Passive optical shutter
SUBSTANCE: passive optical shutter has a reflecting metal film on a substrate, placed in the intermediate real image plane of the optical system of a radiation detector. The film has an underlayer of a thermal decomposing chemical compound with emission of gases.
EFFECT: high shutter speed, low radiation intensity threshold of actuation of the shutter.
3 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to optical and optoelectronic technology, devices protection of photosensitive elements, optical and optoelectronic systems from the damaging effects of intense radiation.
To protect sensitive receivers radiation from damaging the powerful radiation is investigated applying a colloidal solution or a thin film containing carbon nanoparticles or metal [N.V. kamanina the Photophysics of fullerene-containing environments: constraints laser radiation, diffraction elements, dispersed liquid crystal light modulators. // Nanotechnik. No. 1, 2006]. The radiation passes through the Sol or film having transparency 50-70%, to protect the receiver; when increasing the intensity of its absorption in the nonlinear environment increases to almost complete opacity of the medium, and the receiver is protected from damage by the powerful radiation. The lack of such protection is the inertia of the onset of the protective effect, which is 10-100 NS or more. The reason for the inertia principle are not disposable and due to the significant volume of medium, which must be absorbed light energy incident radiation for the onset of nonlinear absorption of light.
It is also known another device that the selected prototype declared. Subject ablets and laser radiation reflecting metal film on a polymer film substrate is used as a passive shutter for protection of sensitive elements of sensors [Cohnatal.,US Patent 4,719,342, January 12, 1988]. Metal film on a transparent polymeric film substrate is placed in the path of the light beam in the focal plane of the lens photodetector device; reflected from the mirror film light using additional optics forms an image on the sensitive surface of the photodetector; with increasing intensity of incident radiation in the film is burned hole, the radiation then passes into the hole, not reflected from the mirror film and misses to the sensor; the sensor is not damaged by radiation. In this technical solution, the radiation produces necessary for the protection of receivers effect, absorbed in the environment layer thickness of the order of the thickness of the skin layer in the metal, i.e. in the layer is about 100 times smaller than in the equivalent.
The disadvantages of the prototype are significant threshold value of the radiation intensity, in which due to ablation burned a hole in the mirror - reflector optical shutter, and, consequently, have a low sensitivity to the damaging photosensitive elements factors.
The problem solved by this proposal is to increase the shutter speed and the decrease of the threshold intensity of the radiation shutter.
The task is solved in that in the proposed passive optical shutter, which contains ASEM, deleted focused radiation reflecting metal film on a substrate installed in the plane of the intermediate real image optical system of the radiation receiver, in accordance with the invention, the sublayer mirror film layer is thermoregulate with the release of gases chemical compounds.
It is also proposed that the material sublayer has the property when exposed to thermoregulate with release of heat.
It is also proposed that the underlayer is made in the form of a set of Islands.
Figure 1 shows an example construction of the proposed passive shutter as limiter radiation, figure 2 shows the first phase of shutter - warming patterns of the incident radiation, figure 3 shows the second phase of the shutter - thermal decomposition of the sublayer and the removal of gaseous products of decomposition of the reflecting layer, Figure 4 illustrates the design and operation of passive shutter when the radiation incidence on the backside of the substrate, Figure 5 shows the implementation of the sublayer in the form of a set of Islands. Symbols in figures:
- in figure 1: 1 - metal subsequently locally removed by the action of radiation mirror film; 2 - substrate; 3 - terrorislamic sublayer, 4 and 5 of the incident and reflected radiation.
In the subsequent figures are equally labeled analogs which ranks each other elements:
- figure 2: 6 is heated by the radiation area of the mirror layer 1; 7 is heated by heat conduction area of the underlayer 3;
- figure 3: 8 - the hole in the mirror film 1, 9 - remote site sublayer 3 at thermal decomposition;
- figure 4: 10 - transparent substrate of the structure of the shutter, on which the radiation falls on the back, opposite the placement of the paddle structures, hand;
- figure 5: 11 - mirror layer deposited on the structure of the islets sublayer and repeats the shape of Islands, 12 - sublayer in the form of a set of Islands, 13 - hole in the mirror layer formed by the dissociation of matter sublayer and the destruction of the mirror layer in areas of the Islands, the 14 remaining between the Islands areas of the reflecting layer 11.
Consider the operation of the device.
The substrate 2 with the structures of the shutter 1 and 3 are placed in a plane intermediate the real scene image observation optical Supervisory device, not shown in the figures. Blinding focused radiation 4 falls on the mirror layer 1 structure (Figure 1), is reflected as beam 5. Under the action of radiation (Figure 2) warm up section 6 of the reflecting layer 1 and by conduction region 7 sublayer (the first phase of shutter operation).
