Protection of development entries
SUBSTANCE: proposed method comprises mechanised pre-working and stabilisation in coal massif, protection of opened space against adjacent column by coal post. Compensation cavities are made in virgin massif, nearby bed soil, and separated by coal post. Cavities and coal posts there between on massif side and opened space are arranged in staggered manner. Width, height and depth of cavities are defined on the basis of coal seam mining and geological conditions and heading machine performances. Coal post width between compensation cavities is calculated with due allowance for empirical factor equal to 1.3 at working in virgin massif and equal to 1.6 at working in adjacent column abutment pressure zone, seal depth (post height) and seam cubical compression strength.
EFFECT: higher stability of working, lower losses of coal in posts, no need in additional barring.
The invention relates to mining and can be used in underground reservoir minerals (coal, salt and other) at great depths under the protection of preparatory workings.
There is a method of carrying out excavation, including education compensatory cavity, blasthole drilling the entire length of the generation, loading their explosive (BB) and the blasting hole charges for the entire length at one time on the compensation cavity (avts USSR N 890794).
The disadvantage of this method lies in the high complexity and duration of the formation process of the compensation cavity due to mnogostadiinost operations, consisting in drilling and expanding their thermal method.
There is a method of conducting rising mining (ed. mon. USSR N 1004643), including the drilling of the compensation chamber and blast holes, installing them in charges and initiating simultaneously charges in compensation and in one explosive wells, after which produce coherent short-delay initiation of the explosive charge in the remaining wells.
The disadvantage of this method are: the use of wells of different diameters as explosive and the creation of a compensation cavity and, consequently, for their drilling required different mountain on which rudovanie; broken timing of the explosions of the charges located in the compensation wells and the first electric well, due to the different velocity of detonation (thus, the speed of detonation of the detonating cord exceeds 2 times the speed of detonation of EXPLOSIVES in electric well while initiating them); the use of explosive charge and detonating cords for explosion in the compensation capacitance, which increases the costs for implementing the method.
There is a method of protection of development workings in underground reservoir minerals (Hugin UL, Ustinov, M.I., Brayzev AV and other "Beztselikovuju the seam". M., Nedra, 1983. p.61), including precinct development workings, development and testing of formation of minerals by means of longwall mining without leaving pillars of minerals between the pillars and the protection of the mines on the border with goaf fires of roundwood.
The disadvantage of this method are the significant cost of time and material resources to maintain reusable workings
There is a method of protection of excavations (Zaslavsky YOU, Kompaniets V.F., Faybishenko A.G., kleschenko V.M. improving the sustainability of development workings in coal mines. M., Nedra, 1991. p.20-21), including precinct preparatory you is abook, counting the posts of a useful mineral, mining pillars of minerals by means of longwall mining without leaving pillars of minerals between the pillars and the construction of a mined-out space for treatment faces of artificial structures (e.g., cast strips of fast-curing materials, walls of concrete blocks and other) for the protection of recycled plots preparatory workings.
The disadvantages of this method are the additional material cost of maintaining roadways, as well as the possibility of transmission of pressure, perceived man-made structures on the underlying layers when developing suites of layers.
There is a method of protection of excavations (patent RU No. 2172837 publ. 27.08.2001). This method is adopted as a prototype. The essence of the invention: after clearing face are blasting the side of the rocks forming the cross-section generation, and smitten rock placed in the mined-out space of the reservoir in the form of a rock band and in its marginal area adjacent to the walls of the excavations, serves under pressure, for example, through the perforated pipe fastening solution.
The disadvantages of this method are: low rate of penetration of generation, the complexity of the passport fastening generation, limited scope, including only the thin layers and the Central power.
The technical result of the invention is to increase the sustainability of production, reducing losses of coal in the pillars, the exception heaving rocks and soil attaching output.
The technical result is achieved by the means of the protection of preparatory development, including mechanized holding and fastening coal production in the array, protecting her from the goaf related post entirely coal, characterized in that when carrying out production in the intact rock mass perform compensatory cavity in the soil layer, separated from each other entirely coal, oral and pillars of coal between them from the array and goaf have relative to each other in a checkerboard pattern, width, height and depth of the cavities are determined from the mining and geological conditions of occurrence of a coal seam and technical capabilities of the tunneling machine and the pillars of coal between the compensation cavities are calculated according to the formula:
where q is the empirical coefficient equal to 1.3, when Prov is Denia production in the intact rock mass, equal to 1.6, - when carrying out production in the zone of influence of the reference pressure from the adjacent pillar; h is the reservoir thickness (the height of the pillar), m; R0- dice the strength of the seam, compression, MPa
The method is illustrated in figures 1-3, where 1 is the extraction column 2 - the pillars of coal between the compensation cavities, 3 - compensation chamber, 4 - preparatory output, 5 - coal pillar, 6 - goaf, 7 - bolting.
