Passive optical shutter

FIELD: physics.

SUBSTANCE: passive optical shutter has a reflecting metal film on a substrate, placed in the intermediate real image plane of the optical system of a radiation detector. The film has an underlayer of a thermal decomposing chemical compound with emission of gases.

EFFECT: high shutter speed, low radiation intensity threshold of actuation of the shutter.

3 cl, 5 dwg


The invention relates to optical and optoelectronic technology, devices protection of photosensitive elements, optical and optoelectronic systems from the damaging effects of intense radiation.

To protect sensitive receivers radiation from damaging the powerful radiation is investigated applying a colloidal solution or a thin film containing carbon nanoparticles or metal [N.V. kamanina the Photophysics of fullerene-containing environments: constraints laser radiation, diffraction elements, dispersed liquid crystal light modulators. // Nanotechnik. No. 1, 2006]. The radiation passes through the Sol or film having transparency 50-70%, to protect the receiver; when increasing the intensity of its absorption in the nonlinear environment increases to almost complete opacity of the medium, and the receiver is protected from damage by the powerful radiation. The lack of such protection is the inertia of the onset of the protective effect, which is 10-100 NS or more. The reason for the inertia principle are not disposable and due to the significant volume of medium, which must be absorbed light energy incident radiation for the onset of nonlinear absorption of light.

It is also known another device that the selected prototype declared. Subject ablets and laser radiation reflecting metal film on a polymer film substrate is used as a passive shutter for protection of sensitive elements of sensors [Cohnatal.,US Patent 4,719,342, January 12, 1988]. Metal film on a transparent polymeric film substrate is placed in the path of the light beam in the focal plane of the lens photodetector device; reflected from the mirror film light using additional optics forms an image on the sensitive surface of the photodetector; with increasing intensity of incident radiation in the film is burned hole, the radiation then passes into the hole, not reflected from the mirror film and misses to the sensor; the sensor is not damaged by radiation. In this technical solution, the radiation produces necessary for the protection of receivers effect, absorbed in the environment layer thickness of the order of the thickness of the skin layer in the metal, i.e. in the layer is about 100 times smaller than in the equivalent.

The disadvantages of the prototype are significant threshold value of the radiation intensity, in which due to ablation burned a hole in the mirror - reflector optical shutter, and, consequently, have a low sensitivity to the damaging photosensitive elements factors.

The problem solved by this proposal is to increase the shutter speed and the decrease of the threshold intensity of the radiation shutter.

The task is solved in that in the proposed passive optical shutter, which contains ASEM, deleted focused radiation reflecting metal film on a substrate installed in the plane of the intermediate real image optical system of the radiation receiver, in accordance with the invention, the sublayer mirror film layer is thermoregulate with the release of gases chemical compounds.

It is also proposed that the material sublayer has the property when exposed to thermoregulate with release of heat.

It is also proposed that the underlayer is made in the form of a set of Islands.

Figure 1 shows an example construction of the proposed passive shutter as limiter radiation, figure 2 shows the first phase of shutter - warming patterns of the incident radiation, figure 3 shows the second phase of the shutter - thermal decomposition of the sublayer and the removal of gaseous products of decomposition of the reflecting layer, Figure 4 illustrates the design and operation of passive shutter when the radiation incidence on the backside of the substrate, Figure 5 shows the implementation of the sublayer in the form of a set of Islands. Symbols in figures:

- in figure 1: 1 - metal subsequently locally removed by the action of radiation mirror film; 2 - substrate; 3 - terrorislamic sublayer, 4 and 5 of the incident and reflected radiation.

In the subsequent figures are equally labeled analogs which ranks each other elements:

- figure 2: 6 is heated by the radiation area of the mirror layer 1; 7 is heated by heat conduction area of the underlayer 3;

- figure 3: 8 - the hole in the mirror film 1, 9 - remote site sublayer 3 at thermal decomposition;

- figure 4: 10 - transparent substrate of the structure of the shutter, on which the radiation falls on the back, opposite the placement of the paddle structures, hand;

- figure 5: 11 - mirror layer deposited on the structure of the islets sublayer and repeats the shape of Islands, 12 - sublayer in the form of a set of Islands, 13 - hole in the mirror layer formed by the dissociation of matter sublayer and the destruction of the mirror layer in areas of the Islands, the 14 remaining between the Islands areas of the reflecting layer 11.

Consider the operation of the device.

The substrate 2 with the structures of the shutter 1 and 3 are placed in a plane intermediate the real scene image observation optical Supervisory device, not shown in the figures. Blinding focused radiation 4 falls on the mirror layer 1 structure (Figure 1), is reflected as beam 5. Under the action of radiation (Figure 2) warm up section 6 of the reflecting layer 1 and by conduction region 7 sublayer (the first phase of shutter operation).

