Method to improve operational reliability of closed horizontal pipe drainage when implementing precise agriculture
SUBSTANCE: method consists in coupling a drain line with a closed manifold, which is carried out according to the filling h of a pipe of the closed manifold below the coupling assembly to 2ddl when the estimated flow is passing. In this case the following conditions are taken into account: at h≤0,5(dcm-0,6ddl) coupling is performed end-to-end centrally, at (dcm+tdl)-(0,6ddl+dl)≥h>0,5(dcm-0,6ddl) coupling is performed end-to-end "semi-above", at dcm≥h>(dcm+tdl)-(0,6ddl+tdl) coupling is overlapped, where dcm and ddl - internal pipe diameters in the coupling assembly of the closed manifold and the joined drain line respectively, tcm and tdl - pipe thickness in the coupling assembly of the closed manifold and the joined drain line respectively. In this case the length of the joined drain line doesn't exceed its maximum allowable length.
EFFECT: long-term service life of the coupling assembly of the drain lines and reliable hydrological effect of subsurface drainage during service for at least the standard service life, as a result of which the design intensity of the soil drainage and expanded reproduction of its fertility is provided during this period.
The invention relates to the design, construction, reconstruction, repair and operation of closed horizontal pipe drainage on agricultural land when implementing precision farming, and industrial, municipal, township and other areas.
After drainage of agricultural land and drainage areas closed horizontal pipe drainage is designed to work effectively for many decades, especially during the implementation of precision agriculture. This is only possible with a reliable pair of attached drainage line with the private collector. As the attached drainage line can be drains, private collectors and private collectors of small diameter (for example, a Potter with a diameter of 75, 100 and 125 mm).
A pair of drain pipes is one of the most demanding work. From the quality of its implementation depends on the sedimentation of drainage - deposition of soil particles in the cavity of sewers and drains (local clogging of the soil collectors or drains), the reliability and durability of subsurface drainage systems.
A pair of side attachable drainage lines with header is done either in one plane or in different planes. Known junctions overlap - attachable drain line is raspolagaetsja top of the header and end-to-end, when attached drainage line is located on the side of the collector. When pairing next you have two options: end-to-end in the center, when the axis of the pipe attached drainage line and the axis of the header pipe are located on the same mark, and end-to-end "polymero", when the upper seligi pipes are located on the same mark (Serikov A.A., Gladyshev ST. Technology reclamation work in the regions. - L.: The Ear. Leningrad. separa-tion, 1984. - P.113...116, 118...122; a prototype). The pairing is carried out either through the holes punched in the tubes, or by using special shaped tubes.
Each of the known designs of junctions overlap and end-to-end has its own advantages and disadvantages.
When pairing attachable drainage lines with header overlapping the hole in the pipes carry diameter not less than 0.8 of the internal diameter of the joining pipe (instructions on construction of the closed horizontal drainage after drainage of agricultural lands. / USSR Minvodkhoz - Soyuzvodproekt; E. Nefedov, and H. Cormis. - M., 1979. - Page 16).
Know the application of the method of connecting drains to the collector overlap in the reconstruction of drainage using the previously constructed collector of earthenware pipes. In pottery pipe collector punch a hole or are replacing a tube on the tube with a hole, and p is clucene plastic drains carried out using transition Potter tube.
Dignity pair overlap is connected to the collector under acute and right angle, as well as free after water from the attached drainage line in the header. However, this method is considered less than perfect. This is due to the following:
- when pairing overlap the upper pipe is in a state of unstable equilibrium and operates on a break;
- the possible and observed in practice horizontal longitudinal shift of the transition pipe during its installation, the result is a misalignment of holes in it and the holes in the pipe collector;
- vertical offset of the outer end of which is connected the pipe up or down when filling the trench;
- availability of elevation between the mating drainage lines entails reducing bias attachable drainage lines and, as a consequence, the decline in the quality of laying drainage;
- closing the free end of the tube, its end, a filter material with a stopper (special plug or brick); the use of the same as the stub stone without a flat surface, as a rule, leads to flow into the cavity of the tube soil.
You must pay attention to the following.
First, the node pair being attached to a private collector drain line are constant (upstream of the mass of the soil) and the dynamic (machinery, moving across the field) load. When moving heavy wheeled vehicles on excessively wet field, there are instances of violations of the junction overlap, the top tube which is in a state of unstable equilibrium and operates on a break. Secondly, when pairing pottery pipes, when the punch drainage holes with a hammer, the diameter of the hole often does not reach the desired size.