The method allows to move the maximum bearing pressure into the array. As follows: for the preparation of the extraction column 1 is the preparatory generation 4, for which maintenance is left to the coal pillar 5 bordering the mined-out space 6. When sinking generate fastening of the roof and sides produce anchor shoring 7 figure 2, 3 according to the calculated passport. Followed with a lag of 15-20 m using combine selective action (for example, KP-21) are cut into the compensation chamber 3 at the soil layer, separated from each other entirely coal 2. Cavities are positioned relative to each other in a checkerboard pattern, width, height and depth of the cavities are determined from the mining and geological conditions of occurrence of a coal seam and technical capabilities sinking machinery (for example, when the power of the coal seam 5 m and the depth of the reservoir 350-360 m width=1,5m, height h=1.5 m, depth L=2 m), and pillars of coal between the compensation cavities are calculated according to the formula 1
Method of protection of preparatory workings, including mechanized holding and fastening coal production in the array, protecting her from the goaf related post entirely coal, characterized in that when carrying out production in the intact rock mass perform compensatory cavity in the soil layer, separated from each other entirely coal, oral and pillars of coal between them from the array and goaf have relative to each other in a checkerboard pattern, width, height and depth of the cavities are determined from the mining and geological conditions of occurrence of a coal seam and technical capabilities of the tunneling machine and the pillars of coal between the compensation cavities are calculated according to the formula:
where is the width of pillars of coal between the compensation cavities; q is an empirical coefficient equal to 1.3, - when carrying out production in the intact rock mass is 1.6, - when carrying out production in the zone of influence oporn the th pressure from an adjacent column; h is the reservoir thickness (the height of the pillar), m; R0- dice the strength of the seam, compression, MPa.
SUBSTANCE: method is performed using facilities of simultaneous drilling of boreholes with increased speeds of feed and rotation of bits and intensive washing of boreholes first in 2 vertical sectors, then, after rotation of a drilling faceplate by 90 degrees, in 2 horizontal sectors. After removal of the drilling faceplate from the bottomhole, the charging faceplate is fed with injectors-stems, and then boreholes are automatically charged with explosive substance, and explosion is initiated.
EFFECT: higher speed of mining, reduced time for bottomhole drilling, time of drilling and blasting works, increased frequency and resistance of a technological process.
SUBSTANCE: complex for tunnel driving comprises a frame, on which two horizontal chutes are fixed rigidly being arranged as stationary to the frame and comprising driving augers, and the chutes are coaxial to each other at the mine base. Above one of the chutes with the auger in the initial position there is an additional chute installed with a driving auger capable of rotation in vertical plane relative to a hinged unit fixed on the frame in its middle part along the mine width, with the help of a drive with a geared wheel as capable of its interaction with the geared rack of circular profile fixed on the frame relative to the axis of the hinged unit fixed on the frame in its middle part along the mine width.
EFFECT: provision of the possibility to drive mines with cross section of semicircular shape.
SUBSTANCE: method includes drilling of keyholes, popholes and cropper holes, placement of charges in them and blasting. The distance between cropper holes is defined mathematically depending on parameters of rock massif cracking, effect of friction between separate parts of the massif, rock pressure, physical and mechanical properties of rock massif, speed of detonation and density of explosive charging.
EFFECT: higher efficiency and level of rock safety.
SUBSTANCE: method of tunnelling is characterised by the fact that rocks are broken at a bottomhole with a fluid working agent under pressure, at the same time mines and wells are arranged along the perimetre and along the frontal area of the bottomhole; the distance between these mines is chosen with account of breaking action at rocks with a reheated gas or steam-gas working agent under pressure, which is generated with a multi-module jet plant and its working devices, and also extended elastic tubular elements are used, filled with an energy composition that generates a reheated agent under high pressure, with the help of which the specified mines and wells are arranged in the rock massif; the massif is damaged and ground. The bottomhole is cleaned by pressure at the bottomhole end to damaged parts of the rock massif with a working medium in the form of reheated steam-gas phases under pressure.
EFFECT: efficient complex action at a bottomhole with higher efficiency, lower labour and power inputs.