When the temperature of thermal decomposition of a chemical compound, which is the basis of the composition thermoregulate under the Loya 3, highlights gaseous products of the decomposition reaction. Pressure of the reaction products enough to break the mirror layer figure 3 - 9 - area dissociation sublayer, 8 - hole formed on the mirror layer. The formation of holes 8 leads to the violation of mirror reflection in this place, to a sensitive receiver radiation is focused in the area of the hole blinding radiation does not pass. The destruction of the mirror layer under suitable chemical compounds may occur at a lower energy of incident radiation than is necessary for the local removal of the reflecting layer by a laser sublimation, that is, the threshold passive shutter will decrease.

Radiation to the mirror layer can be directed from the side of the substrate, as shown in Figure 4. This blinding radiation passes through the sublayer, which should be transparent. The mechanism of the shutter, however, remains unchanged, as in the radiation incidence on the substrate side of the reflecting layer

Examples thermoregulate chemical compounds can be CARBONYLS of metals. Detachability dissociates according to the reaction: Re2(CO)10=2Re+10CO, the dissociation of one molecule leads to ten molecules of carbon monoxide. High speed dissociation occurs when the temperature of the substance 700K. If dissociation was subjected to layer thickness of 0.1 μm, which contains N=2,8·1020molecules/m2decacarbonyl, the concentration of carbon monoxide generated in the volume of this layer is equal to n=10N/d=2,8·1028milk l/m3. The pressure of carbon monoxide in the layer p=nkT(k is the Boltzmann constant, T thermodynamic temperature of the gas); when the temperature T=700 K, pressure p=7,5·108PA (7500 ATM); this pressure sufficient to fracture and remove the area of the reflecting layer located on the decaying area of the sublayer.

In accordance with paragraph 2 Formula is proposed to perform a sublayer of chemical compounds that decompose with evolution of heat. Such connection after initiation of the decomposition of the external heat addition heat released during the reaction heat, the reaction of the decomposition next comes with acceleration, in some cases, in the form of an explosion. When using such compounds the start of the reaction is initiated at the initial stage of heating of the reflecting layer by a blinding pulse, a further chemical reaction does not require external heating by radiation, develops spontaneously. Gases destroy the mirror layer to its pressure, the time course of destruction is typical for explosive processes; this time may be shorter than the duration of blinding and the pulse, that will lead to improvement of the effectiveness of the protection shutter photosensitive structures and a further reduction in the threshold of the gate.

In accordance with section 3 Formulas film sublayer is an array of Islands, which eliminates the propagation of detonation wave along the surface of the substrate on the sublayer to initiate dissociation of the sublayer radiation. Preferably the frequency of the location and size of the islets should be a small fraction of the image size blinding radiation source on the surface structure of the shutter, filling the entire sublayer Islands you want the best possible and close to 90%-100%, as the remaining gaps between the Islands areas of the reflecting layer weaken the effectiveness of protection.

Examples of such chemical compounds can be alkali metal azides, lead. The reaction of dissociation of sodium azide as follows: NaN3→Na+1,5N2+Q where Q is the heat generated by dissociation.

Technology for deposition of layers of azides can be liquid, precipitation from solution, or by implementing a liquid chemical reaction. Speed of detonation of some of azides may be 5000 m/s, when the wave propagation of detonation across the sublayer thickness of 0.1 μm gives time for the dissociation of the order of 2·10-11C, the flash point of about 300°C.

As vignais examples, temperature rapid formation of gas phase using a thermally dissociable chemical compounds significantly less temperature laser sublimation mirror metallic coatings, which reduces the threshold of the shutter and its actuation time on the order (you can compare with sublimation metal films with high reflectance boiling point of aluminum and silver 2621 To and 2436 K).

To implement the invention can be used to mirror film metal type aluminum, silver, magnesium, as thermoregulate compounds mentioned in the text of the CARBONYLS of metals or metal azides, the substrate may be glass.

Calculations show that using the proposed technical solutions the threshold glare shutter will be reduced by an order of magnitude, the response rate will increase considerably in comparison with the prototype.

Thus, it is shown that the distinctive features of the invention allow to solve tasks.

Optical passive shutter may find application in optoelectronics as an optical fuse, protecting against possible radiation damage photodetecting devices.

The technical result of the invention to provide an optical gate - limiter radiation with su the nanosecond lag, working in a wide spectral range and with lower threshold.

1. Optical passive shutter that contains the deleted focused radiation reflecting metal film on a substrate installed in the plane of the intermediate real image optical system of the radiation receiver, wherein the sublayer mirror film layer is thermoregulate with the release of gases chemical compounds.

2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the underlayer has the property when exposed to thermoregulate with release of heat.

3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the underlayer is made in the form of a set of Islands.


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