Plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures, such as road embankments
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to elements for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures, such as road embankments. A plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, comprises a plate body, which has a lattice structure with main and transverse cables, stretched along two mutually perpendicular directions. The cables are biaxially oriented with a stretch ratio in two indicated mutually perpendicular directions, which is from 2.8 to 5.5. Main cables, i.e. in a direction of a workpiece extrusion, forming the plate body, have a quadrangular cross section and thickness in the direction, passing perpendicularly to the plane of the plate body location, which is equal to at least triple thickness of the transverse cables.
EFFECT: provision of the plate element fixing in soil, provision of reliable operation and safety when using.
10 cl, 11 dwg
The present invention relates to a plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments.
As you know, with the provision of roadways, paved or unpaved, weak or wet soil, it is necessary to prevent subsidence, which creates serious traffic problems.
In fact, the supporting layer consisting of compacted granular material, which, if desired, cemented, may be damaged and may deeply to settle in the subgrade, or may occur deformation or horizontal and vertical movement in the base, which can cause the formation of cavities and hollows.
In order to avoid these phenomena, it is established practice to place between the embankment and the ground base one or more layers biosynthetic reinforcing products, which are made with the possibility of load balancing and ensuring the safety factor required for the construction.
Reinforcement technology of the roadway traditional type or hanging type, as in the case of viaducts, bridges, inclined entrances or exits on highways and the like, by means of lattice elements, such as metal grill, netting, made of plastic or high-strength fabric, the sun is more and more accepted in both small and large civil infrastructure encouraging developers to revise the terms of new ideas stage of construction in order to increase the stability and strength of various structural layers.
Solutions used at present, are not always able to solve the problem of securing the mesh in the ground is not always effective, with the possibility that the loads resulting from traffic, including heavy traffic, can lead to destabilization of the location of the grid, with the possibility of exit from the base.
The objective of the invention is to solve the problems described above by providing a plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, which has a greater friction between the said plate element and the filler, thus contributing to the consolidation of the plate element in the soil and, therefore, allowing large loads without damage.
Within this problem, the object of the invention is the provision of a plate element, which tends to wedge into the filler so that the force required to release the plate element from its location, is increased relative to the effort required to exit the plate element solutions predshestvuyuschei is the level of technology.
Another objective of the present invention is the provision of a plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, which, thanks to its particular constructive characteristics, is capable of providing the highest guarantees of reliability and safety in use.
Another objective of the present invention is the provision of a plate element, which can be easily obtained on the basis of the public to purchase items and materials and is also competitive from a purely economic point of view.
This and other objectives which will become more apparent hereinafter, are achieved by plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, in accordance with the invention, containing plate body, which has a lattice structure with the main wires and transverse wires, stretched along two essentially mutually perpendicular directions, characterized in that the said main cables, i.e. in the direction of extrusion of the billet, which provides the specified plate case, have essentially rectangular cross-section and thickness in the direction which is perpendicular to the plane accommodation is specified plate body, which is equal to at least three times the thickness of these transverse ropes.
Additional characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the description of preferred but non-limiting variant implementation plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, shown as a non-limiting example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a schematic cross-section of the road with plate element in accordance with the invention provided therein;
Figure 2 is a top view of the plate element;
Figure 3 is a section taken along the line III-III in figure 2;
Figure 4 is a section taken along the line IV-IV in figure 2;
Figure 5 is a section taken on the site, another variant implementation;
6 is a cross section of the element, taken along the line that is perpendicular to the main cables in the middle plane of the cell;
Fig.7 is a cross-section taken across nodes in a direction that runs perpendicular to the length of the main cables;
Fig is a perspective view of the plate body connected with the lower layer of geotextile material;
Fig.9 presents yet a perspective view of the plate body, connected to the lower layer of geotextile material and a top layer of geotextile material;
Figure 10 is a section taken along the line X-X on Fig;
11 is a cross section taken along the line XI-XI of figure 9.
With reference to the figures, the plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, contains plate-like body, generally designated by the reference number 1, which has a lattice structure with the main cables 2 and the transverse wires 3, which stretched along directions that are, essentially, are mutually perpendicular. More specifically, the main cables are arranged along the direction of extrusion of the billet, which provides the plate body 1, whereas the transverse cables, essentially, are perpendicular.
The cables 2 and 3 intersect at nodes 4 and, as usual, focused, i.e. stretched in two mutually perpendicular directions.