Junction overlap is especially unreliable when connecting to a private collector private collectors, which is an integral part of erosion control drainage (patent RU 2440457 C1, CL. EV 11/00 and AV 13/16, 2012).
In a more perfect way pair is a pair of pipe end-to-end. When connecting attachable drain line to the manifold end-to-end get a more reliable pair of pipes, increasing the incline of attached drain line, not the longitudinal movement of the pipe, i.e. increases the reliability of the junction. At the same time in joining the pipe possible damming of water.
When using known methods mates drainage lines still do not take into account the junction of different depth of filling of the reservoir along the length of the flowing water when the current permit its consumption.
When you implement known methods mates drainage lines know approx what% of the connective fittings, for example, in Belarus, Germany, Russia and Lithuania (Reclamation: Day. The Handbook. / Under the General editorship Aigurka. - Mn.: Belarusian. The owls. Day., 1984. - S; Eggelsmann R. Guide to drainage. / Lane. with it. V.N. Gorin; edited Presidentmay. - M.: Kolos, 1984. - S...209; A.S. SU # 1126659 And class. EW 11/00, 1984; irrigation and water management. Drainage: A Handbook. / The authors: Bespalov, Approv, H., Kormas and others; Comp. Ehicles; edited Bespalova. - M.: Association "Ecost", 2001. - S...160; Gulyuk, and other Guidance for reclamation fields. / Under the General editorship Whistla. - St. Petersburg: Izd-vo Polytechn. University, 2007. - S, 96...98; Experience in land drainage closed drainage. / The authors: Abalones and others; Ed. by Alykanas. - M.: Kolos, 1975. - P.23...25, 240...243). Use fittings (tees, elbows angle from 30 to 90°, bushings, etc.) reduces the time spent on the device junction in 2...5 times. However, the conditions of their application, as known methods of coupling the drain lines are not regulated.
Despite the long history of the development of drainage works and numerous attempts to implement in the construction of drainage fittings for coupling pipes, most mates drainage lines with header and still perform without fittings, training manual of the respective holes and fitting of drainage pipes to each other. P and this is the most widely still developed a method of coupling pipes overlap.
The problem solved by this invention is to improve the reliability of the node pair being attached drainage line from the manifold by taking into account changes in the hydraulic regime of culvert capacity of a closed manifold along its length.
The technical result is obtained from the solution of the set task is to ensure the durability of the junction of the drainage lines and reliable hydrological steps subsurface drainage systems in operation for at least the regulatory period of his service, as a result, during this period, provided the design intensity drying of the soil and the expanded reproduction of its fertility.
Put in the invention the problem is solved by the fact that the way to improve the reliability of the closed horizontal pipe drainage when implementing precision farming includes mating with the private collector drain line. Pair drainage line with the private collector perform depending on the filling h pipe closed manifold below the junction on 2dDLwhen you pass the design flow rate: end-to-end center at
dgearand dDLthe inner diameters of the pipes in the junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line,
tgearand tDL- thickness of the pipe junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line;
the length attachable drainage lines are not p is Evesham its maximum allowable length.
When the pair end-to-end pair of drain lines is performed under an angle of 60...70° to the direction of flow of water in the pipe collector. When pairing overlap the hole in the wall extreme tube attached drainage line suit as close to its outer edge, performing the opening in the mating pipe diameter not less than 0.8 of the internal diameter of the pipe being attached drainage line, carefully covering the place mate tape roll of filter material and pressing it compacted layer of soil, closing the open end of the tube, its end face, a filter material with a stopper or a piece of brick (stone with at least one flat surface) end-to-end. When the device junction is used as the connecting shaped as pottery and plastic elements.
Pair attached drainage line with header carry out so that the water level in the reservoir when the pass design flow is not created backwater in the attached drainage line. Therefore, in particular, take into account the filling pipe of a closed manifold below the junction of two diameter attached drainage line that allows to take into account the flow rate of water discharged into the reservoir and from the attached drainage line.
The application of the method (2) is possible in the case of (1)and method (3) is as in case (1), and with whom the learn (2), however, the reliability of the node pair and the probability of its uptime will be reduced, and the increase of the height difference between the mating drainage lines will cause a decrease in slope attachable to the manifold drain line, lowering the quality of its installation and reliability during long-term operation. In the claimed invention, the method of pairing overlap applied in the part of the collector, where its depth is less limits the depth of the attached drainage line.
