Drilling-and-blasting jobs

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining particularly to openworking of rocks. Zoning is adjusted by registration of changes in thrust and lift engine performances to tie the latter via bucket spatial position in digging cycle for registration of bench bottom quality, granulometric composition and shape of cut rock bulk at transition from near well space to gotten well space. Characteristics of bench bottom working are allowed for by changes in performances of thrust engine at the level of bench bottom. Rock granulometric composition is defined by changes in performances of lift engines at filling and retention of filled bucket. Bulk compactness is defined by changes in performances of lift engine at scooping height registration at transition from gotten near well space to gotten well space.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of zoning and quality of blasting.

4 dwg

 

The invention relates to the mining industry and can be used in open development rock.

There is a method of blasting the implementation process, which consists of several stages. Originally collected input parameters of the system, a content database (DB) geological and survey information and tuning package for the adopted technology of drilling and blasting operations. The next stage is the installation and commissioning of PTC components, after which it becomes possible to operate the system. As data acquisition clarifies the correlation of drilling parameters on the physico-mechanical properties of the constituent rocks, methods of filtration data obtained during the drilling process. Determined empirical relationship between specific energy of drilling and energy density of the explosive destruction of rocks for this career. (Kovalenko V.A., speech signal VG, Nagovitsin VA computer-aided design of blasting at quarries. Experience of implementation of // Collection of reports. Advanced technologies in open pits in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, 2008).

In the analysis of the above solutions should separately identify the advantages and disadvantages of the method of estimation of the structural and strength properties of the intensity of the rock drilling wells and method, " which (as far as the implementation method allows to mitigate these shortcomings)

The main advantage of assessing structural and strength properties by measuring the intensity of drilling is simplicity, accessibility of the method in terms of production and a small dependence on subjective component that allows to use this method of automated systems. The main drawback is the lack of correlation between strivesto breeds and energy drilling. Each field has its unique geological structure. Each pit has unique physical and mechanical properties of rocks. Each career different types of EXPLOSIVES produce the destruction of the mountain massif in different ways. Vzryvaet rocks largely related to their elastic properties, when, for example, marble is relatively soft (coefficient fortress on Protodyakonov 8-10), not abrasive, but viscous, relatively easily drilled, but difficult explosive fragmentation. At the same time, Rogovik more solid (the ratio of the fortress on Protodyakonov 12-14) drilled worse, but for their explosive fragmentation requires less 20-25% specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES. Inside geological type vzryvaet rocks largely depends on the fracture arrays.

The main disadvantage of this method implementation of this method in practice is the difficulty of finding correlation between strivesto breeds and energy drilling for specific types of rocks, requiring special studies (with the involvement of highly qualified specialists), it is difficult served automation. The research must be done to establish correlations within the geological type between the structural properties of rocks and intensity of drilling.

At the same time, there is a method in which to evaluate the work of the excavator and the quality of training excavation face on the parameters of the excavator. So, for example technical solution (Uwian, Lee, Ahipping, Afforable. The control method of accounting excavator - malapati. A.S. No. 1425277 USSR, 1988) provides a measure of the engine load of the lifting mechanism of the bucket, determining the magnitude of the loading bucket, control operations, use, transporting the loaded bucket and cycle excavation by measuring the current engine engine head, the bucket is raised. In this case the formation of information about the working conditions of the excavator is solved by counting in the process of excavation, the total number of Carpani and perekachany on the i-th point in time. Count the total number of cycles produced excavation at the same time and in relation to the total number produced cycles of excavation to the total number of Carpani and perekachany judge the preparedness of the rock mass the excavation. In this way the measurement of electrical parameters of excavation, characterizing the conditions of operation of the excavator, is not bound to space and not associated with blasting. It should be noted that these electrical parameters characterize the operation of the excavator, and in General working conditions, but does not characterize the individual parameters of the excavator slaughter (the design quality of the soles of the ledge, granulometric composition of the rock mass, the shape of the bulk rock mass). As already noted, the quality of training slaughter of excavation is estimated srednestatisticheski through weight precerpavani.

Closest to the claimed solution is the way downhole blasting of rocks in the quarries, including the drilling of blastholes, during which the intensity of drilling (wells with rock drilling) is evaluated vzryvaet rocks (produced zoning of rocks on the limit). The quality of the explosive training process units for excavation in order to further adjust the parameters of the blasting is carried out on the value of the specific energy intensity of the process of excavation (Kovalenko V.A., Tagaev I.A., Kiselev A.S. Administration of mining production on the basis of operative information about the technological properties of the object to develop otci // Collection of reports. Advanced technologies in open pits in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, 2008).

It should be noted that the process of excavation is a convenient place in the technological chain for assessing the quality of blasting rocks. However, evaluation of the effectiveness of explosive training unit for the intensity of excavation (technical solution, selected as a prototype allows you to give only the total characteristic of the excavation face, but can not distinguish and analyze the individual causes of the increased intensity of the process of the excavation block. The increase of the intensity of excavation in the whole block can cause a variety of factors:

1. Poor biomechanics of the foot of the scarp, which is in turn caused by several factors:

- Losses (for various reasons) wells, separately analyze the prototype does not allow;

- Incorrectly selected parameters of drilling and blasting operations.

