Method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to ecology and soil science. The method of assessment of degradation degree of industrial landscape in chemical contamination provides the analytical determination of the total number of the chemical pollutant element, the quantity of chemical pollutant element being in the mobile form in soil of the industrial landscape, and, separately, geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape. A procedure of assessment of pollution of the landscape is proposed, consisting of three stages: normalisation of industrial landscape pollution and geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the ratio of pollution standard of industrial landscape and the pollution standard of geographically conjugated unpolluted landscape; determination of the degree of degradation of industrial landscape on the ratio of pollution standards under the proposed nonlinear scale of degradation degree of industrial landscape.

EFFECT: proposed method in practical use enables to improve the reliability of detection of degradation degree of industrial landscape in case of chemical pollution.

1 tbl, 1 ex

 

A method of evaluating the degree of degradation of technologica chemical pollution refers to biology and chemical technology and is designed to assess and compare the degree of contamination of landscapes of different nature and degree of resistance to pollution.

There is a method of assessing pollution technolangue the number of pollutants in the soil, measured by the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica, the number of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile and other forms of soil technologica (Minkin T.M., Motuzova, GV, Nazarenko OG, Krushenko B.C., Mandzhieva For heavy metals in soils of the steppe zone // soil science. 2008. No. 7. S-818). Known way to assess buffering capacity of soils in relation to heavy metals (Il'in V.B. have been the Assessment of the buffering capacity of soils in relation to heavy metals // Agrochemistry. 1995. No. 10. Pp.109-113) (similar).

A common disadvantage of known methods is that they estimate in absolute indicators of chemical pollution of soil and landscape, ranging in separate geographic locations. Therefore, it is not possible to compare the degree of degradation of different landscapes, which would improve measures to control the properties of the environment ahead of the accumulation of perturbations. It also creates the opportunity group is activated landscapes into blocks according to the need to overcome their degradation, to simplify the criteria to standardize and expedite the appointment procedures for the remediation of landscapes and their implementation.

Chemical pollution of the biosphere variabelno in the space of the biosphere. Because these methods estimate the amount of pollutants in the soil allow to give only a qualitative assessment of pollution because the pollution varies in pedosphere, and a direct comparison of absolute data biased measure of the degree of contamination of each of the landscape due to the peculiarities of his nature.

Similar does not provide procedures for comparison of soil technologica and soil paired undisturbed landscape. Similar contains a sufficiently large number of stages, which are more versatile in-depth scientific research, which, however, is not adapted for easy and unambiguous procedures for expert evaluation.

Expert assessment of the degree of technologica chemical pollution, should precede the study and be able to make a definitive decision on the issue of the degree of degradation of technologica chemical pollution, in most cases, evaluation practices landscapes. Expert evaluation should include further study only the most difficult cases that cannot be interpreted unambiguously by using the method of expert evaluation.

The result obtained in the practical use of the invention is the possibility to perform an integrated assessment of the ecological state of soils and landscapes by the combination of dirt between them and the soil substrate as an additional factor for adverse environmental soil properties with regard to mobility, accumulation connection, the protective properties of soils, stability of heavy metals, pollution.

To solve the stated problem, the proposed method estimates the degree of degradation of technologica chemical pollution

provides standard procedures: analytical determination of the total quantity of a chemical element contaminant in soil technolon the shaft, analytical determination of the quantity of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil technologica, analytical determination of the total quantity of a chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape, analytical determination of the quantity of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape. Analytical procedures used for multiple pollutants, adopted priority pollutants already identified earlier in the study region and landscape, or other identification which allows us to characterize the unique properties of the contaminated area.

The essence of the proposed method consists in the following.

Choose under consideration the pollutants, which perform calculations. Calculates the ratio of the number of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil technologica and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica. Calculation of the ratio of the number of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired nezir is being emitted by contaminated landscape. Then make the maximum for all installed pollutants values of the ratio of the number of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil, and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica (selection of priority pollutant landscape). This calculation is supplemented by calculation of the ratio of the relative amount of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil technologica and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica and the relative amount of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape. Then reveal the degree of degradation of technologica.

The procedure to determine the level of degradation technologica is made according to the scale degradation technologica. Proposed the following scale: low degree of degradation of technologica - maximum ratio of 1.5, the average degree of degradation of technologica from 1.5 to 3.5, a high degree of degradation technolangue - 3.5, and more.