On the device, one pair of clay pipes with punch drainage holes with a hammer on the way to "overlap" required 18...24 min, and the way "back to back" - 10...12 min, while applying a shaped tube and auger - 2,5...4 minutes
The reservoir collects water from the regulating elements of the drainage network and tap it into the open conductive network. Distinguish between the collector of the first (highest) order, which flows directly into the open conductive network, and the collectors of the second, third, and subsequent orders, which flow into the collector of the previous order.
Throughout from the source to the mouth of the water flow in a closed manifold increases. Used pipe diameters are standardized, used mainly ceramic pipes with a diameter of 75...200 mm, less plastic with a diameter of more than 75 mm, asbestos-cement and concrete is haunted. Regulatory network match directly with the collector, if the diameter does not exceed 200 mm otherwise arrange the auxiliary reservoir of the previous order. The length of a closed manifold is variable constant cross-section in accordance with the standard pipes, the minimum diameter at the source. For example, the collector length L consists of 3 sections: the first from the mouth of the collector length L1and a diameter of d1, the second of length L2and a diameter of d2, the third of length L3and a diameter of d3. Thus L=L1+L2+L3d1>d2>d3the diameter is attachable drain line dDLas a rule, less d3and its length does not exceed the maximum allowable.
Hydraulic calculation of the collector lead on formulas uniform gravity movement. Determine the bandwidth of standard pipe when it is fully filled with water (Reclamation: Day. The Handbook. / Under the General editorship of A. I. Murashko. - Mn.: Belarusian. The owls. Day., 1984. - S). This is necessary for finding the place of transition from the smaller diameter to the larger depending on the value of the bypass flow is established depending on the catchment area in the target manifold and magnitude calculation module of the drainage flow.
Part of the collector, RA is tausug along its length partial cross-section, usually calculated by filling curves. Moreover, the value of incomplete filling commonly referred to as water-carrying capacity of the pipe, working a full cross-section (See, for example, the work of R. Eggelsmann "Manual drain". - M.: Kolos, 1984. - S...122).
When pairing overlap the open end of the drainage tube, its end is closed by the filter material with cork or a piece of brick (stone) end-to-end, and to prevent longitudinal movement of the upper pipe in the side wall of the trench in the end its peg hammer-emphasis or stack stone weight 8...10 kg. of all mates and compounds protect the filter material and fall asleep on the connection type of soil with ramming. Power sleeps layer over the node pair is not less than 30 cm After this exercise powder soil and backfilling of pipe throughout the length of the attached drainage line.
For a pair of drain lines use tees, elbows, reducers and pipe with locking holes. Structurally, they are divided into two types: junction consists of two parts connected by a hinge; node pair represents one item. The hinged connection allows you to connect the drain to the collector at different angles mates.
The claimed method of increasing reliability of a closed horizontal pipe drainage when Rea is iseli precision farming includes the following operations:
1. Design of subsurface drainage on drained object:
- determining a distance between drains or private collectors and the depth of their inception;
- determination of the calculation module of the drainage flow;
- determine the maximum allowable length of drains and private collectors in the current permit flow in a uniform pressure mode and full filling tubes;
- determination of the diameter pipes closed reservoir during the current permit flow in a uniform pressure mode and full filling tubes;
- design of drainage systems in the area of the drying object;
- determination of the filling pipe of each closed manifold along its length and, in particular, points on 2dDLbelow the junction with attachable drainage lines;
- markings on the plan of each of the drainage system at zero picket each attachable to the manifold drain line, how it mates with the private collector: mate end-to-end on the center of the subject requirements (1), mate end-to-end "polymero" subject requirements (2) and the coupling overlap with the observance of requirements (3);
- selection type connection fittings for the implementation of the established ways of the pair of drain lines in nature;
- the removal of traces of closed manifolds in nature.
2. Construction of drains is mportant systems:
- construction of a private collector of the first order and control the quality of its installation;
construction breakdown attachable to a private collector drainage lines that mark the way of their mates and the connecting fittings;
- device attachable drain line from the manifold to zero its picket and laying closed drainage with compliance requirements;
- quality control-laying drainage, including quality pair of drain lines, and the drafting of the act on hidden works that signs and master drainage works;
- repeat the above operations for the collectors of the second, third, and subsequent orders.