2. Noncompact form the bulk of the rock mass, worsening the performance of the excavation (lowers the coefficient of filling of the bucket, increasing the cycle time, reduces the number of cycles completed loading into a transport vehicle).

3. The increase in the output of oversize (lowers the coefficient of filling of the bucket, increasing the cycle time, reduces the number of cycles completed loading in transport is the based tool).

4. The increase in cycle time, and hence the energy cost due to the low qualification of the operator of the excavator or the particular location of the transport (for example, the excavation of trenches or the execution of special works).

In addition, to be considered as a prototype method does not allow to diagnose the output parameters of drilling and blasting on the exorbitant value, when the increase in the specific consumption of drilling and BB already does not improve the quality crushing, but only increases the impact on the bottom ledge. Additional explosive impact on the bottom ledge in turn leads to increased artificial fracturing outside the project outlines the conditions that adversely affect the efficiency of drilling and blasting.

The objective of the invention is to increase the effectiveness of zoning rocks on the limit, in particular improving the efficiency Refine zoning and the entire set of parameters of drilling and blasting operations affecting: effectiveness study of the soles of the ledge; the formation of a compact bulk rock mass; the crushing efficiency of the rocks.

The task is solved in that in the process of refining the zoning by recording changes in energy performance engine head, lifting cable through the position of the bucket in space and time of the operation h is Chania, filling, retention filled bucket in the cycle of excavation for the registration of changes in the quality of the soles of the ledge, particle size distribution and shape of Nabal repulsed mass at the transition from well repaid repaid to the inter-well space, and the feature study soles ledge take into account the change in the energy performance of the engine pressure level of bench bottom, granulometric composition of the rock mass change of the energy performance of the engine rise during filling and keeping filled the bucket, the compactness of Nabal the change in the energy performance of the engine lifting the Desk height decreased during the transition from suppressed near-wellbore to suppress inter-well space.

Figure 1. the structure of the automated system.

1 is a subsystem of GEOMARK; 2 - CAD drilling and blasting; 3 - the project of drilling; 4 - model zoning; 5 - correction calculation; 6 - control unit design parameters; 7 - control unit charging wells; 8 - database; 9 - module analysis of drilling operations; 10 - block analysis of excavators; 11 - unit system analysis; 12 - unit broadcast reporting data.

Figure 2. presents block diagram and connection diagram subsystem analysis of the shovel.

Labeling the wires in the cable under the your microprocessor module to the terminals of commandcontroller: 13 and 14 hoist motor; 15 and 16 to the engine head; 16 and 18 to the engine rotation.

Labeling the wires in the cable to connect the microprocessor module to the terminals of the shunt: 19 and 20 - shunt motor lifting, 21 and 22-shunt motor head; 23 and 24 - shunt motor rotation; 26 and 27, the resistance in the motor circuit open bottom; 28 and 29 connected to 220 volts.

30, 31, 32, 33, 34 - microprocessor modules respectively engines lifting, pressure, rotation, opening the bottom and the hub.

35 - processor 36 transmitter.

Figure 3 is a diagram of the motor currents of the head, lifting, turning, opening the bottom in the cycle of loading EKG 4.6.

37 is a graph of motor current opening of the bottom during cycle

38 is a graph of motor current pressure during cycle

39 is a graph of motor current rise during cycle

40 is a graph of the motor's rotation during the cycle.

Figure 4. presents a schematic cross-section of the block.

41 - the contours of the rocks on the block to rock breaking

42 - line blasting on the bench bottom

43 technological wells

44 - design position of the foot of the escarpment

45 - the actual position of the foot of the ledge.

46 - well, the depth of which is less than the project

47 - excavator disassembly of the rocks.

Examples of spiral the aqueous run -

Rocks rocks are highly variable in structure and mechanical properties, therefore, the flow rate of drilling and explosives for blasting 1 m3the breed can vary within wide limits. Design of blasting is carried out on the basis of zoning deposits by category of explosive.

Additional difficulties for the zoning causes fracturing of rocks, which often has a decisive impact on the results of ore crushing. As noted at various times by many researchers (Dev, Arachnoid, Liebana, Sagamigawa, VScrollBar, Vnesin.com and others), structural rock properties largely determine the degree of fragmentation of the rock mass in the explosion. Important not only blocking rocks, but also the characteristics of the cracks and fill them. In complex-structured arrays of randomly changing the structure of the rocks, and the presence of open cracks (or fractures, filled with loose material) significantly reduces the degree of fragmentation of the rock explosion. It is proved that when the rotating drum and fractured rocks of the increase in the specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES only within certain limits improves crushing. Only adjacent to the charge part of the array is subjected to crushing to pieces, smaller natural basis. In VI the m array unraveling of existing cracks. I.e. in fractured arrays, especially when yawning or filled with loose material cracks, ore crushing process is out of control. In this case, when an attempt to improve the quality of fragmentation by increasing the flow rate of drilling and EXPLOSIVES increases the explosive impact on the array outside of the project outlines the conditions (below the foot of the escarpment slopes of the escarpment). Outside project footprints blasting observed the destruction of the rock mass and intensive artificial fracturing. This applies to slope shoulders and the soles of the ledge. Unjustified increase in specific consumption of EXPLOSIVES, in addition, leads to increased variability of the rock mass and to the release of the rock mass on the upper edge of the parapet. Noncompact form of the bulk rock mass conditions worsen and the performance of excavators.

