Method to improve operational reliability of closed horizontal pipe drainage when implementing precise agriculture

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method consists in coupling a drain line with a closed manifold, which is carried out according to the filling h of a pipe of the closed manifold below the coupling assembly to 2ddl when the estimated flow is passing. In this case the following conditions are taken into account: at h≤0,5(dcm-0,6ddl) coupling is performed end-to-end centrally, at (dcm+tdl)-(0,6ddl+dl)≥h>0,5(dcm-0,6ddl) coupling is performed end-to-end "semi-above", at dcm≥h>(dcm+tdl)-(0,6ddl+tdl) coupling is overlapped, where dcm and ddl - internal pipe diameters in the coupling assembly of the closed manifold and the joined drain line respectively, tcm and tdl - pipe thickness in the coupling assembly of the closed manifold and the joined drain line respectively. In this case the length of the joined drain line doesn't exceed its maximum allowable length.

EFFECT: long-term service life of the coupling assembly of the drain lines and reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage during service for at least the standard service life, as a result of which the design intensity of the soil drainage and expanded reproduction of its fertility is provided during this period.

 

The invention relates to the design, construction, reconstruction, repair and operation of closed horizontal pipe drainage on agricultural land when implementing precision farming, and industrial, municipal, township and other areas.

After drainage of agricultural land and drainage areas closed horizontal pipe drainage is designed to work effectively for many decades, especially during the implementation of precision agriculture. This is only possible with a reliable pair of attached drainage line with the private collector. As the attached drainage line can be drains, private collectors and private collectors of small diameter (for example, a Potter with a diameter of 75, 100 and 125 mm).

A pair of drain pipes is one of the most demanding work. From the quality of its implementation depends on the sedimentation of drainage - deposition of soil particles in the cavity of sewers and drains (local clogging of the soil collectors or drains), the reliability and durability of subsurface drainage systems.

A pair of side attachable drainage lines with header is done either in one plane or in different planes. Known junctions overlap - attachable drain line is raspolagaetsja top of the header and end-to-end, when attached drainage line is located on the side of the collector. When pairing next you have two options: end-to-end in the center, when the axis of the pipe attached drainage line and the axis of the header pipe are located on the same mark, and end-to-end "polymero", when the upper seligi pipes are located on the same mark (Serikov A.A., Gladyshev ST. Technology reclamation work in the regions. - L.: The Ear. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1984. - P.113...116, 118...122; a prototype). The pairing is carried out either through the holes punched in the tubes, or by using special shaped tubes.

Each of the known designs of junctions overlap and end-to-end has its own advantages and disadvantages.

When pairing attachable drainage lines with header overlapping the hole in the pipes carry diameter not less than 0.8 of the internal diameter of the joining pipe (instructions on construction of the closed horizontal drainage after drainage of agricultural lands. / USSR Minvodkhoz - Soyuzvodproekt; E. Nefedov, and H. Cormis. - M., 1979. - Page 16).

Know the application of the method of connecting drains to the collector overlap in the reconstruction of drainage using the previously constructed collector of earthenware pipes. In pottery pipe collector punch a hole or are replacing a tube on the tube with a hole, and p is clucene plastic drains carried out using transition Potter tube.

Dignity pair overlap is connected to the collector under acute and right angle, as well as free after water from the attached drainage line in the header. However, this method is considered less than perfect. This is due to the following:

- when pairing overlap the upper pipe is in a state of unstable equilibrium and operates on a break;

- the possible and observed in practice horizontal longitudinal shift of the transition pipe during its installation, the result is a misalignment of holes in it and the holes in the pipe collector;

- vertical offset of the outer end of which is connected the pipe up or down when filling the trench;

- availability of elevation between the mating drainage lines entails reducing bias attachable drainage lines and, as a consequence, the decline in the quality of laying drainage;

- closing the free end of the tube, its end, a filter material with a stopper (special plug or brick); the use of the same as the stub stone without a flat surface, as a rule, leads to flow into the cavity of the tube soil.

You must pay attention to the following.

First, the node pair being attached to a private collector drain line are constant (upstream of the mass of the soil) and the dynamic (machinery, moving across the field) load. When moving heavy wheeled vehicles on excessively wet field, there are instances of violations of the junction overlap, the top tube which is in a state of unstable equilibrium and operates on a break. Secondly, when pairing pottery pipes, when the punch drainage holes with a hammer, the diameter of the hole often does not reach the desired size.

Junction overlap is especially unreliable when connecting to a private collector private collectors, which is an integral part of erosion control drainage (patent RU 2440457 C1, CL. EV 11/00 and AV 13/16, 2012).

In a more perfect way pair is a pair of pipe end-to-end. When connecting attachable drain line to the manifold end-to-end get a more reliable pair of pipes, increasing the incline of attached drain line, not the longitudinal movement of the pipe, i.e. increases the reliability of the junction. At the same time in joining the pipe possible damming of water.