This invention is aimed at ensuring the longevity of the closed horizontal pipe drainage and reliable hydrological steps within at least their service life. The proposed method is industrially applicable.
The way to increase the reliability of the closed horizontal pipe drainage when implementing precision farming, including mating with the private collector drain line, wherein the pair of drain lines with a private collector perform depending on the filling h pipe closed manifold below the junction on 2dDLat about uske design flow end-to-end in the center when
end-to-end "polymero" when
dgearand dDLthe inner diameters of the pipes in the junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line,
tgearand tDL- thickness of the pipe junction, respectively, of a closed manifold and attached drainage line;
the length attachable drain line does not exceed its maximum allowable length.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering, namely, to water intake facilities. A horizontal underground water intake comprises a water receiving tray 1 with a metal grid 2, on top of which there are gabion mats 3 laid in longitudinal rows with drainage devices. The metal grid 2 is arranged on top of the tray 1. Drainage devices of gabion mats 3 are made of light fascines 4 and perforated pipes 5 laid in layers and wrapped into a gabion net. On top of gabion mats 3 along the tray there are flexible mats 6. Mats 6 are made of dense rows of light fascines wrapped into a geonet. At two sides perpendicularly to the tray 1 and with an inclination to it, at a certain distance from each other, there are dense rows of additional water-collecting lines 7 of the tray 1 from gabion mats 3. Additional lines 7 of gabion mats 3 enter the water-receiving tray 1 with the help of short channels 8. Channels 8 are arranged on top of the tray 1 boards and with direction of the drain inside the tray 1. At the end of the water-receiving tray 1 there is a water-collecting well 9 equipped with a water-intake pipeline 10. Around the well 9 and on top of the loose soil along the line of the tray 1 there is a safety screen 11 from clayey soil.
EFFECT: invention provides for water intake from underground sources in case of shallow ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to land reclamation construction and may be used in construction of drainage systems on heavy grounds. The drainage device with the spacer screen comprises a perforated pipe laid onto a drainage cushion, a water impermeable screen made as interrupted in length and a drainage filler from filtering material in areas of screen break. The screen is made as arched from elastic plastic rectangular plates by means of elastic curve and fixation of their edges on walls of the trench at the level of the height of the drainage cushion laid at the bottom of the trench.
EFFECT: increased reliability of device operation during deformations of structurally unstable soils.
SUBSTANCE: drainage device with a ring screen comprises a perforated pipe with a screen made as closed along the perimeter of the cross section and interrupted along length, and filtering material sprinkled in areas of screen break. The screen is made of identical elastic metal cord recycled car tyres connected to each other at the ends by means of a mechanical link.
EFFECT: improved water drainage capacity of a device due to automatic self-regulation of screen permeability and prevention of pipe lower part closure with screens.
SUBSTANCE: evaporation pond of drainage flow is connected to a supply channel 1, equipped with partitioning 2, 3 and input 4, 5 regulatory structures, and is divided by bridges into sections 6, 7 of intensive evaporation, hydraulically connected to each other and to the supply channel. Each section 6, 7 of intense evaporation comprises floating evaporative plates 26, placed across the water surface at a certain distance from each other, with through holes and evaporation accelerators of hydrophilic capillary-porous material inserted in them. In the corners of the floating plates the holes are made, through which the vertical rods are passed, mounted into the bottom of the sections, with the length exceeding the depth of maximum filling of the sections, equipped with the locks of the upper and lower position of the plate. The evaporation pond is equipped with additional section 10 for accumulation and evaporation of the wash water, as well as section 8 for collection of desalinated drainage flow with a pump station 9 for feeding it to the consumer.
EFFECT: recovery of adsorptive capacity of the accelerators of evaporation by washing without their dismantling, which increases the efficiency of the evaporation pond, the efficiency of the desalination process of drainage flows increases significantly.