When hit wells in the area of artificial disturbances of the array is observed collapse wellheads, decreasing the amount of perebor, the deterioration of rock crushing and study the soles of the ledge. Ultimately upset the technology and required significant resources and time to make subject to intense artificial fracturing the rocks to choose a rational parameters of drilling and blasting operations and to lead a process in the normal state.

These ryanir the cation must be confirmed by the analysis of industrial explosions.

The main drawback of the technical solutions selected as a prototype, is the difficulty of finding correlation between strivesto rocks and intensity of excavation. The method allows us to give the total characteristic of the excavation face, but can not distinguish and analyze the individual causes of the increased intensity of the process of the excavation block. However, the techniques that can be used for searching the correlation is not perfect. So the main technological requirement for blasting works, is to ensure productive excavators ensure the lowering of the mining project on the mark. The main mechanism controlling the lowering of mining operations at the project mark is mine shooting the foot of the escarpment. Beyond surveying the question remains, at what cost (time and material) achieved the result of lowering the foot of the escarpment at the project level. In practice, up to 80% of the bumps on the soles are cleaned in the process of excavation. At least lost productivity, it also increases unscheduled downtime due to failure of equipment. Break construction and armament of the bucket, the elements of the handle, break the rope. In addition, in the process of surveying the foot of the ledge nick is not detected violation of the array below the design elevation of the foot of the escarpment and other parameters of slaughter, formed as a result of excessive drilling and EXPLOSIVES for mass explosion that affect excavation and subsequent processes of mining operations on the block. Thus, surveying surveying the foot of the ledge, though, and is now the main mechanism for assessing the results of drilling and blasting works, but does not provide an objective assessment of the quality of the bulk of the explosion and compliance technology, drilling and blasting parameters.

The proposed solution enables a systematic approach.

In the space around the well charge you can select the uniform area, dividing the space into zones managed and unmanaged fragmentation [17]. Directly to the downhole charge adjacent area blasting action charge (overgrinding), after which there is a zone of controlled explosive crushing, the size of which depends on the properties of rocks and blasting. Next is the area of unmanaged ore crushing, where the array is falling mainly on the natural basis. In fractured arrays zone controlled explosive fragmentation may be missing. In this case, the zone of high impact (overgrinding), the size of which is around the borehole of charge usually do not exceed one meter, immediately passes into the zone neupro the mined ore crushing (where the array is falling apart on natural basis). In such arrays, the task of the qualitative study soles and provide a compact form of Nabal smitten rock.

Therefore, it is very important not only to register the bumps on the sole, but to establish the cause (deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting or mismatch category limit).

The value of the proposed technical solution of the universality of the approach for rocks of different fractures. In the General case treated area well and inter-well space.

If necessary, can be conducted more in-depth analysis, in which the contour changes of the energy performance of excavation characterizing the quality (crushing of rock or development of bench bottom) as the distance from the borehole charges.

The proposed technical solution provide a mechanism for the evaluation of the results of drilling and blasting, which involves:

1. The selection is homogeneous in nature and results of explosive effect plots suppressed near-well and inter-well space:

a zone of influence of the wells, which were deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations;

b) near-Well space zones of influence of the wells for which no deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations;

g) iskajennoe space zones of influence of the wells, that had not been deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations.

2. Establishing boundary values of the currents of the engine head, while drawing on the bottom of the ledge in the interwell space zones of influence of the wells for which no deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations.

The claimed technical solution is implemented in the automated system, including modern methods of high-precision positioning, communication on the basis of modern computing, microprocessor means, databases, programming languages high level.

The structure of the automated system presented in figure 1. The system includes:

1. Subsystem geological-surveying services - GEOMARK (1), which has constantly replenishes the digital elevation data of the terrain, the provisions of the mining operations, mining facilities, mines, Geology of the Deposit, the structural properties of rocks.

2. Subsystem-aided design of drilling and blasting works - CAD drilling and blasting (2), which provides two-stage design of drilling and blasting. In the first stage are formed projects on drilling units (3), after the execution of which on the basis of the correspondence between the actual parameters of drilling and blasting project is corrective calculation well for the toxins (5).

3. Control unit design parameters - execution of the project of drilling (6).

4. Module-depth analysis of the drill results to form recommendations for the standardization of materials and costs, mine planning (9).

5. The control unit and the analysis of the results of charging wells (7).

6. The unit of analysis of the excavators (10).

7. The database in which data is collected with the above subsystems for further analysis (8).

8. The block system analysis, which is based on processing the actual drilling and blasting parameters and results of excavation (mining excavator unit performs correction model zoning of rocks and drilling and blasting parameters (11).