When using known methods mates drainage lines still do not take into account the junction of different depth of filling of the reservoir along the length of the flowing water when the current permit its consumption.

When you implement known methods mates drainage lines know approx what% of the connective fittings, for example, in Belarus, Germany, Russia and Lithuania (Reclamation: Day. The Handbook. / Under the General editorship Aigurka. - Mn.: Belarusian. The owls. Day., 1984. - S; Eggelsmann R. Guide to drainage. / Lane. with it. V.N. Gorin; edited Presidentmay. - M.: Kolos, 1984. - S...209; A.S. SU # 1126659 And class. EW 11/00, 1984; irrigation and water management. Drainage: A Handbook. / The authors: Bespalov, Approv, H., Kormas and others; Comp. Ehicles; edited Bespalova. - M.: Association "Ecost", 2001. - S...160; Gulyuk, and other Guidance for reclamation fields. / Under the General editorship Whistla. - St. Petersburg: Izd-vo Polytechn. University, 2007. - S, 96...98; Experience in land drainage closed drainage. / The authors: Abalones and others; Ed. by Alykanas. - M.: Kolos, 1975. - P.23...25, 240...243). Use fittings (tees, elbows angle from 30 to 90°, bushings, etc.) reduces the time spent on the device junction in 2...5 times. However, the conditions of their application, as known methods of coupling the drain lines are not regulated.

Despite the long history of the development of drainage works and numerous attempts to implement in the construction of drainage fittings for coupling pipes, most mates drainage lines with header and still perform without fittings, training manual of the respective holes and fitting of drainage pipes to each other. P and this is the most widely still developed a method of coupling pipes overlap.

The problem solved by this invention is to improve the reliability of the node pair being attached drainage line from the manifold by taking into account changes in the hydraulic regime of culvert capacity of a closed manifold along its length.

The technical result is obtained from the solution of the set task is to ensure the durability of the junction of the drainage lines and reliable hydrological steps subsurface drainage systems in operation for at least the regulatory period of his service, as a result, during this period, provided the design intensity drying of the soil and the expanded reproduction of its fertility.

Put in the invention the problem is solved by the fact that the way to improve the reliability of the closed horizontal pipe drainage when implementing precision farming includes mating with the private collector drain line. Pair drainage line with the private collector perform depending on the filling h pipe closed manifold below the junction on 2dDLwhen you pass the design flow rate: end-to-end center at

h0,5(dCK-0,6ddl), (1)

end-to-end "polymero"

(dCK+tCK)-(0,6ddl+dl)h>0,5(dCK-0,6ddl), (2)

overlap at

dCKh>(dCK+tCK)-(0,6ddl+tdl),(3)

where

dgearand dDLthe inner diameters of the pipes in the junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line,

tgearand tDL- thickness of the pipe junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line;

the length attachable drainage lines are not p is Evesham its maximum allowable length.

When the pair end-to-end pair of drain lines is performed under an angle of 60...70° to the direction of flow of water in the pipe collector. When pairing overlap the hole in the wall extreme tube attached drainage line suit as close to its outer edge, performing the opening in the mating pipe diameter not less than 0.8 of the internal diameter of the pipe being attached drainage line, carefully covering the place mate tape roll of filter material and pressing it compacted layer of soil, closing the open end of the tube, its end face, a filter material with a stopper or a piece of brick (stone with at least one flat surface) end-to-end. When the device junction is used as the connecting shaped as pottery and plastic elements.

Pair attached drainage line with header carry out so that the water level in the reservoir when the pass design flow is not created backwater in the attached drainage line. Therefore, in particular, take into account the filling pipe of a closed manifold below the junction of two diameter attached drainage line that allows to take into account the flow rate of water discharged into the reservoir and from the attached drainage line.

The application of the method (2) is possible in the case of (1)and method (3) is as in case (1), and with whom the learn (2), however, the reliability of the node pair and the probability of its uptime will be reduced, and the increase of the height difference between the mating drainage lines will cause a decrease in slope attachable to the manifold drain line, lowering the quality of its installation and reliability during long-term operation. In the claimed invention, the method of pairing overlap applied in the part of the collector, where its depth is less limits the depth of the attached drainage line.

On the device, one pair of clay pipes with punch drainage holes with a hammer on the way to "overlap" required 18...24 min, and the way "back to back" - 10...12 min, while applying a shaped tube and auger - 2,5...4 minutes

The reservoir collects water from the regulating elements of the drainage network and tap it into the open conductive network. Distinguish between the collector of the first (highest) order, which flows directly into the open conductive network, and the collectors of the second, third, and subsequent orders, which flow into the collector of the previous order.