Using procedures to determine the level of degradation technologica on cootes is the relative amount of a chemical element pollutant, in mobile form in the soil technologica and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica and the relative amount of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape, as well as scale degrees degradation technologica

allows

to perform an integrated assessment of the ecological state of soils and landscapes by the combination of dirt between them and the soil substrate as an additional factor for adverse environmental soil properties, taking into account mobility, accumulation connection, the protective properties of soils, stability of heavy metals, pollution,

because

creates an opportunity to improve the use of means of assessing the amount of pollutants in the soil that give only a qualitative assessment of pollution because the pollution varies in pedosphere, and a direct comparison of absolute data biased measure of the degree of contamination of each of the landscape due to the peculiarities of his nature;

creates the opportunity to compare the degree of degradation of different landscapes that will allow measures to improve the management of properties of the environment ahead of the accumulation of disturbances, it also creates the possibility to group the landscape into units according to the need to overcome their degradation, which will simplify the criteria to standardize and expedite the appointment procedures for the remediation of landscapes and their implementation;

provides integrated accounting combination of dirt and soil substrate as an additional factor for adverse environmental soil properties, taking into account mobility, accumulation of loosely related compounds, protective properties of soils, stability of heavy metal, and the calculation of the normalized indicator of the pollution of the landscape, which allows you to evaluate and compare the degree of contamination of landscapes of different nature and degree of resistance to pollution.

An example of performing the method of evaluating the degree of degradation of technologica chemical pollution are presented in the table and described below.

In the table, column 1 shows a conventional number of soil, 1...3, and subscript indicating the ownership of the soil, respectively, to technolangue - t and undisturbed landscape - N.

In columns 2-4 shows the relative amount of heavy metals Cu, Pb and Zn in the composition reprocessing compounds (subscript "h") in soil, %.

In columns 5-7 shows the relative amount of heavy metals Cu, Pb and Zn in the composition firmly the knitted compounds (subscript "p") in the soil, %.

The total relative amount of each metal in reprocessing and strongly bound compounds is 100%.

In columns 8-10 shows the ratio of the number of heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn in reprocessing compounds in columns 2-4 the number of the respective heavy metals strongly bound compounds in columns 5-7 in the soil technologica.

In columns 11-13 shows the ratio of the number of heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn in reprocessing compounds in columns 2-4 the number of the respective heavy metals strongly bound compounds in columns 5-7 in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape.

In columns 14-16 for each metal are shown quotient of the ratio of the number of Cu, Pb, Zn in reprocessing connections to the number of strongly bound compounds of heavy metals in soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape on the ratio of the number of Cu, Pb, Zn in reprocessing connections to the number of strongly bound heavy metals in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape.

Graph 17 shows the maximum results from the calculation of the value of the private branch presented in columns 14-16 for each soil. This value is an expert determination of the degree of degradation technologica in accordance with the shape of the second invention. According to the example, soil 1 according to the value in column 17 of 2.3, characterized by a high degree of degradation technologica is more than 2.0, less than 3.5; soil 2 according to the value in column 17, amounting to 1.8, characterizes the average degree of degradation of technologica - more than 1.5, less than 2.0; soil 3 according to the value in column 17 of 1.4, characterised by a lower degree of degradation of technologica - maximum ratio of 1.5; soil 4 according to the value in column 17, amounting to 3.8, characterized by a high degree of degradation technolangue - 3.5, and more.

Table
A sample implementation of the method of evaluating the degree of degradation of technologica chemical pollution
Soil, landscapeCunPbnZnnCupPbpZnpCun/CupPbn/PbpZnn/ZnpCun/CupPbn/Pbp Znn/Znp(Ky/Kn)Cu(Ky/Kn)Pb(Ky/Kn)ZnThe degree of degradation of the landscape
1234567891011121314151617
1t2939447161560,40850,63930,7857
1n23 21397977610,29110,27270,63931,40292,34431,22892,3
2t3230406870600,47060,42860,6667
2n2127297973730,26580,36990,3973 1,77031,15871,67821,8
3t3838426261580,61290,6230,7241
3n3231366869630,47060,44930,57141,30241,38661,26721,4
4t3844526256 0,61290,78571,0833
4n2730227370780,36990,42860,28211,65711,83333,8409the 3.8
Note: subscript denotes, respectively, unbalanced (u) and geographically associated uncontaminated landscape (h), (Kt/Kn)Cu=(Cun/Cup)y/(Cun/Cup)n, (Kt/Kn)Pb=(Pbn/Pbp)y/(Pbn/Pbp)n, (Kt/Kn)Zn=(Znn/Znp)y/(Znn/Znp)n.

A method of evaluating the degree of degradation of technologica when the chemical is Eskom pollution, providing analytical determination of the total quantity of a chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica, analytical determination of the quantity of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil technologica, analytical determination of the total quantity of a chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape, analytical determination of the quantity of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape for several pollutants, characterized in that the evaluation of the degree of degradation of technologica chemical pollution, including calculation of the ratio of the number of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil technologica and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica the calculation of the ratio of the number of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape for selected pollutants, calculated as the ratio of the relative amount of a chemical element pollutant, finding the I in the mobile form, in the soil technologica and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil technologica and the relative amount of a chemical element contaminant found in mobile form in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape and the total number of the chemical element of the contaminant in the soil geographically paired uncontaminated landscape, revealing the extent of degradation of technologica according to the scale degradation technologica: low degree of degradation of technologica - maximum ratio of 1.5, the average degree of degradation from 1.5 to 3.5, a high degree of degradation technolangue - 3.5, and more.