To ensure timely and reliable data, minimally dependent influence of the subjective factor, uses the high-precision positioning, we work with the following components and subsystems:

1. The control subsystem design parameters of drilling operations, the elements of which are installed on the drilling rigs, tools high-precision positioning (6), communication tools for the project is loaded on the drilling completed CAD drilling and blasting, transmitting to the server the results of the execution of the project.

These control subsystem design parameters of drilling operations - the execution of the project of drilling arrive in modulenames drilling (9), in which, in particular, are deviations from design parameters and expected impact of these deviations on the results of mining operations. Forecast data is specified in the process of excavation is smitten rock mass unit (10).

2. The control unit charging wells (7) is installed on the charging machine is high precision positioning with which identification charge well to control the correctness of the execution of corrective calculation of borehole charges. The results establish the actual parameter (which is very important to control measurement of the depth of the well is made directly before charging, when this is set to the actual position of the downhole charge height) blasting reported in the database (8). In the case of a finding of deviation of the well parameters (e.g. depth) from the values reported in the corrective calculation to avoid critical situations can be taken online solution for correction of downhole charge.

3. Subsystem analysis excavators (10). Using this subsystem is the implementation of the proposed technical solution. The main elements of this subsystem are mounted on excavators have tools high-precision positioning of the excavator bucket, accessories is the series of microprocessor-based equipment to register with a specified frequency currents anchor engine head, lifting, turning and opening the bottom. Peripheral equipment is in the form of a unified microprocessor modules, each of which is connected to the terminals of the shunt (19-27) and commandcontroller (13-18) of the corresponding motor (lifting, pressure, rotation, and opening the bottom), see figure 2.

The microprocessor modules (30-34) is the measurement frequency values of currents (currents and voltages) of the respective engines, which are stored in the database together with the coordinates of the excavator bucket. After pre-treatment values of the currents are tied to the operations cycle of the excavation. So, are stored in the database with a certain frequency values of the motor currents (head, lifting, turning excavator), bound to the space (through the position of the bucket at the time) and to the operations cycle of the excavation. Recognition loop operations excavation tested their logical sequence, the presence and duration of operations is set by the values of combinations of limit values of the motor currents of the head, lifting, turning, opening the bottom. It should be noted that in the cycle of excavation must be present operation decreased (filling of the bucket), and may not rotate to the vehicle or to the slaughter.

Figure 3 is presented the diagram of currents and engine head, lift, turn, open the bottom loop of loading EKG 4.6. In particular, (37) is a graph of motor current opening of the bottom during the cycle. As can be seen from this diagram, the motor current opening of the bottom is uniquely determined by the cycle of the excavator. For the allocation of a single loop operations are also reviewed charts of currents of the other motors. The character of change of motor currents of the opening of the bottom (37), lifting (38), head (39, rotation (40) are determined by the operation cycle: Tr is the time of unloading of the bucket; Tpl - time rotation from the vehicle to the slaughter; Tz - time bailing, TR2 - rotation time from slaughter to the vehicle. Moreover, the use of funds high-precision positioning of the bucket in real-time allows you to select the chart the stages of bailing on the bench bottom and filling of the bucket. The average value of the motor current pressure for a period of time bailing on the bottom of the ledge and size, the number of "bursts" of current can judge the change effort decreased during the transition from the near-wellbore to crosshole. This comparative analysis are excluded (can be analyzed separately) zone of influence of the wells oboronnyh and charged with apostasy from the project.

The measurement of the energy indicators of granulometric composition of the smitten rock mass and the design quality of the soles.

4 shows a schematic section through the block on which the selected paths array (41), line breakage on the bottom of the ledge (42) in conjunction with the parameters of the production wells (43)defining the design quality of the soles of the ledge and conditions of the excavation. As can be seen from figure 4, the design (44) and actual (45) the provisions of bench bottom are different, since the presence of a hole (46), the depth of which is less than the project, was the cause of the formation in the zone of responsibility of this drilling line breakage on the bottom of the ledge with the above design values. Excavator disassembly of the rock mass (47) to the level of the mark design will require additional energy costs that are subject design parameters of drilling and blasting operations are not typical for this category of species. Therefore, the areas associated with deviations drilling and blasting parameters from the design values are highlighted separately, and the results of the analysis of the process of excavation in these areas are used to develop organizational and technical measures aimed at compliance with the design parameters of drilling and blasting. I.e. data on areas with deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting of the process of adjustment zoning rocks are excluded.

The data processing. All the processed data array is divided into at least three parts. As already noted the axis above separately allocated data zone of responsibility of wells with deviations drilling and blasting parameters from the project. In the zones of responsibility of wells with drilling and blasting parameters values corresponding to the design, parameters, energy characterizing the condition of the soles of the ledge and granulometric composition of the rock mass near-well and inter-well space.

The greatest interest from this point of view, represents the operation of the use. Energy costs deriving (current engine thrust, lift and duration of use) determine the condition of the face. The state of the face is the state of the soles of the ledge, granulometric composition and parameters of Nabal smitten rock. The status of the sole of the ledge determine the parameters of the stock on the bottom of the ledge (the initial period of use), and particle size determines the subsequent period decreased, the amount of filling of the bucket (if the parameters of the bulk rock mass). It should be noted that for comparison of energy use in near - and inter-well space is defined as the motor currents of pressure rise (and when combined operations decreased and rotation, and the motor current rotation), and the duration of use. To determine the magnitude of energy consumption, the motor currents are determined by direct measurement, the voltage can be determined by direct measurement, and calculation method.