When the temperature of thermal decomposition of a chemical compound, which is the basis of the composition thermoregulate under the Loya 3, highlights gaseous products of the decomposition reaction. Pressure of the reaction products enough to break the mirror layer figure 3 - 9 - area dissociation sublayer, 8 - hole formed on the mirror layer. The formation of holes 8 leads to the violation of mirror reflection in this place, to a sensitive receiver radiation is focused in the area of the hole blinding radiation does not pass. The destruction of the mirror layer under suitable chemical compounds may occur at a lower energy of incident radiation than is necessary for the local removal of the reflecting layer by a laser sublimation, that is, the threshold passive shutter will decrease.
Radiation to the mirror layer can be directed from the side of the substrate, as shown in Figure 4. This blinding radiation passes through the sublayer, which should be transparent. The mechanism of the shutter, however, remains unchanged, as in the radiation incidence on the substrate side of the reflecting layer
Examples thermoregulate chemical compounds can be CARBONYLS of metals. Detachability dissociates according to the reaction: Re2(CO)10=2Re+10CO, the dissociation of one molecule leads to ten molecules of carbon monoxide. High speed dissociation occurs when the temperature of the substance 700K. If dissociation was subjected to layer thickness of 0.1 μm, which contains N=2,8·1020molecules/m2decacarbonyl, the concentration of carbon monoxide generated in the volume of this layer is equal to n=10N/d=2,8·1028milk l/m3. The pressure of carbon monoxide in the layer p=nkT(k is the Boltzmann constant, T thermodynamic temperature of the gas); when the temperature T=700 K, pressure p=7,5·108PA (7500 ATM); this pressure sufficient to fracture and remove the area of the reflecting layer located on the decaying area of the sublayer.
In accordance with paragraph 2 Formula is proposed to perform a sublayer of chemical compounds that decompose with evolution of heat. Such connection after initiation of the decomposition of the external heat addition heat released during the reaction heat, the reaction of the decomposition next comes with acceleration, in some cases, in the form of an explosion. When using such compounds the start of the reaction is initiated at the initial stage of heating of the reflecting layer by a blinding pulse, a further chemical reaction does not require external heating by radiation, develops spontaneously. Gases destroy the mirror layer to its pressure, the time course of destruction is typical for explosive processes; this time may be shorter than the duration of blinding and the pulse, that will lead to improvement of the effectiveness of the protection shutter photosensitive structures and a further reduction in the threshold of the gate.
In accordance with section 3 Formulas film sublayer is an array of Islands, which eliminates the propagation of detonation wave along the surface of the substrate on the sublayer to initiate dissociation of the sublayer radiation. Preferably the frequency of the location and size of the islets should be a small fraction of the image size blinding radiation source on the surface structure of the shutter, filling the entire sublayer Islands you want the best possible and close to 90%-100%, as the remaining gaps between the Islands areas of the reflecting layer weaken the effectiveness of protection.
Examples of such chemical compounds can be alkali metal azides, lead. The reaction of dissociation of sodium azide as follows: NaN3→Na+1,5N2+Q where Q is the heat generated by dissociation.
Technology for deposition of layers of azides can be liquid, precipitation from solution, or by implementing a liquid chemical reaction. Speed of detonation of some of azides may be 5000 m/s, when the wave propagation of detonation across the sublayer thickness of 0.1 μm gives time for the dissociation of the order of 2·10-11C, the flash point of about 300°C.
As vignais examples, temperature rapid formation of gas phase using a thermally dissociable chemical compounds significantly less temperature laser sublimation mirror metallic coatings, which reduces the threshold of the shutter and its actuation time on the order (you can compare with sublimation metal films with high reflectance boiling point of aluminum and silver 2621 To and 2436 K).
To implement the invention can be used to mirror film metal type aluminum, silver, magnesium, as thermoregulate compounds mentioned in the text of the CARBONYLS of metals or metal azides, the substrate may be glass.
Calculations show that using the proposed technical solutions the threshold glare shutter will be reduced by an order of magnitude, the response rate will increase considerably in comparison with the prototype.
Thus, it is shown that the distinctive features of the invention allow to solve tasks.
Optical passive shutter may find application in optoelectronics as an optical fuse, protecting against possible radiation damage photodetecting devices.
The technical result of the invention to provide an optical gate - limiter radiation with su the nanosecond lag, working in a wide spectral range and with lower threshold.