Essentially, the plate body is provided by two rows of intersecting cables, which are mutually connected to each other for the formation of a single extruded element, preferably but not necessarily made of polypropylene, which is a plastic material that can provide low weight and good gestco the ü, together with resistance to atmospheric conditions and temperature variations, with full processing in the case of disposal.
In particular, the main cables 2 have, in cross section, essentially rectangular in shape, while the transverse wires 3 are flatter and broader form, and therefore has a significant Flexural rigidity when the main cables are under tension, while the transverse wires are more easily bendable.
Preferably, the degree of stretching in the main direction and in the transverse direction is from 2.8 to 5.5.
The main cables that are oriented in the direction of extrusion, are clearly defined in shape and have a feature consists in the presence, on their upper periphery, which is relative to the site 4 essentially sharp upper edges, denoted by the reference position 10, and there are also, essentially, a sharp lower edge 11, which is provided on the lower periphery.
The thickness of the main cable at the site at least three times greater than the transverse thickness of the cable 3, measured along a direction which is perpendicular to the plane of the placement plate element.
In areas that are removed from the site, the thickness should be at least twice more.
The cross-section of the main cable, which is referred to earlier, has a distinct edge on the end of the rope, has a size, comprising 8×6 mm to 8×8 mm.
The presence of sharp edges is a critical element in a concrete case for the product in the case of tangential shear of the soil, and this is the essential feature is also based on mechanical tests that were conducted.
The angle α formed by the node, as shown in figure 3 and 4, preferably less than 90°, although is also possible constructive variant, which is shown in figure 5 and in which the angle β formed between the sides of the site and transverse ropes, a little more than 90°.
In a practical embodiment, the grating element has openings, which are, essentially, correct shape, with the distance between the main cables, which ranges from 50 to 70 mm, and the distance between the cross wires of approximately 60 mm, while the hole of the cells may vary from 42 to 65 mm for the main cables and about 58 mm for control cables.
As shown in Fig-11, it is possible to apply by heating the bottom layer 20 of geotextile material in order to combine the draining ability of geocomposite with increased strength and reinforcement of the soil that is characteristic of the invention.
Moreover, the presence of Boko what's lateral walls of the main cables 2, which, essentially, are vertical and form a flattened portions of the upper region, makes it possible to use the invention as an element for separating different layers of the soil through the application of the top layer 21 of geotextile material, which actually surrounds the plate body with the layer 20.
Specific essentially rectangular cross-section of the main cables 2 allows you to have, on the upper side of the cable, the maximum possible contact surface between geotextiles, which are clearly separated from each other due to the same height of the cross section of the plate body 1.
Essential feature of the invention lies in the fact that the presence of sharp edges in the transverse cables allows you to better secure the bulk material, or consisting of sand or gravel, and therefore tests the extraction is observed that the projections with sharp edges provided on the cable, provide more friction even in an environment such as sand, for the same cell size with a smaller specific gravity than the traditional grid.
In particular, with reference to the vector diagram shown in figure 1, where the curvature of the surface of the road was exaggerated to highlight the idea, the weight P of the vehicle is divided into component Pn weight, which is what I normal to the road pavement, part of Pt which is emitted tangentially to the road pavement and there due to the presence of sharp edges provided in the grid.
From what has been described above, it is obvious that the invention achieves the intended goals and objectives and, in particular, emphasis on the circumstance, namely, that it is especially important that there is provided for the main cables, which have a rectangular cross-section with sharp edges, which allow the product to withstand the voltage in the preferred direction, with resultant savings in material, and, accordingly, the weight in a direction that does not correspond to the direction of the main stress.
The presence of reinforcement along the entire length of the main cables, without interrupting nodes, makes it possible to maintain the structure in a state of tension, which is allocated for the given design, with no areas of heterogeneity, which may cause local deformation.
The invention is designed to allow numerous modifications and changes, all of which are within the scope of the claims appended claims.
Additionally, all the items can be any according to requirements and technology.
1. Plate element for Amirova the Oia, separation and dewatering of large structures such as road embankments containing plate body (1), which has a lattice structure with the main wires (2) and transverse ropes (3), stretched along two essentially mutually perpendicular directions in which the cables (2, 3) duono oriented with a degree of stretch in these two essentially perpendicular directions, which is from 2.8 to 5.5, while the main cables (2), i.e. in the direction of extrusion billet, forming plate-like body, are essentially rectangular cross-section and thickness in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the placing plate of the housing (1), which is equal to at least three times the thickness of the transverse cables (3).
2. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cables are essentially sharp edges (10, 11), at least on the upper periphery.
3. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cables (2) contain, in essence, a sharp upper edge (10) and, in fact, a sharp lower edge (11).
4. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main wires (2) are in areas that are removed from nodes (4), the thickness of which is at least twice the thickness of the transverse cables (3).
5. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main wires (2) are in the direction which, essentially, is perpendicular to the specified direction of extrusion, sizes, comprising 8×6 mm to 8×8 mm.
6. The plate element according to claim 4, characterized in that the angle (α, β)formed by the sides of the main cables (2) on node (4) and the plane of the placing plate of the housing (1), in essence, is about 90°.
7. The plate element according to claim 6, characterized in that the angle (β)formed between the sides of the main cables (2) in the specified node and the plane of the placing plate of the housing (1) in node (4), less than 90°.
8. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cables (2) have a distance between them of 60 to 70 mm, and the transverse cables (3) have a distance between them of approximately 60 mm
9. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a lower layer (20) of geotextile material, coupled with the lower surface of the plate body (1).
10. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a top layer (21) of geotextile material, coupled with the top surface of the plate body (1).
SUBSTANCE: method to wash over earth works in the form of narrow-profiled dams consists in supply of pulp from the end of the main pulp line and dispersed release of pulp taken from the lower part of the main pulp line, from distributing pulp lines. The narrow-profiled dam is washed over with the help of a distributing device, making it possible to fractionate and wash over side prisms from sorted fractions, and the nucleus of the dam may be washed over from the remaining mass of the solid phase of the pulp. The distributing device is the end section of the main pulp line, to which via a socket rigidly fixed in its lower part there are two distributing pulp lines connected, being arranged in parallel to the main pulp line, with varied distance between them. In front of the inlet hole into the socket there is a guide element fixed rigidly with crescent shape, inclined at the angle of 25…30° towards the protective grate. The guide element is made of sheet wear-resistant steel with thickness of 8…10 mm, height of 50…70 mm, length equal to width of the inlet hole of the socket. The distributing device has four vertical stands with height of 1500…2000 mm and support elements rigidly fixed to them in the form of bent bars with size of 150 mm with horizontal sections with length of 800…1200 mm. From horizontal sections of bars in the front part along the travel of the distributing device there are diverting inclined section with an angle of inclination to the longitudinal axis 45…55°, fixed on distributing pulp lines, which provides for self-tipping out of the distributing device during movement from the washed over section.
EFFECT: lower clogging of a protective grate of a socket and higher mobility of a distributing device during relocation.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction and operation of earth structures under complicated natural and climatic and engineering and geological conditions and may be used in construction and reconstruction of linear structures in sections of weatherable rock soils, also permafrost ones (railway and motor roads, manifold pipelines, dams and weirs). The structure for reinforcement of slopes of earth structures in weatherable rock soils, comprises a upland ditch, made in the upper part of the slope of the groove of the railway track along the earth structure above the border of the active layer reinforced with coarse clastic soil. At the slope there are at least two alternating ledges and two rollers, at the same time the upper roller is made between the upland groove and the upper ledge, and each subsequent roller - between the adjacent ledges. Rollers are made of fine-dispersed soil coated with a gravel-crushed stone soil. The area of the cross section of ledges is comparable with the area of the cross section of rollers, the volume of finely-dispersed and crushed stone soils has the ratio of 1 to 4-6.
EFFECT: increased service life of an earth structure up to the normative life and more than that due to colmation of pores and cavities of soils in slopes of the base, lying below the depth of a layer of seasonal freezing, formation of a permanent live section of soil flow in profile and considerable reduction of water migration from soils below depth of seasonal freezing into soils of an active layer.
3 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of railway track reconstruction includes cutting of ledges on a slope of an earth bed, laying of gabions on them. The lower ledge is made with width equal to the width of some gabions, the width of subsequent ledges is equal to 1/3 of the width of the lower ledge, the height of all ledges, including the lower ledge, is equal to the height of a row of gabions. The produced gabion wall comprises N+1 rows of gabions. Besides, N rows of gabions are placed to the level of the main platform of the earth bed, and the upper N-first row of gabions simultaneously rests against the previous row of gabions and the main platform of the earth bed and supports the ballast prism.