Throughout from the source to the mouth of the water flow in a closed manifold increases. Used pipe diameters are standardized, used mainly ceramic pipes with a diameter of 75...200 mm, less plastic with a diameter of more than 75 mm, asbestos-cement and concrete is haunted. Regulatory network match directly with the collector, if the diameter does not exceed 200 mm otherwise arrange the auxiliary reservoir of the previous order. The length of a closed manifold is variable constant cross-section in accordance with the standard pipes, the minimum diameter at the source. For example, the collector length L consists of 3 sections: the first from the mouth of the collector length L1and a diameter of d1, the second of length L2and a diameter of d2, the third of length L3and a diameter of d3. Thus L=L1+L2+L3d1>d2>d3the diameter is attachable drain line dDLas a rule, less d3and its length does not exceed the maximum allowable.

Hydraulic calculation of the collector lead on formulas uniform gravity movement. Determine the bandwidth of standard pipe when it is fully filled with water (Reclamation: Day. The Handbook. / Under the General editorship of A. I. Murashko. - Mn.: Belarusian. The owls. Day., 1984. - S). This is necessary for finding the place of transition from the smaller diameter to the larger depending on the value of the bypass flow is established depending on the catchment area in the target manifold and magnitude calculation module of the drainage flow.

Part of the collector, RA is tausug along its length partial cross-section, usually calculated by filling curves. Moreover, the value of incomplete filling commonly referred to as water-carrying capacity of the pipe, working a full cross-section (See, for example, the work of R. Eggelsmann "Manual drain". - M.: Kolos, 1984. - S...122).

When pairing overlap the open end of the drainage tube, its end is closed by the filter material with cork or a piece of brick (stone) end-to-end, and to prevent longitudinal movement of the upper pipe in the side wall of the trench in the end its peg hammer-emphasis or stack stone weight 8...10 kg. of all mates and compounds protect the filter material and fall asleep on the connection type of soil with ramming. Power sleeps layer over the node pair is not less than 30 cm After this exercise powder soil and backfilling of pipe throughout the length of the attached drainage line.

For a pair of drain lines use tees, elbows, reducers and pipe with locking holes. Structurally, they are divided into two types: junction consists of two parts connected by a hinge; node pair represents one item. The hinged connection allows you to connect the drain to the collector at different angles mates.

The claimed method of increasing reliability of a closed horizontal pipe drainage when Rea is iseli precision farming includes the following operations:

1. Design of subsurface drainage on drained object:

- determining a distance between drains or private collectors and the depth of their inception;

- determination of the calculation module of the drainage flow;

- determine the maximum allowable length of drains and private collectors in the current permit flow in a uniform pressure mode and full filling tubes;

- determination of the diameter pipes closed reservoir during the current permit flow in a uniform pressure mode and full filling tubes;

- design of drainage systems in the area of the drying object;

- determination of the filling pipe of each closed manifold along its length and, in particular, points on 2dDLbelow the junction with attachable drainage lines;

- markings on the plan of each of the drainage system at zero picket each attachable to the manifold drain line, how it mates with the private collector: mate end-to-end on the center of the subject requirements (1), mate end-to-end "polymero" subject requirements (2) and the coupling overlap with the observance of requirements (3);

- selection type connection fittings for the implementation of the established ways of the pair of drain lines in nature;

- the removal of traces of closed manifolds in nature.

2. Construction of drains is mportant systems:

- construction of a private collector of the first order and control the quality of its installation;

construction breakdown attachable to a private collector drainage lines that mark the way of their mates and the connecting fittings;

- device attachable drain line from the manifold to zero its picket and laying closed drainage with compliance requirements;

- quality control-laying drainage, including quality pair of drain lines, and the drafting of the act on hidden works that signs and master drainage works;

- repeat the above operations for the collectors of the second, third, and subsequent orders.

This invention is aimed at ensuring the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage and reliable hydrological steps within at least their service life. The proposed method is industrially applicable.

The way to increase the reliability of the closed horizontal pipe drainage when implementing precision farming, including mating with the private collector drain line, wherein the pair of drain lines with a private collector perform depending on the filling h pipe closed manifold below the junction on 2dDLat about uske design flow end-to-end in the center when

end-to-end "polymero" when

overlap with

where
dgearand dDLthe inner diameters of the pipes in the junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line,
tgearand tDL- thickness of the pipe junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line;
the length attachable drain line does not exceed its maximum allowable length.



 

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1 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: agriculture.

SUBSTANCE: method comprises making diverging drainage canals in the area to be drained. The mouths of the bed sections are connected with the collector through the underground pipelines. The flow rates are measured and water is sampled in the mouths of the underground pipelines and in the mouths of the canal section beds connected to the collector. The concentrations of contaminants in the samples is measured, and the results are compared with the permissible values.

EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.

1 dwg

FIELD: mining, particularly to protect objects to be developed and located in shifting basing against flooding with ground and surface water.

SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-receiving excavations made as drains, pits or wells; draining and removing water; predicting ground surface relied after ground deformation before underground work performing; marking out flat shifting basin bottom and zone characterized by maximal relief depression; forming pit in area of maximal relief depression; arranging water drain at shifting basin boundary; forming ground water removing wells. Pit volume, well depth and well pitch are determined from mathematical relations.

EFFECT: increased efficiency.

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