2 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction, namely, to water intake structures, and may be used to take water from underground sources in case of shallow ground water. The underground horizontal water intake comprises a water-collecting trench 1 and a water-collecting well 7. On the bottom of the water-collecting trench 1 there are gabion mats 2 with drainage devices laid in longitudinal rows. Gabion mats 2 comprise light fascines and perforated pipes laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. On top of gabion mats 2 along the trench there are flexible mats 5, made of a draining filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines, rolled into a geonet. In the head part of the trench there is a rigid tray 6 of rectangular section, the cantilever part of which with a slope enters into a water-collecting well 7. Gabion mats with drainage devices are laid from the trench to the middle of the tray 6. The underground horizontal water intake most effectively may be used in coastal and flood-plain sections of waterlogged soils with depth of soil water free-flow level up to 7 m. The water-intake is designed for water supply of a small settlement, an agricultural enterprise, a farm and an individual household.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of construction and higher efficiency of operation of a water intake structure.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering construction, namely, to water intake structures, namely, to water intake structures, and may be used for water intake from underground sources with shallow beds of underground water. The method of erection of an underground horizontal water intake of a combined structure, including a water receiving trench 1 and a water collection well 7, consists in laying of gabion mats 2 in longitudinal rows on the bottom of the water receiving trench 1 with drainage devices. Gabion mats 2 are made of light fascines and perforated pipes, laid in alternating rows and rolled into a gabion net. On top of gabion mats 2 along the trench they lay flexible mats 5, made of a drainage filler, which is made of tight rows of light fascines rolled into a geonet. In the end part of the trench there is a rigid tray 6 of rectangular cross section, the cantilever part of which with an inclination enters into a water collection well 7. Gabion mats with drainage devices are laid from the trench to the middle of the tray.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of operation of a water intake structure and reduced labour intensiveness of construction.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to agriculture and land reclamation and can be used in laboratory and production testing, design, construction, reconstruction, repair and maintenance of closed horizontal pipe drainage on lands intended for agriculture in the implementation of precision agriculture, as well as in industrial, municipal, townsite and other territories. The method consists in increase the service life of closed horizontal pipe drainage, comprising the elements hidden under a layer of soil-ground: drainage pipes with standard service life, connecting parts, protective filter materials, padding the pipes, volume filters and backfilling. The closed horizontal pipe drainage is carried out using elements which standard service life is not lower than the standard service life of the main element - the drainage pipes.
EFFECT: project intensity of soil-ground drying and expanded reproduction of soil fertility during the service life of the drainage pipes is provided, the costs of the current and general maintenance of elements of horizontal pipe drainage or reconstruction of the drainage system as a whole are reduced, as well as the restoration of soil fertility, disturbed during performance of these works, the conditions for implementation of precision agriculture in a particular field are provided.
SUBSTANCE: mole-drainage pipe is made with the projection inverted inside the pipe and located along its length. The pipe consists of two parts. The parts of the pipe are connected via a flexible element. The flexible element provides the ability of folding the pipe in the vertical plane. On the inner projection of the pipe there are straightening ribs. There is a slit between the ribs along the entire length of the pipe.
EFFECT: invention enables to increase the outflow of ground water and to simplify the process of laying the pipes in the ground.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system under galega herb on mineral soils with varying degrees of gleying includes subsurface drainage to collector drains and providing for, due to the distance between them, their depth and diameter of the pipe laying, required to grow plants with glei normal drainage of soils in the period of research, with the water load rated probability exceeding. The closed drainage arranged in sandy loam (option 1) or loamy (option 2) soils with intensive gleying horizons of the soil profile , lies no deeper than 60 cm (option 1) or no deeper than 70 cm (option 2) from the surface of the soil, with the depth of drains of at least 1.3 m (option 1) or at least 1.5 m (option 2), and the change in its drain length not exceeding 0.2 m (option 1) or not more than 0.3 m (option 2). Drainage lines are made without local areas with a reverse bias on the longitudinal profile, and the length of their incline-free areas does not exceed 5 m distance between drains, their diameter and length of the pipe and the pipe diameter of the closed water reservoir correspond to a load of 5% probability of exceeding, providing for the drainage rate on the date of galega herb vegetation resumption as at least the capacity of the topsoil (humus layer), plus 10 cm (option 1) or + 15 cm (option 2), at the beginning of pre-sowing period - at least 60 cm (option 1) or at least 70 cm (option 2) for sowing and growing periods, and in the late autumn harvest - at least 80 cm (option 1) or at least 100 cm (option 2).