The proposed technical solution provide a mechanism for the evaluation of the results of drilling and blasting, which involves:

1. The selection is homogeneous in nature and results of explosive effect plots suppressed near-well and inter-well space:

a zone of influence of the wells, which were deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations;

b) near-Well space zones of influence of the wells for which no deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations;

g) Interwell space zones of influence of the wells for which no deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations.

2. Establishing boundary values of the currents of the engine head, while drawing on the bottom of the ledge in the interwell space zones of influence of the wells for which no deviations from the design parameters of drilling and blasting operations.

The technical result

The inventive solution allows to increase the effectiveness of zoning rocks along the limit and to improve the parameters of drilling and blasting operations that affect the state of the excavator bottom:

- the design quality of the soles of the ledge;

- the formation of a compact bulk rock mass;

- quality crushing rocks. Ultimately, the efficiency of subsequent processes of mining slave is t (excavation, transportation of rock and ore preparation for enrichment.

Sources of information

1. RF patent 2279546. Sekisov GV, Mamaev Y.A., Levin, A.R., Danilchenko became popular Method of field development rock and half-rock types raznoobraznoi structure.

2. Danilenko GI, Akulov VA, Bakharev L.V., Alimirzoev GA, Excavation of GI Method of blasting rock. A.S. No. 1351249 USSR, 1987.

3. Akulov CENTURIES Perfecting the design blasting for quarry at the base of developing models of the zoning rocks // Mining information and analytical Bulletin. - 2010. No. 7. - P.28-31.

4. The zhaboev M.N., Akulov VA, Bakharev L.V., Ravikovich BS improving the technology of blasting complex-structured arrays of rocks. Gorn - 1990 - No. 9. - S-23.

5. Protodyakonov M.M. Materials for the fixed position of mining operations. Part 1. - M.: Publishing house of the Central Committee of miners, 1926.

6. Sukhanov A.F., TO the question of the unified rock classification. - M.: Whiteheat, 1947.

7. Baron LI, Konashen YG, Kurbatov V.M. Crushability of rocks. - M.: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences, 1963.

8. Baron LI, Likely G.P. Fractured rocks at the explosive blasting. - M.: Nedra, 1966, 136 S.

9. Baron LI About acoustic stiffness as a measure of resistance of rocks destruction, fragmentation dynamic loads. // Adult the main case, No. 67/24. - M.: Nedra, 1969, / NTO mountain.

10. Baron LI Kostovetsky and methods of its measurement. - M.: Publishing house of the USSR Academy of Sciences. I960, 123,.

11. Moines NR. Energy and correlation of the process of destruction of rocks by explosion. Frunze: Publishing house of the Academy of Sciences of King. SSR, 1963, 233 S.

12. RF patent №2411445. The method of drilling and blasting operations / Chakalov VA, Sekisov A.G., Plekhanov J.V., Akulov VV // bul. I. - 2011. No. 4.

13. Tagaev I.A. ABOUT the importance of the intensity of the blast hole drilling system for automated preparation of blasting at quarries www.blastmaker.kg/downloads/O znachenii energoemkosti.pdf

14. Kovalenko V.A., speech signal VG, Nagovitsin VA computer-aided design of blasting at quarries. Experience of implementation of // Collection of reports. Advanced technologies in open pits in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, 2008.

15. Akulov VA, Ignatov, VN, Akulov CENTURIES, Plekhanov J.V., Sytsevich NF, Tkachenko L.A. Way blasting rocks - application No. 201111134/20(016232).

16. Kovalenko V.A., Tagaev I.A., Kiselev A.S. Administration of mining production on the basis of operative information about the technological properties of the object of development // Proceedings. Advanced technologies in open pits in Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic, Bishkek, 2008.

17. Dukovany F control Methods explosion in mines. - M.: Nedra, 1973, 415 S.

18. Uwian, Lagutenko, Ahipping, Afforable. The control method of the account of the servant whom thou excavator - malapati. A.S. No. 1425277 USSR, 1988.

19. Kutuzov BV, Scars VK ON the dependence of the fractional composition blown mass of the average diameter of the piece Gorn. - 1969. No. 12. - Pp.33-35.