SUBSTANCE: method to construct station tunnels with low subsidence of earth surface includes erection of an advance support and a temporary support along a tunnel vault, erection of permanent lining and mining of bottomhole rock, according to the invention, in a bottomhole under protection of the advance support along the longitudinal axis of the tunnel there are injection fibreglass anchors installed, the temporary support is erected providing for maintenance of the advance support, and mounted from steel arcs directly following face advance with filling of the support space with concrete, the permanent lining is erected after temporary support concrete gains strength. At the same time injection fibreglass anchors are cut in layers with a tunnelling unit together with rock in the bottomhole as it advances. At the same time the advance support is erected by drilling of wells along the tunnel vault at the angle to its longitudinal axis, placement of metal pipes in wells and filling of pipes with cement mortar.
EFFECT: increased quality of tunnel construction by reduction of earth surface subsidence at main stages of construction.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: complex for tunnelling of a subway mine of round cross section comprises mechanisms of rock breaking arranged on a carcass equipped with a movement drive, a transshipment device for loading of rock mass into transport facilities. The transshipment device is made in the form of a chute of cylindrical shape fixed on the frame and normally oriented towards the bottomhole, the lower edge of the chute is located at the sharp angle a to the mine base and with limitation of the upper edges of the chute with the horizontal plane arranged at the level of the central axis of the mine or with certain downward displacement. Inside the chute in its middle part there is an infinitely closed double-chain scraper contour on driving and tension sprockets with a curvilinear external profile of scrapers, and with the possibility of interaction of scrapers in the lower weight-bearing branch with the chute base, and the upper idle branch - with resting against the rollers.
EFFECT: improved reliability of complex operation, elimination of rock mass accumulation near a bottomhole as a result of mine tunnelling, reduced labour intensiveness of complex maintenance and its increased efficiency due to elimination of complex idle time.
SUBSTANCE: method of tunnel building includes the following operations: soil development and its transportation, support of mine workings at driving with shotcrete, probably with anchors, arcs and net, geophysical measurement of rock density in bottom-hole zone, which results are used for correction of length of planned driving and thickness of layer of shotcrete in order to speed-up driving and to reduce shotcrete flow rate.
EFFECT: accident prevention, possibility of correction of driving method in order to speed-up it and correction of structure of temporary support in order to improve its efficiency, improving safety of underground operations.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes stages, at which the diagram of bore holes location is designed using a computer applying the design software, the navigation plane (N) of the bore holes location diagram is identified, initial embedding points to be drilled are identified in the navigation plane, and final embedding points to be drilled are selected. Besides, the bottomhole profile is downloaded into the design software, which represents the bottomhole shape in the set of bore holes to be drilled, and final points of the bore holes to be drilled are placed in the diagram of the bore holes location, into locations in compliance with the bottomhole profile, in the system of coordinates of the bore holes location diagram by means of the design computer, as a result of which bore holes of various length in the diagram of the bore holes location develop the shape of this bottomhole profile.
EFFECT: improved method to design the location diagram of boreholes with complex shape.
12 cl, 17 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to arrange openings in outburst-prone seams includes formation of an unloading cavity with an irreducible outstripping of an opening bottomhole and installation of a permanent support in a mine. At the same time a bottomhole of an unloading cavity is made as stepped with a distance between adjacent steps of unloading cavity steps equal to a pitch of opening bottomhole shift. The width of the unloading cavity step is adopted as less than the limit bay of the opening roof rocks, which, when exceeded, results in its caving above the unloading cavity. Number of unloading cavity bottomhole steps is determined using a mathematical expression.
EFFECT: increased safety of works when driving and fixation of openings in outburst-prone seams.
SUBSTANCE: method involves pre-planning of tunnel route as per the data of engineering geology and topography and tunnel driving. First, according to the route of the future tunnel there determined are underground water courses, their width, depth, specific yield, distance between them and direction of water movement. Tunnel driving is performed; at that, first, infiltration tunnel of small section is drilled, and then, parallel to it there drilled is the main tunnel with some delay; pillar is left between tunnels, which through the distance determined by technological necessity is cleaved by breaking off, or the main tunnel is driven after infiltration tunnel with absorption of its section. Along the route of infiltration tunnel there arranged are recesses in its wall, into which filters for water interception and reduction of hydraulic pressure are drilled from the surface. Drilling frequency of filters are chosen depending on the number of underground water courses, their thickness and considering water abundance of confined aquifers. At top and bottom of infiltration tunnel there also arranged are upward and downward filters; at that, the water supplied from all filters is collected in water diversion terrace of infiltration tunnel and diverted to safe place on the surface.
EFFECT: reducing construction cost, controlling big water flows, reducing hydraulic water pressure, providing reliable safe and dry driving of the main tunnel and non-overhaul operation in the future.
FIELD: oil and gas industry.