EFFECT: intensity of drainage, which guarantees successful cultivation of galega herb in one place without replanting for 30 years or more in sandy loam and loamy soils of varying degrees of waterlogging, and prevention of the possibility of formation of root plugs of plants in hollow drainage pipes, damage to plant from fungal diseases, root rot and loss of plants from excessive moisture content, which provides for a multi-year period of high yield of galega herb.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system includes drainage pipes of higher strength installed with a drainage inclination in an earth bed. Drainage pipes are arranged inside the earth bed body using a method of horizontal directional drilling. End sections of pipes protrude beyond limits of earth bed slopes and are connected to each other in a closed system, the outlet of which is made as capable of connection of compressor equipment. Sections of the drainage pipes arranged in the bed body are made as evenly perforated.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to improve draining properties of a system and bearing capacity of a road base by increasing a drying zone, realisation of the possibility to regulate drying process, and also reinforcement of an earth bed.
FIELD: hydraulic structures, particularly to consolidate slopes or inclinations to be eroded by ground waters.
SUBSTANCE: method for slope protection against landslide by diverting ground water with the use of drainage mine tunnel, through filters and upward dewatering wells involves excavating mine tunnel beginning from lower point of original ground under water-bearing horizons with tunnel elevation for water gravity flow, wherein mine tunnel extends parallel to direction of water flow from water-bearing horizons; excavating mine tunnel in different directions perpendicular to above flow direction; performing drilling vertical venting wells at tunnel ends beginning from original ground; drilling upward dewatering wells in water-bearing horizons; drilling vertical wells from original ground used as through filters crossing all water-bearing horizons; connecting thereof with cross-headings excavated from mine tunnel; installing valves at through filter ends; providing filtering members at place of intersection between upward dewatering wells and vertical wells with water-bearing horizons; forming water removal channel in mine tunnel and connecting thereof with original ground; drilling hydraulic observing wells beginning from original ground along line of through filters to control water level in water-bearing horizons.
EFFECT: increased reliability; possibility of diverting 85-90% of water contained in water-bearing horizons.
FIELD: land-reclamation, particularly drainage building in flooded irrigated lands.
SUBSTANCE: method involves digging out channel in a single drainage machine pass by plow-type ditcher; dumping dug out fertile ground on channel brows in banks; digging out trench by operative tool of drainage machine; laying drainage pipe and covering thereof with ground; filling channel with fertile ground. Fertile ground layer is loosened before trench digging out along drainage pipe laying axis, wherein width of loosened ground strip is not less than operative tool width. Loosened ground is laid on channel brows. Trench is dug out by chain operative tool of narrow drainage machine performing reverse rotation and extracted ground is placed between trench walls and drainage machine bunker to cover drainage pipe moved into trench by guiding means. Trench is backfilled with ground with the use of two pairs of banks, which provides successive filling trench with ground and loosened fertile ground.
EFFECT: increased efficiency due to prevention of trench wall compaction, reduced power inputs.
FIELD: hydraulic and reclamation building, particularly in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: method involves creating planned embankment on territory to be developed; performing surface water drainage from embankment. Embankment slope provide water flow to water receiving means and drainage of surface water from adjoining areas. Ground water flowing from adjacent areas are drained during and/or after embankment erection and removed from embankment body. Motor roads and in-territory water draining channel systems are used as water receiving and draining means within the boundaries of territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system is used for water removal from outside the territory to be developed. Water diversion ditch system are formed along embankment perimeter and above slopes reinforced from embankment side. Motor roads are built on embankment top, wherein motor road pavements are located beneath embankment surface. Embankment has slopes directed towards roads. Motor roads have longitudinal and transversal slopes providing surface water flow along roads to water draining channel system, which drains water into water diversion ditch system. Surface water flows into water diversion ditch system from embankment areas located at a distance from motor roads due to inclining above areas towards water diversion ditch system, which directs water to purification system or to natural temporary or permanent water channels. For ground water removal from embankment body drainage layer is placed in embankment so that drainage layer diverts accumulated water to water diversion ditch system, which is also used to remove ground water entering from areas located adjacent territory to be developed.
EFFECT: simplified structure, reduced labor inputs, provision of stable and effective protective system operation.
6 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: irrigation building, particularly for laying collector-and-drainage system in the case of high ground water level (which is below plough-layer).