1. Optical passive shutter that contains the deleted focused radiation reflecting metal film on a substrate installed in the plane of the intermediate real image optical system of the radiation receiver, wherein the sublayer mirror film layer is thermoregulate with the release of gases chemical compounds.
2. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the material of the underlayer has the property when exposed to thermoregulate with release of heat.
3. The device according to claim 1, characterized in that the underlayer is made in the form of a set of Islands.
FIELD: technological processes.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to lighting engineering. The illumination system comprises a light-emitting part (1), having light sources configured to emit light beams at different dominant wavelengths, and an image-forming optical system (3), having microlenses (3a) configured to focus the light beams emitted by the light-emitting part (1). The illumination system is configured to illuminate a liquid crystal panel with light beams passing through the image-forming optical system (3). The liquid crystal panel has pixels which are spaced apart by a predetermined spacing and each of which has display elements corresponding to each separate colour, and under the condition that the spacing of the pixels is denoted by P, and the image-forming optical system has a zoom factor (1/n), the light sources are spaced apart by a spacing P1, given as P1=n × P, and the microlenses are spaced apart by a spacing P2, given as P2=(n/(n+1)) × P.
EFFECT: high quality of display by suppressing non-uniformity of brightness and colour in the display screen.
32 cl, 16 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to optical engineering. The apparatus for modulating monochromatic optical radiation comprises an optically transparent medium in which are mounted a splitter for splitting monochromatic optical radiation into a first and a second propagation channel, a reflecting element in the second channel, a coherent summation portion for forming modulated monochromatic optical radiation. The splitter used for splitting monochromatic optical radiation into a first channel and a second channel is a splitting cube consisting of two identical triangular prisms joined by their large faces. The first channel is equipped with its own reflecting element. Each reflecting element is deposited on the corresponding face of the splitting cube on the path of the monochromatic optical radiation in the first and second channels. The splitting cube is mounted such that it can move back and forth outside the interface plane of its prisms, and the angle α between the velocity vector of the back and forth movement and the interface plane of the prisms of the splitting cube is selected from the relationship , where fm is the required modulation frequency of the monochromatic optical radiation, λ0 is the wavelength of monochromatic optical radiation at the input of the splitting cube, υ is the velocity of the splitting cube.
EFFECT: resistance to vibrations and pushing, capacity to operate in all spatial orientations.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of lighting equipment. A highlighting unit 12 consists of a LED 17, a chassis 14 including a base plate 14a mounted at the side opposite to the side of the light output in regard to the LED 17, at that the chassis 14 contains the LED 17 and the first reflective sheet 22 that reflects light. The first reflective sheet 22 includes a four-sided base 24 running along the base plate 14a and two elevated portions 25 and 26, each of these portions is elevated from each of two adjacent sides of the base 24 in direction of the light output. There is a junction J between two adjacent side edges 25a and 26b of the elevated portions 25 and 26. In the highlighting unit 12 the side edge 25a of the first elevated portion 25 out of the two elevated portions 25 and 26 has a face piece 28 faced to the side edge 26a of the elevated portion 26 in the same direction in which the first elevated part 25 is elevated from the base 24 outside towards axis Y, and the first elevated part 25 and the face piece 28 are extruded towards direction of the light output.
EFFECT: elimination of uneven brightness.
22 cl, 29 dwg
SUBSTANCE: display device contains ambient light system (100) to emit ambient light (106) to the wall (107) behind display device (104). Ambient light system includes at least one source (101) of light located in the central part of display device (104) rear side and at least one reflector (102) located at display device (104) rear side. At least one reflector (102) is located at the periphery of display device (104) rear side so that when display device (104) is located close to the wall (107) the light emitted by at least one source of light is reflected by reflector (102) towards the wall (107) in such way that reflected light (106) at least partially encloses the observed area of display device (104) at the periphery.
EFFECT: improving efficiency.
13 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of lighting equipment. Lighting device (12) is equipped with a number of optical source cards (20) with variety of point optical sources (17) installed at them. Average colour tone of point optical sources (17) (POS) at each card (20) is in equivalent colour range defined by the square, and each opposite side of two square sides has coordinate length in the axis X equal to 0.015, and each opposite side of two square sides has coordinate length in the axis Y equal to 0.015 at the colour space chromaticity chart of International Commission on Illumination as of 1931. POS are categorized into three colour ranges defined by squares, at that each side of the square has a length of 0.015. At that the second and third ranges adjoin the first one that includes the above equivalent colour range. POS cards include the first cards with installed point optical sources in the first and second colour ranges, and the second cards with installed point optical sources in the first and third colour ranges. The first and second POS cards are placed in sequence.