SUBSTANCE: double-ended method of the deposit opening during underground operations includes shaft sinking of at least two holes, each hole having its own job site. Opening of the deposit is made by underground horizontal and/or inclined workings from each hole. As the shaft sinking progresses the underground horizontal workings are made from the hole at a distance of at least 5 diameters of the hole. Vertical wells are drilled from the surface and horizontal cuts and when the lower horizontal working is reached the well is drilled up to the project diameter of the air raise. Horizontal workings are placed vertically, one by one, at a distance to be determined by technical capabilities of the drilling rig. The upper part of the air raise is made from the surface through quaternary deposits by a usual method. At the first stage each end of the deposit is ventilated separately, at the second stage fresh air is supplied through a pair of combined developments - a borehole and the air riser at one end while outgoing jet is outputted through the combined developments of the other end.
EFFECT: method allows reducing scope of works during shaft sinking, increasing the sinking rate, reducing the period of construction and commissioning of a mine or minery, increasing reliability of ventilation due to ventilation risers.
SUBSTANCE: method involves formation of lower slashing of formation by means of a plough unit with movement into it of a hauling conveyor, cutting in bottom-hole massif of a rear vertical slot and a slot that is upper along the boundary with the roof, which are longitudinal throughout the face length, lowering of the massif onto the conveyor, splitting of a mineral into slabs, output of the mineral from the face in slabs, their lowing into trolleys and locomotive haulage to a bulk material crushing chamber. In the massif settled down on the conveyor there cutout are inclined transverse slots splitting the massif into inclined layers that are then transferred to horizontal position for splitting of the mineral into slabs. Cutout of vertical transverse slots is performed using a motor-driven multi-jib machine.
EFFECT: high efficiency of a mining face, maximum extraction of mineral deposits from the formation being developed, extraction of methane from the produced mineral, safety of second working as per gas factor and sanitary-hygienic conditions of underground production as to dust.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to mining industry and may be used in development of thick edge ore bodies with unstable and precious ores, for instance, kimberlite pipes, by the underground method. The method includes formation of man-made massif with tunnelling and filling of stopes at the cut and undercut layer, descending extraction of reserves under the man-made massif and filling of the mined space. Under the man-made massif they form a transition layer-sublevel by alternate tunnelling of the stopes of the first phase, with height equal to the height of the layer, and stopes of the second phase, the height of which is equal to the height of the layer-sublevel, at the same time the stopes of the first phase is given the shape of the tilted trapezoid in the vertical cross section, and stopes of the second phase - the irregular hexagon, besides, the width of the upper bases of figures of these stopes and width of stopes of the above (undercut) layer are accepted with equal value. Reserves of the deposit below the transition layer-sublevel are mined by chambers in staggered order with a shift to a sublevel. Chambers in the cross section are given the shape of the hexahedron extended along the vertical line. The upper part of the chambers is formed in the form of a trapezoid with size of half of chamber height, the contours of the upper base of which match the contours of the base of the filled stopes of the first phase in the transition layer - sublevel, and contours of the lateral upper sides - with contours of the lower sides of the filled adjacent stopes of the second phase. The lower part of the chamber with the size of half of its height is given the shape of the tilted trapezoid in the vertical cross section.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase intensity of mining of ore deposits, to increase size of an extraction unit and to reduce costs for filling works.
5 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention refers to mining, and namely to production of useful minerals by an underground block leaching method. The underground block leaching method of useful minerals involves driving at the block bottom of openings of drain horizon for collection of productive solutions, crushing and shrinkage of ore so that a drain horizon of a safety pillar is left above openings, drilling of upward pumping wells from openings of drain horizon through the safety pillar, supply through them of a leaching solution to shrunken ore, collection of productive solutions in openings of drain horizon. Upward pumping wells from openings of drain horizon through the safety pillar are drilled to lower boundary of shrunken ore, and the leaching solution mixed with air is supplied to shrunken ore via upward pumping wells in a hydrodynamic cavitation mode.
EFFECT: invention allows increasing extraction degree of useful minerals from ores, shortening leaching duration and reducing flow of leaching reagents.
3 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: transportation of mineral deposit crushed with a combine is performed by means of a self-propelled wagon to a self-moving snaking conveyer, the loading part of which is located in a chamber, and the unloading part is located above an ore-passing well, via which the mineral deposit is transported and unloaded to the ore-passing well; with that, movement of the conveyor to the next well is performed when transportation length of mineral deposit with the self-propelled wagon in the chamber achieves maximum length determined as per mathematical expression. Limit length of the chamber, at which continuous operation of the combine is provided by means of a hopper-loading elevator, the self-propelled wagon and the self-moving snaking conveyor, is calculated as per the mathematical expression.