 

Same patents:

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial or civil construction, in particular to determine the stability of frozen soils, and can be used in construction of oil and gas pipelines to determine the degree of soil stability to thermoerosional washout. A method of modelling the horizontal thermoerosional washout of frozen soils includes the preliminary positioning of the soil sample in the cuvette, saturation of the soil sample with water up to the specified moisture, application of a drainage line of the certain width on the surface of the sample and freezing of the soil sample in the cuvette with the closed lid in the cooling chamber to a determined temperature for minimum one day, the cuvette placing with the prepared soil sample with the open sector under the water supply facility at an angle, depending on the specified parameters of modelling, and erosion of the soil sample by water course. The width of the drainage line, water temperature and flow of the watercourse are adjustable, in this case the measurements of direct indexes are conducted - a depth of thawing and soil erosion, water temperature, width and depth of the water flow within the selected time interval, on the basis of which the indirect parameters of thermoerosional washout are determined: intensity of washout, erosion-preventive resistance of soil, water flow mechanical energy, water flow thermal energy, thermal flow expended for melting of frozen soil, thermal flow due to dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the water flow and frozen soil by the given dependences.

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3 tbl, 2 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: portable laboratory-field irrigation machine comprises a horizontal frame with panel, a water tank, a filter, supply and discharge water conducts with the valve, a sprinkler comprising the sequentially fixed nipple, a thick flexible tube with collars, a sleeve, and a bunch of thin flexible tubes fixed in it. The water tank is mounted above the frame on the vertical racks with a hanger bracket. Between the discharge water conduct and the nipple a float mechanism is mounted comprising a housing with the rubber bulb mounted on it on the side on the drainage tube with a drain opening and the sequentially mounted in it the needle slot, the needle and the float with the guide. The drip forming ends of the thin flexible sprinkler tubes are fixed on a horizontal panel along the Archimedean spiral with the same pitch.

EFFECT: improving the uniformity and stability of distribution of rain on the area of irrigation and simplification of the unit design.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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1 ex, 2 tbl

FIELD: ecology.

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FIELD: agriculture.

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EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.

1 dwg, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.

EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.

1 tbl, 1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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1 ex

FIELD: agriculture.

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17 tbl, 2 ex

FIELD: chemistry.

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2 cl, 2 dwg, 2 tbl

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EFFECT: higher efficiency of water separation by reduction of forces for displacement and control of speed structure of a flow in a water separation zone.

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FIELD: construction.

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2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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EFFECT: higher efficiency and reliability of operation under conditions of variable water level in a channel.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to flooding of worked out peatlands in the restoration of peat bogs. The method is carried out in the autumn-winter period with the establishment of a stable average daily air temperature below the freezing point of water with use of ice blocks made in the form of polyhedra. Near the available source of fresh water the blocks of ice are produced. Then the blocks manufactured using the vehicle are moved to the mapped areas of worked out peatlands and put in few layers in the structure in the form of a polyhedron. At that at each mapped area of worked out peatlands, depending on the area of the site one or more structures from blocks of ice are erected.

EFFECT: increased level of fire safety in the areas of worked out peatlands, reduced level of the risk of emergencies and improved overall environmental situation around the worked out peatlands.

2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises a frame, a processing module, antenna units, a motion sensor and a propeller for free movement along a bottom. Antenna units are arranged along the frame perimetre. The frame consists of rods and represents three parts connected in a hinged manner.

EFFECT: increased quality of doing operational monitoring of feeder canals by surveying an entire feeder canal along the perimetre and much faster survey of canals.

1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture, in particular, desalinization of saline soil of agricultural lands.

SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting slits on plot to be desalinized; feeding rinse water onto strips between slits; removing salt from slit surfaces and spilling soil therein, with slits being cut to depth exceeding depth of season soil wetting with precipitation; providing cavities on strips between slits; closing cavities with shields of hydrophobic water-impermeable material, said shields being equipped with perforations extending along their central axes and float members; fastening shield edges in upper part of slits; providing soil desalinization facilitated by precipitation. Upon precipitation, rain water flows over walls of cavities to infiltrate through perforations and fill cavities bottom part, with the result that salt is washed into depth of soil to be desalinized. Moisture will be preferably moved by capillary force and due to evaporation of moisture from slit wall surfaces toward slit walls, accompanied by accumulation thereon of salts. Washing process may be accomplished during one or several seasons depending upon precipitation intensity and salt concentration. After completing of desalinization processes, shields are removed, salts are buried by spilling soil into slits, and soil on desalinized plot is mellowed to depth of season soil wetting. Burying of salts at the level below depth of season soil wetting and destruction of capillaries by deep mellowing of desalinized soil layer protect it from secondary salinization.

EFFECT: increased fertility of agricultural areas on unirrigated agricultural lands in the absence of potable water sources without the necessity of constructing expensive water feeding systems.

4 dwg

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