EFFECT: providing total emission of practically uniform colour.
26 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to imaging terahertz (THz) radiation (ν=0.1-10 THz or λ=30-3000 mcm) and can be used to design devices for detecting and analysing terahertz radiation. The device for imaging terahertz radiation sources has a converter for converting terahertz radiation to infrared radiation, which consists of a layer of artificial metamaterial with resonant absorption of terahertz radiation, deposited on a solid-state substrate made of sapphire, placed between an input terahertz lens and an infrared camera lens situated on the side of the substrate. The converter is based on a gelatin matrix which contains metal nanoparticles and is provided with a cut-off filter placed in front of the matrix to allow filtration of thermal radiation of the terahertz radiation source with wavelength of not more than 30 mcm.
EFFECT: high noise-immunity of the design, low noise level and high sensitivity while simplifying the design of the imaging device.
16 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: backlighting device (20) comprises a substrate (22), where multiple point sources of light are placed in the form of light diodes (21), and slots (23), which are also arranged on the substrate. Multiple point sources of light include the first point source of light (21), which is placed near the slot (23), and the second point source of light (21), which is placed in a position distant from the slot (23) compared to the first point source of light (21). The light beam in the surroundings of the slots is higher than the light beam in the area different from the surroundings of the slots.
EFFECT: reduced heterogeneity of brightness of a display panel without increase in number of process operations.
15 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: backlight for a colour liquid crystal display includes white light LEDs formed using a blue LED with a layer of red and green phosphors over it. In order to achieve a uniform blue colour component across the surface of a liquid crystal display screen and achieve uniform light output from one liquid crystal display to another, the leakage of blue light of the phosphor layer is tailored to the dominant or peak wavelength of the blue LED chip. The backlight employs blue LED chips having different dominant or peak radiation wavelength.
EFFECT: different leakage amounts of light through the tailored phosphor layers offset the attenuation on wavelength of the liquid crystal layers.
15 cl, 13 dwg
SUBSTANCE: liquid crystal display device (100) of the present invention includes a liquid crystal display panel (10) and a lateral illumination unit (20) which emits light from a position which is lateral with respect to the panel (10). The panel (10) includes a front substrate (1), a back substrate (2) and a light-diffusing liquid crystal layer (3). The unit (20) includes a light source (7), which is situated in a position which is lateral with respect to the panel (10), and a light-guide (6), having a light-output surface (6b) through which light emitted by the light source (7) as well as light incident on the light-guide (6) is emitted towards the end surface (1a) of the substrate (1). The surface (6b) is slanted relative a direction which is vertical with respect to the front surface (1b) of the substrate (1), such that it faces the back surface of the panel (10).
EFFECT: preventing generation of a bright line in the panel.
3 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: in carrier pin (11) used for support of optical elements (43-45) though which part of light passes from light-emitting diode (24) a part of peak (14) contacting with light-diffusing plate (43) is formed of light-reflective material while a part of rack (12) supporting peak (14) is formed of light-transmitting material.
EFFECT: eliminating mom-uniformity of lighting.
12 cl, 13 dwg
FIELD: mechanical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has signal form generator, power amplifier and electromechanical block, including first fixed magnetic system and first coil of current-conductive wire, additionally included are integrator and corrector of amplitude-frequency characteristic of electromechanical block, and block also has second fixed magnetic system and second coil of current-conducting wire, rigidly and coaxially connected to first coil. Connection of first and second coils with fixed base is made in form of soft suspension with possible movement of first and second coils, forming a moving part of modulator, relatively to fixed magnetic systems, while output of said signal shape generator is connected to direct input of integrator, inverse input of which is connected to speed sensor of moving portion of modulator, output of integrator is connected to input of corrector, to output of which input of said power amplifier is connected.
EFFECT: higher precision.
3 cl, 8 dwg
FIELD: conversion of optical radiation by using nanotechnology.
SUBSTANCE: transparent nano-particles having volume of 10-15 cm3 are illuminated by white light. Nano-particles are activated by impurity atom with concentration of 1020-1021cm-3 and are strengthened in form of monolayer onto transparent substrate. Nano-particles are made of glass and are glued to substrate by means of optically transparent glue. Substrate can be made flexible.
EFFECT: high brightness of image.
4 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: optical instrument engineering.
SUBSTANCE: modulator has non-monochromatic radiation source, polarizer, first crystal, first analyzer, and second crystal, second analyzer which units are connected together in series by optical coupling. Modulator also has control electric field generator connected with second crystal. Optical axes of first and second crystals are perpendicular to direction of radiation and are parallel to each other. Axes of transmission of polarizer and analyzers are parallel to each other and are disposed at angle of 45o to optical axes of crystals.