The method of drilling and blasting operations in open pits, including a preliminary zoning of the explosive rocks in terms of intensity of drilling and refining the zoning on the intensity of the excavation, characterized in that in the process of refining the zoning by recording changes in energy performance engine head, lifting cable through the position of the bucket in space and time operations decreased, filling, retaining the filled bucket in the cycle of excavation for the registration of changes in the quality of the soles of the ledge, particle size distribution and shape of Nabal repulsed mass at the transition from well repaid repaid to the inter-well space, and the feature study soles ledge take into account the change in the energy performance of the engine head at the level of the foot of the ledge, granulometric composition of the rock mass change of the energy performance of the engine rise during filling and keeping filled the bucket, the compactness of Nabal the change in the energy performance of the engine lifting the Desk height decreased when perehodiat suppressed near-wellbore to suppress inter-well space.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: rock destruction device (32) comprises a sealed elongated flexible tube (40), a cartridge (74) with energetic material located inside the tube (40), a valve device (50, 54, 56, 64, 66, 68) for providing filling the tube with the liquid and expanding, and the means (86) for detonating the energetic material during immersion of the cartridge in the liquid. The tube (40) has an inner channel (42) and the opposite sealed first end (44) and the second end (48). The cartridge (74) is mounted inside the channel (42), and the valve device (50, 54, 56, 64, 66, 68) comprises an inlet connection (64, 66, 68) for introducing the liquid into the channel to create a pressure in the channel and the expansion of the tube in at least the radial direction, and an outlet connection (50, 54, 56) for the exit of air from the channel (42). The inlet connection (64, 66, 68) comprises a valve (68) of filling of the single action providing the liquid passageway into the channel and eliminating its output from the channel. The outlet connection (50, 54, 56) comprises an air bleed valve.

EFFECT: safety and efficiency of the method of secondary rock breaking.

8 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of parallel rows of wells, charging them with explosives and their short-delay blasting. This short-delay blasting of radially arranged charges in membrane layers is performed as follows. First row of wells is blasted, the third one from the bench edge. Then, 1 row of wells is blasted with 25 ms delay while 2 rows of wells are last blasted with 50 ms delay. To locate the membrane layers, rock mass is photographed to define the radius of curvature of bench mining block slope by relationship with due allowance for acoustic stiffness of rocks. Weighted average layer-by-layer quantity of systematic fractures per the width of mining block coverage Wc is defined. Weighted average spacing between two adjacent systematic fractures is defined. Degree of crushing and line of resistance at bench bottom are defined. Sums of rock bed depths and strength factor (by Protodyakonov scale) are calculated. Rock strain rate, clamp factor, explosive potential energy and blast efficiency are defined.

EFFECT: maximum development of rock mass, decreased consumption of explosives, higher yield.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of main and additional wells in a massif from enclosing rocks and solid inclusions. Selection of parameters for charges in the main wells is carried out on the basis of enclosing rocks, and selection of parameters for solid inclusions - based on the condition of equality of diameters of ZRD in enclosing rocks and solid inclusions. At the same time selection of parameters for the charge in additional wells is carried out by speed of detonation D01 and diameter d01 from the ratio with account of breaking tension limits σtensincl and σtensencl, Poisson coefficients vincl and vencl, Young moduli Eincl and Eencl, porosities Pincl and Pencl, solid inclusions and enclosing rocks, accordingly, the index of isentrope of detonation products γ2, parameter of adiabat ζ and pressure of detonation products in the Jouguet point P0 of the applied main type of PVV.

EFFECT: increased efficiency and even grinding of massifs of different strengh due to provision of equality of diameters of areas of controlled grinding in enclosing rocks and solid inclusions by taking into account of a combination of main properties of enclosing rocks, inclusions, diameter of a charge and a used PVV.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method is performed using facilities of simultaneous drilling of boreholes with increased speeds of feed and rotation of bits and intensive washing of boreholes first in 2 vertical sectors, then, after rotation of a drilling faceplate by 90 degrees, in 2 horizontal sectors. After removal of the drilling faceplate from the bottomhole, the charging faceplate is fed with injectors-stems, and then boreholes are automatically charged with explosive substance, and explosion is initiated.

EFFECT: higher speed of mining, reduced time for bottomhole drilling, time of drilling and blasting works, increased frequency and resistance of a technological process.

3 dwg

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining industry, and namely to open-pit mining operations at development of ore and non-ore blocks of mineral deposits, the sections of which are sufficiently different as to mining-and-geological structure and quality of a valuable component, and namely to selective extraction of a mineral deposit by large-scale explosive destruction of mine rock masses of a complex structure. In rows of charges, which cross different-type mine rocks, well and group beam charges are located; group beam charges are located in sections requiring intense crushing. The latter are located in sections requiring intense crushing with direction of a convex beam surface towards intense crushing; row-by-row explosive breakage of single well and group beam charges is performed, thus performing row-by-row extension of nominal diameter of an explosion cavity.

EFFECT: preserving integrity of geometry of locations of large volumes of mine rocks within their initial geological location before and after large-scale explosions.

2 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling of vertical wells of the same diameter in the mass of enclosing rocks and solid inclusions. Selection of the main type of an industrial explosive (IE) is performed based on properties of enclosing rocks, and selection of IE for solid inclusions is performed based on equality of diameters of controlled crushing zones in enclosing rocks and solid inclusions. With that, selection of IE for solid inclusions is performed as per detonation speed Dincl based on the ratio considering tensile strength limits σtensincl and σtenseng.r, Mincl and Mencl.r - coefficients determining elastic expansion of a boundary of a camouflet cavity, Poisson ratios νincl and νencl.r, Young moduli Eincl and Eencl.r, porosities "П"incl and "П"encl.r of solid inclusions and enclosing rocks respectively, γ - adiabatic index of detonation products at detonation completion moment, γ2 - isentropic index of detonation products, parameter of adiabatic ξ and pressure P0 of detonation products at Jouget point of the applied main type of IE.