SUBSTANCE: method involves erecting pits along drain lines having inclined walls, wherein pit wall inclination is less than natural filtering material slope; filling the pits with filtering material along drain-installing machine travel so that filtering material volume is equal to that of blinding material; laying drain lines along pit axes with narrow-trench drain-installing machine after drain-installing machine bin is filled with filtering material up to level above ground water one, wherein drain laying rate exceeds rate of water percolation from watered ground of trench backfill; maintaining constant filtering material level in the bin due to supplying thereof from pit; additionally leveling and compacting upper filtering material surface. Device comprises main machine, active working tool with reverse operating chain rotation, guiding draining pipe chute and bin. Bin has front cutting part, expandable transversal walls and longitudinal walls bending in vertical plane. Receiving windows are formed in longitudinal walls. Splitter located in front of working tool is mounted on working tool frame and may perform vertical displacement. Splitter comprises plough and side wings enclosing working tool from two sides and connected to plough in front wing parts and to hinges in rear parts thereof. The hinges are connected to bin in front of receiving windows having additional wings installed behind receiving windows to allow installation angle change. Device has gate extending at 3°-4° angle to drain line and located in lower bin part.
EFFECT: increased capacity and drain laying quality, as well as following drainage operational efficiency.
4 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: building and irrigation and drainage construction, for agricultural land, underground building parts, roads, and slopes reclamation.
SUBSTANCE: drainage system comprises perforated drainage pipe connected to drain web having extensions, filtering diaphragm and thickened parts in joint areas. The thickened parts are provided with through orifices for bolts receiving. Nuts are screwed on the bolts. Drainage pipe has horizontal slot with bent upwards ends in which drain web in installed.
EFFECT: improved draining efficiency and increased speed of excessive water draining from ground.
FIELD: land reclamation, particularly to lay drain collection system in zones having ground water level above drainage laying level.
SUBSTANCE: method involves loosening fertile ground layer along drain laying axis; digging out channel; forming kerbs of excavated fertile ground; developing trench with chain working tool performing reverse rotation without ground lifting to surface; laying drainage pipe; backfilling the trench and the channel. Pulp consisted of crashed ground and water is extracted from lower trench part during drainage laying and the extracted pulp is supplied into channel or to surface of material used for trench backfilling. Device comprises basic machine, active working tool rotated in reverse direction, drainage pipe tray, box-like hopper with front cutting part, namely knife including post and plowshare. Suction dredge is installed inside the plowshare. Suction dredge has suction line communicated with zone between active working tool and knife through windows formed in front plowshare section. Pressure supply pipeline is communicated with distribution pipelines through intermediate pipeline and bypass gate operated by lever mechanism.
EFFECT: increased productivity and quality of drainage laying in water-saturated ground.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect building structure built of clay ground against flooding in the case of bedded mineral deposit mining under the structure.
SUBSTANCE: method involves cutting dewatering wells in maximal ground subsidence zones over breakage heading center; drilling horizontal drainage wells from dewatering wells at depth, which is less than distance to neutral line at ground layer bent, but is greater than structure foundation erection depth. Well lengths are determined from mathematical expression with taking into consideration parameters of layer cutting and ground shifting process characteristics.
EFFECT: increased clay ground dewatering and structure protection against flooding.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises lying the drain system with the converging drains on the control section, making observation gates within the converging drains, observing the parameters of the operation of the drain system, and comparing the parameters with the permissible values. The drains are provided with mouth and source sections of parallel drains. The lengths of the source and mouth sections of the parallel drains are chosen to be no less than the half of maximum distances between the sources and mouths of the converging drains, respectively.
EFFECT: enhanced precision of control.
1 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method comprises making diverging drainage canals in the area to be drained. The mouths of the bed sections are connected with the collector through the underground pipelines. The flow rates are measured and water is sampled in the mouths of the underground pipelines and in the mouths of the canal section beds connected to the collector. The concentrations of contaminants in the samples is measured, and the results are compared with the permissible values.
EFFECT: reduced labor consumptions.
FIELD: mining, particularly to protect objects to be developed and located in shifting basing against flooding with ground and surface water.
SUBSTANCE: method involves forming water-receiving excavations made as drains, pits or wells; draining and removing water; predicting ground surface relied after ground deformation before underground work performing; marking out flat shifting basin bottom and zone characterized by maximal relief depression; forming pit in area of maximal relief depression; arranging water drain at shifting basin boundary; forming ground water removing wells. Pit volume, well depth and well pitch are determined from mathematical relations.
EFFECT: increased efficiency.