EFFECT: widened spectral range.
FIELD: engineering of displays.
SUBSTANCE: to decrease number of external outputs of screen in liquid-crystalline display, containing two dielectric plates with transparent current-guiding electrodes applied on them, each electrode of one plate is connected to selected electrode of another plate by electric-conductive contact, while each pair of electrodes is let out onto controlling contact zone, and electrodes, forming image elements of information field of screen, on each plate are positioned at angle φ similar relatively to external sides of plates, while angle φ satisfies following condition: 10°≤φ≤85°.
EFFECT: decreased constructive requirements for display.
4 cl, 4 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device has optically connected single-frequency continuous effect laser, photometric wedge, electro-optical polarization light modulator, first inclined semi-transparent reflector, second inclined semi-transparent reflector and heterodyne photo-receiving device, and also second inclined reflector in optical branch of heterodyne channel, high-frequency generator, connected electrically to electro-optical polarization modulator, direct current source, connected to electrodes of two-electrode vessel with anisotropic substance, and spectrum analyzer, connected to output of heterodyne photo-receiving device.
EFFECT: possible detection of "red shift" resonance effect of electromagnetic waves in anisotropic environments.
FIELD: electro-optical engineering.
SUBSTANCE: fiber-optic sensor system can be used in physical value fiber-optic converters providing interference reading out of measured signal. Fiber-optic sensor system has optical radiation laser detector, interferometer sensor, fiber-optic splitter, photodetector and electric signal amplifier. Interferometer sensor is equipped with sensitive membrane. Fiber-optic splitter is made of single-mode optical fibers. Connection between fiber-optic splitter and interferometer sensor is based upon the following calculation: l=0,125λn±0,075λ, where l is distance from edge of optical fiber of second input of fiber-optic splitter to light-reflecting surface of sensor's membrane (mcm); λ is optical radiation wavelength, mcm; n is odd number within [1001-3001] interval.
EFFECT: simplified design; compactness; widened sensitivity frequency range.
4 cl, 1 tbl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method can be used in optical filter constructions intended for processing of optical radiation under conditions of slow or single-time changes in processed signal, which changes are caused by non-controlled influence of environment. Optical signal is applied to entrance face of photo-refractive crystal where phase diffraction grating is formed by means of use of photo-refractive effect. Reflecting-type phase diffraction grating is formed. For the purpose the optical signal with duration to exceed characteristic time of phase diffraction grating formation, is applied close to normal line through entrance face of photo-refractive crystal of (100) or (111) cut onto its output face which is formed at angle of 10°to entrance face. Part of entrance signal, reflected by phase diffraction grating, is used as output signal. To apply optical signal to entrance face of photo-refractive crystal, it has to be transformed into quazi-flat wave which wave is later linearly polarized.
EFFECT: power independence of processing of optical signal.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: measuring equipment.
SUBSTANCE: optical heat transformer includes base of body with optical unit positioned therein, transformer of heat flow and consumer of heat flow in form of thermal carrier. Optical unit consists of optical heat source and reflectors of coherent heat flows and concentrator - generator of coherent heat flow in form of two collecting mirrors and a lens, positioned on different sides of source, with possible redirection of coherent heat flow for interaction with transformer of heat flow with following transfer of heat flow.
EFFECT: decreased energy costs.
FIELD: measuring technique.
SUBSTANCE: electro chromic device has first substrate, which has at least one polymer surface, ground primer coat onto polymer surface, first electro-conducting transparent coating onto ground primer coat. Ground primer coat engages first electro-conducting coating with polymer surface of first substrate. Device also has second substrate disposed at some distance from first substrate to form chamber between them. It has as well the second electro-conducting transparent coating onto surface of second substrate applied in such a way that first coating is disposed in opposition to second one. At least one of two substrates has to be transparent. Device also has electrochromic medium disposed in chamber, being capable of having reduced coefficient of light transmission after electric energy is applied to conducting coatings. Electrochromic medium and ground primer coat are compatible.
EFFECT: simplified process of manufacture; cracking resistance.
44 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: laser and fiber optics.
SUBSTANCE: in accordance to invention, optical wave guide is heated up during recording of Bragg grating up to temperature, which depends on material of optical wave guide, and which is selected to be at least 100°C, but not more than temperature of softening of optical wave guide material, and selected temperature is maintained during time required for recording the Bragg grating.
EFFECT: increased thermal stability of recorded Bragg gratings.
2 cl, 3 dwg