the outlet.

36. The method according to clause 34, wherein creating thermoelectric device adjacent to the exhaust hole.

37. The method according to p, characterized in that produce photovoltaic device adjacent to the exhaust hole.

38. The method according to clause 34, wherein creating the photovoltaic device adjacent to the exhaust hole.

39. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein microca the al contains material, deposited on the surface by sputtering.

40. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the wall section contains a material with a high melting point.

41. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the wall section contains material with high density.

42. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the microchannel contains a coating material deposited on the surface by sputtering.

43. The method according to § 42, characterized in that the surface contains copper.

44. The method according to item 43, wherein the coating material contains tungsten.

45. The method according to paragraph 24, wherein the first cross-sectional area has a size in the first range of about 0.01-500 μm2and the second cross-sectional area has a size in the second range of about 0.1-50000 μm2.

46. The method according to item 45, wherein the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet along the length of the microchannel has a value in the range of about 0.01 mm - 10 m

47. Cooling system containing:
microchannel comprising a wall section, the inlet and the outlet; and
gas composed of composite particles in ensuring the movement of gas through the microchannel due to the differential pressure between the first pressure and the second pressure and the first pressure of the gas adjacent to the intake opening, the atmosphere is the major pressure, and the second gas pressure adjacent to the outlet, mostly less than atmospheric pressure;
moreover, the microchannel has such a configuration that accommodates the flow of gas moving from the inlet to the outlet in the first direction mainly perpendicular to the cross section of the microchannel;
the section of the wall and the flow of the constituent particles are configured such that the collision between the composite particle and the wall section is mainly accompanied mirror bounce.

48. System p, wherein the gas is air.

49. System p, wherein the inlet opening has an area of the inlet cross-sectional range of about 0.01-500 μm2and the outlet opening has an area of the outlet cross-section in the second range of about 0.1-50000 μm2.

50. System § 49, wherein the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet along the length of the microchannel has a value in the range of about 0.01 mm - 10 m

51. The cooling method by which:
create a microchannel containing surface, the inlet and the outlet, and the surface includes a wall section;
create a gas containing composite particle;
ensure movement of the gas and the inlet to the outlet in the first direction, mainly perpendicular to the cross section of the microchannel, due to the differential pressure between the first pressure and the second pressure and the first pressure of the gas adjacent to the intake opening is atmospheric pressure and the second pressure of the gas adjacent to the outlet, mostly less than atmospheric pressure;
the wall section and/or the flow of the constituent particles are configured such that the collision between the composite particle and the wall section is mainly accompanied mirror bounce.

52. The method according to § 51, wherein the gas is air.

53. The method according to § 51, characterized in that the first cross-sectional area has a size in the first range of about 0.01-500 μm2and the second cross-sectional area has a size in the second range of about 0.1-50000 μm2.

54. The method according to item 53, wherein the linear distance between the inlet and the outlet along the length of the microchannel has a value in the range of about 0.01 mm - 10 m



 

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FIELD: heating.

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EFFECT: proposed solution allows for significant decrease of cooling system's heat resistance and increase of the power it transfers due to slight shift of the said elements In a particular application example, provided the heat releasing element and the cooler are shifted by 10% of the heat pipe length, the heat resistance decreased by 22% and the transferred heat power increased from 180 W to 220 W.

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FIELD: transport.

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FIELD: power industry.

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FIELD: articles of personal use.

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Storage device // 2480687

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: product storage device has at least two operation modes. In the first mode, gases are pumped from the device for the products to be stored at a pressure that is lower than that outside the device. In the second mode, gases are pumped out while the device is open for admission of gases from a space external with relation to the device for the gases thus admitted to ensure the products ventilation. The device may also have a third operation mode wherein both the first and second modes are deactivated. The storage device may function so that in case of products storage in the first mode gases are periodically removed from the device for the pressure whereat the products are stored to be maintained at a level below that of pressure inside the space external with relation to the device.

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FIELD: transport.

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FIELD: heating.

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Storage compartment // 2468316

FIELD: personal use articles.

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EFFECT: use of this group of inventions enables to improve efficiency of food storage.

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FIELD: heating.

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FIELD: heating.

SUBSTANCE: refrigerating device includes evaporator (15), compartment (7) cooled with the air circulating in the direction to and from evaporator (15), partition wall (29) separating compartment (7) from air inlet area. In partition wall (29) there are through ventilation openings (30) closed with diffusion covering (50) in its first position. When diffusion covering (50) is in the second position, air flow from evaporator (15) is passed through air inlet area to compartment (7) bypassing diffusion covering (50).

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15 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: personal use articles.

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EFFECT: use of this invention enables to create a refrigerating device with an equalisation valve, which ensures quiet pressure balance and prevents a strong flow of heat through the equalisation valve.

7 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: personal use articles.

SUBSTANCE: refrigerating apparatus contains a body and a door (hinged onto the body) as well as a pressure balancing valve. The pressure balancing valve allows inflow of air from the outside into inner space and prevents air egress from the inner surface outside. On the body front side framed turned towards the door there is a frame heater and a pressure balancing valve that is in electrical contact with the frame heater enabling heating the pressure balancing valve to a temperature in excess of water freeze point.

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FIELD: oil and gas industry.

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EFFECT: improving operational efficiency of the downhole tool.

14 cl, 5 dwg

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