EFFECT: improving efficiency and uniformity of crushing of rocks masses with different strength values owing to providing equality of diameters of controlled crushing zones in enclosing rocks and solid inclusions by accounting for a set of the main properties of enclosing rocks, inclusions and the applied IE.

1 tbl

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: method involves drilling of bore pits in a working face or an entry way, their charging with explosives and delay-action blasting. Average distance between bore pits in the working face, the number of bore pits and specific consumption of explosives per working face is determined mathematically, depending on the mine working cross-sectional area, mass fracturing parameters, physical and technical properties of rocks, friction coefficient, value of rock pressure in mass, detonation characteristics and geometrical parameters of explosives.

EFFECT: obtaining the specified BER, reducing the oversize yield, reducing costs for drilling and blasting work; as a result, this will improve efficiency and safety of drilling-and-blasting work at development of mine workings and ore breaking in layered entry ways.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: blasting operations.

SUBSTANCE: cartridge includes tubular housing (12), in which the following is made: the first section (16) with the first energy composition (18) located inside the first section, igniter (30) open to action of the first energy composition (18); inside tubular component (28) there located is the second section (70) with the second energy composition (80) located inside it; striker (44) having the possibility of being moved under action of explosive force to igniter (30); working element (48) and detonator (76) having the possibility of initiation of the second energy composition (80). Working element (48) has a surface area that yields to cross section area of striker (44) and has the possibility of being moved to the igniter at movement of the striker. The igniter has the possibility of being initiated with the working element only at capacity (94) filled with liquid, which is restricted at least partially with surfaces of the working element and the igniter.

EFFECT: effective, safe and reliable operation; invention allows forming the required energy pulse with the level that is sufficient for rock destruction only when it is in working medium.

9 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of vertical wells and reaming them inside the outline of soli inclusions at appropriate cross points. Note here that diameter of well reamed sections d0inc is taken with allowance for diameter of nonreamed wells d0b, ultimate strength σulinc and σulb and Poisson's ratios νinc and νb, modulus of elasticity Einc and Eb, porosity "П"inc and "П"b, solid inclusions and bearing strata, respectively, isentropic curve of detonation products γ2, parameter of adiabatic curve ξ, and pressure of detonation products at Chapman-Jouguet point P0 of used industrial explosive.

EFFECT: efficient and uniform fracturing.

1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method to perform blast-hole drilling in opencast mines includes division of rock massifs into districts according to parameters of drilling energy intensity and validation of division following the breaking results. Division is validated by the value of the ratio of the drilling energy intensity index in the upper part of the wells in the current horizon block, which are drilled in an outstanding zone of the well-to-well space of the above previously mined block, to drilling energy intensity in the overdrill zone of wells that form this well-to-well space of the previously mined above block.

EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase efficiency of blast-hole drilling and division of rocks into districts by explosibility, to reduce costs for explosives, drilling and breaking of rocks, to reduce losses of wells from caving, to improve quality of rocks crushing and finalisation of a ledge foot.

3 dwg

FIELD: transport.

SUBSTANCE: access ramp for trucks in open-pit mine combined with inclined safety berm of open-pit mine includes empty and loaded branches and additional ramps to safety berms of open-pit mine located on side slopes of ramp for trucks. Herewith, empty and loaded branches of access ramp for trucks are separated and located in different half-trenches the bases of which are inclined safety berms of open-pit mine replacing sections of horizontal safety berms of open-pit mine along path of ramp for trucks and interconnected by additional ramps for auxiliary equipment located on side slopes of half-trenches, and additional ramps connecting access ramp for trucks with safety berms of open-pit mine are located at both sides of it.

EFFECT: reduction of quarring costs due to simplification of works for final pit edge formation and reducing volume of excavation removal caused by its through cut for berm of ramp for trucks.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises erection of sludge pond, opening and mining of quarry field. At quarry nonworking board bench located on the side of maximum ground water mark in quarry field contour erected is buttress anti-filtration shield, under the level of ground waters beyond the boundaries the prism of possible collapse of underlying bench, over the entire length of ground water layer. Note here that buttress shield height is defined from mathematical relationship.

EFFECT: lower capital and operating costs.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises excavation of working trench, mounting of transport communications, working of quarry field, excavation of minerals and access rock by benches. Note here that quarry field development is varied out from centre to its flanks while after development of quarry field for angle α between working trench and transport communications to be defined from mathematical relationship. Access rock is dumped into internal dumps located between working trench and transport communications. After complete development of quarry field working trench is elongated and transport communications are installed, cycle being reiterated several times.

EFFECT: higher efficiency, lower costs.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises stockpile filling of dumping site stages. Note here that dumping site stage comprising rocks of capping and pasty tails are laid separately towards each other. Note also that pasty tails are laid on slope side Note that stockpile filling of dumping site stages and pasty tails I performed to one horizontal level.