EFFECT: improving working capacity of a combine complex.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to prepare ore bodies to leaching of useful components in place of bedding includes installation of charges into well rings (11) in the central part of the ore body, explosion of the specified well rings and subsequent injection of a process solution into the central part of the ore body via perforation channels with the branching cracks along periphery of channels, formed by the upper part of the ore body with directed blasting Charges are installed with formation of a water circular gap between an explosive charge, bottom and walls of the well, after formation of a circular gap the well is filled with water or plugged.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to increase opening of wells and evenness of distribution of a leaching solution in the ore body volume.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: for realisation of the method, drainage-degassing wells are drilled in zones of higher cracking outside the limits of the prepared mine. Wells are drilled in the bottom-up direction in the close proximity to the profile of the prepared mine. Pumping of gas saturated drainage brines is carried out until the level of the depression curve is set below the horizon of breaking works, and it is maintained at this level for the entire period of mining. Besides, in process of wells drilling the minimum permissible distance to the profile of the prepared mine is accepted as 0.035 m per each running metre of the well.
EFFECT: method makes it possible to increase safety of underground mining works due to reduce amount of arriving fuel gas and natural waters to mines from deep and deposit-adjacent horizons of earth interior.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes the following stages. Installation of a structure inside or tightly with an underground mine, so that the structure provides for reactive forces when pushing a cutting head in direction of the material by means of a series of rigid materials fixed on the structure, which i arranged so that series of rigid elements may be fixed to it simultaneously at least in two directions, so that parts of tunnel branches could be formed in at least two appropriate directions, of the underground mine designed for transportation of people, mechanisms and extracted material. Formation of multiple parts of tunnel branches entering the material. Formation of the first part of the tunnel branch with the help of a cutting head and a series of rigid elements in the first direction, and afterwards formation of the second part of the tunnel branch in the second direction. During formation of the second part of the tunnel branch, movement of rigid elements from the part of the first tunnel into the part of the second tunnel branch for extension of the series of rigid elements in the part of the second tunnel branch.
EFFECT: application of the method considerably reduces costs, makes it possible to considerably increase speed of tunnelling and increases efficiency of production.
21 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method involves separation of panels into individually ventilated blocks, in which second working and first working is performed. First working is ahead of second working at least by one block; at that, second working in adjacent blocks is performed simultaneously. Air supply and ventilation mine workings are routed along the panel boundaries. Each block of the panel is outlined on three sides with first block working. Panel and block mine workings are located symmetrically relative to the panel axis and connected to each other by means of cross passages made at the beginning of each of the blocks. Local ventilation plants are located in T-pieces arranged on the panel axis and on its boundaries at connections to main entries. Return ventilation air jet is removed from the T-piece to main entries through a crossing. The panel is developed in the direct order by means of subsequent development of blocks, and reserves of each of the blocks are developed in reverse order. Delivery of mined rock from the blocks is performed to two unloading points located at the connections to main entries.
EFFECT: increasing the panel productivity and reducing the time of its preparation and commissioning.
12 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method includes development of reserves from a border of an extraction column, drilling from surface of wells into the extraction column and primary setting of the roof. Wells are drilled to the rated line of the roof arch in one row in parallel to a stoping face in the middle part of the limit span of the main roof slab. Eutectic-hard-freezing solutions are filled into wells for the height of 1.5-2 m, rated time is maintained, which is required for melting of ice in cracks of roof rocks and formation of germinal slots, afterwards the wells are filled to the surface with the same solutions, and a hydraulic rupture is carried out in a rock massif.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to ensure controlled primary setting of strong cracked rocks.
FIELD: mining industry.
SUBSTANCE: method includes use of screw-drilling machine for driving of several first ventilation shafts in ore body and driving several second shafts, while second and each second shaft crosses, at least, one matching first shaft, forming first support walls, supporting ceiling. First supporting ceilings consist of ore body zones between neighboring second shafts, each first support wall has portion of at least one first shaft, passing horizontally through it. Horizontal channels are formed, each of which is placed transversely to matching second shaft between appropriate portions of first shaft, formed in adjacent support walls, for forming of group of continuous ventilation shafts. Second shafts are filled for forming second supporting walls, supporting well ceiling, and first supporting walls are extracted. First ventilation shafts can be made parallel to each other. Second shafts may be directed perpendicularly relatively to first ventilation shafts. In ore body air-outlet and air-inlet ventilation mines can be formed, placed at distance from each other along horizontal line, while first or each first ventilation shaft passes through portion of ore body between air-inlet and air-outlet ventilation mines. Driving of second or each second shaft can be performed by cutting machine, or by drilling or explosive mining.
EFFECT: higher efficiency.
7 cl, 11 dwg