EFFECT: filling of dumping sire stages in single turn, pilling of pasty tails after ore dressing redistribution at inclined base.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method involves stripping operations performed by longitudinal stripping cuts along the direct system with laying of overburden rock into external dump arranged on upper platform of a non-working open-pit side, at stock-piling of overburden rock to external dump in tiers that are formed along dumping front. Dumping front is arranged at a right angle to an upper edge of a non-working side of the open pit and aligned with movement direction of overburden rock from the working face of longitudinal stripping cut to their dumping place.

EFFECT: reducing overburden rock re-excavation volumes.

5 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises drilling of parallel rows of wells, charging them with explosives and their short-delay blasting. This short-delay blasting of radially arranged charges in membrane layers is performed as follows. First row of wells is blasted, the third one from the bench edge. Then, 1 row of wells is blasted with 25 ms delay while 2 rows of wells are last blasted with 50 ms delay. To locate the membrane layers, rock mass is photographed to define the radius of curvature of bench mining block slope by relationship with due allowance for acoustic stiffness of rocks. Weighted average layer-by-layer quantity of systematic fractures per the width of mining block coverage Wc is defined. Weighted average spacing between two adjacent systematic fractures is defined. Degree of crushing and line of resistance at bench bottom are defined. Sums of rock bed depths and strength factor (by Protodyakonov scale) are calculated. Rock strain rate, clamp factor, explosive potential energy and blast efficiency are defined.

EFFECT: maximum development of rock mass, decreased consumption of explosives, higher yield.

4 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: rock loosened by wheel-type miner is dumped by miner discharge arm belt conveyor onto that of self-propelled two-section hopper turn bar. Then, it is dumped into hopper sections rock from under which, with no outage of hopper and miner displacing in synchronism and in parallel, it is dumped cyclically into dump-trucks. Said dump-trucks move along with said hopper at loading.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of mining due to decreased downtime of miners and dump tricks.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry, in particular, to development of slope beds of coal deposits by open mining works. The method includes development of a series of slope flat-dipping beds by open mining works comprising a coal bed with non-commercial reserves. This bed may be in a bench at its any height. Mining of overburden rocks is carried out by horizontal layers after blast-hole drilling carried out with the purpose to loosen the rock massif for the entire height of the bench, including a coal bed with non-commercial reserves. The rock of the beds without admixture of coal is loaded right into dumper trucks, and the layer containing the bed coal with non-commercial reserves, is sent via the device for separation of rock pieces from fine coal and loaded into different dump trucks. The upper and lower borders of the layer containing the bed coal with non-commercial reserves are set, when the mixture of the rock and coal reaches the ratio of 85-90% rock and 10-15% coal.

EFFECT: extraction of coal bed with non-commercial reserves without changes in the procedure of open mining works performance.

2 dwg

FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: method includes treatment of coal extracted from coal deposits for opening of its splices with rock. At the same time the coal is placed in layers at the intermediate storage, arranged on the southern slope of a knoll (mountain, hill) or a pit heap, the site of which has an angle of inclination 10-25°, exposed in spring-autumn periods to solar radiation with the number of "thawing-freezing" cycles with transition of temperature via 0°C equal to at least 7. Besides, the thickness of the coal layers is taken on the basis of the calculation sufficient for daily heating-cooling, and after thermal processing the coal is shipped from the warehouse for subsequent demineralisation.

EFFECT: increased opening of coal splices with rock.

2 dwg

FIELD: oil and gas industry.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining, more precisely to open mining of high deposits with use of continuous operation technique. The method includes cutting of a permanent trench, construction of a working trench, installation of transportation lines, bench cutting of mineral resources by continuous extraction and haulage system with a fan-shaped area of operations. When operations are performed in the fan-shaped manner a solid bed located outside the fan-shaped border is developed simultaneously; mineral deposits are shipped to transportation lines and at first the area of a V-shaped cut is determined at the fan-shaped area of operations in compliance with the following condition: Si(sector)=πLwa2αi360, where Lwa - length of working area, m; αi - angle of working area turn, degree; then the area of the V-shaped cut is determined with consideration of the solid bed in compliance with the following condition: Si=Lwa2tg(i=1nαi)2, where Lwa - length of working area, m; αi - angle of working area turn, degree; and for the purpose of simultaneous performance of the fan-shaped working area and the V-shaped cut in the solid bed its volume is determined in compliance with the following condition: Vs=H(SiSi1Si(sector)),   where H is an average thickness of mineral deposit, m; Si is the area of the V-shaped cut with consideration of the solid bed, m2; Si(sector) is the area of the V-shaped cut, m2.

EFFECT: reducing labour intensity, increasing efficiency, sound extraction of mineral resources and safety of mining operations.

3 dwg

FIELD: mining art, in particular, open-pit mining of mineral resources by high benches.

SUBSTANCE: large-diameter single holes are replaced by a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is always vertical, and the other one is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converged holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced with a pair of divergent holes of a smaller diameter, in which one hole is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters; the single holes of the larger diameter are replaced by a pair of divergent bundles of parallel converging holes, in which one bundle is vertical, and the other is inclined towards the bench and positioned in the vertical plane parallel with the first one and distant from it by 1-2 hole diameters.

EFFECT: enhanced efficiency of blasting of the benches.

7 cl, 6 dwg

Up!