EFFECT: reinforcement of a railway track earth bed, reduced material intensity and labour intensiveness.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method to erect narrow-section dams is carried out by pulp supply into an inwashed structure simultaneously from the main and two distributing pulp lines. Distributing pulp lines are arranged in parallel at two sides of the main pulp line for inwash of side prisms from coarse fractions of the inwashed soil and the middle part, being the core of the dam, from fine fractions washed from the end of the main pulp line. Outlet holes in distributing pulp lines are made in their lower part and displaced by 20…30° from the vertical axis towards the main pulp line, being distant from each other at the distance of ℓ=dmain, where dmain - diameter of the main pulp line, and the diameter dv=1/3dd, where dd - diameter of the distributing pulp line providing for inwash of soil along the length of side prisms. Pulp supply from the end of the main pulp line for inwash of the dam core is carried out via a damper made in the form of longitudinal steel rods with the diameter of 10…14 mm from smooth reinforcement steel, rigidly fixed by one side along the upper outer surface in the end part of the main pulp line with arrangement of the rods in parallel to the axis of the flow, with the distance between the rods equal to 1…2 of the rod diameter and made with a protrusion by the value of 1.5…2dmain, and the bend of the end section until complete closure of the vertical projection of the end of the main pulp line. The connection of the distributing pulp lines with the main one is made in the form of a socket coupled with the main pulp line, along the line produced from crossing of two cylinders of identical diameter, equal to dmain, and with the distributing pulp lines - in the form of an oval having the size along the large axis equal to dmain, along the small one - dd. The inlet hole of the socket is protected with an inner lattice made in the form of longitudinal rods from smooth reinforcement steel with the diameter of 10…14 mm, rigidly fixed only at the discharge side with arrangement of the rods from each other at the distance of 0.75dv.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to erect protective dams with simultaneous clearing of river beds from bottom sediments and to prevent flooding of adjacent territories, which improves environmental condition in general.
SUBSTANCE: ground structure on a weak base comprises an embankment, trenches made at its both sides and a reinforcing system in the form of a horseshoe-shaped retaining shell with a vault and supports. The retaining shell is arranged in transverse and longitudinal direction of the ground structure from webs of a synthetic non-woven material (SNM) laid into the embankment and trenches. Webs of the SNM in trenches are filled with soil, forming supports of the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell. The retaining shell is made in the form of a closed shell, its vault is installed in the embankment body and is filled with soil. The volume weight of soil in the horseshoe-shaped retaining shell exceeds the volume weight of embankment soils.
EFFECT: provision of a reliable and durable earth structure on a weak base in process of permanent operation without drying of weak soils in area of any length.
SUBSTANCE: embankment includes an embankment body in the form of filled soil and a cooling system installed in the embankment in the form of a panel with channels arranged inside. The panel with channels may be arranged in the form of a net. Holes of channels arranged at the edges of the panel are connected with a transverse air intake tube. The cooling system is arranged as follows: in the form of a row of bays made of spirally wound panels or nets with channels and installed across the axis of the road route. The cooling system may be arranged as combined of at least two layers, in which the lower one comprises bays, and the upper one - from panels with channels or tubes. Inside bays there are central tubes installed.
EFFECT: possibility to use in erection of transport structures on frozen soils, both in summer and winter periods of the year.
6 cl, 10 dwg
SUBSTANCE: embankment includes soil filled layerwise in horizontal layers with compaction with at least one laid flexible reinforcing element, which in the cross section of the embankment crosses the separation border between the stable central part of the non-reinforced embankment and its unstable near-slope part, and perceives stretching forces at the side of the soil. Within the stable central part of the embankment the reinforcing element is laid to form a horizontal section, and within the unstable near-slope part the reinforcing element is laid to form a sloping section. Transition of the reinforcing element from the horizontal section to its inclined section is made as the reinforcing element crosses the separation border and with formation of the curvilinear section of the reinforcing element, and the inclined reinforcing section creates with the horizon an angle β, which meets the requirement α/2≥β>3°, where α - sharp angle between the embankment slope and the horizon in the range of the height of the inclined section of the reinforcing element.
EFFECT: invention provides for retention of an unstable near-slope part of an embankment from collapse with flexible reinforcing elements without its initial displacement and without reduction of reinforced embankment stability along its deep sliding surfaces.
7 cl, 3 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention may be preferably used to erect high (more than 3 m) road embankments on collapsing soils as frozen soils thaw, in earthquake zones where high-temperature (-0.5…-1.5°C) unstable permafrost propagates of interrupted and island nature, under conditions of existing global warming, with optimal use of natural (ecological) mechanisms of permafrost formation and reinforcement. The earthwork contains an embankment and peripheral rock layers joined to each other with an underlying layer of rocky ground contacting with air in slope areas that are water impermeable at the bottom. On the surface of the soil base there is a layer of water-saturated, water-retaining material. In the peripheral rock layers there are air holes arranged that contact with the lower part of a connecting rock layer made in the bottom part from larger rock pieces or trapezoidal gabions (in the form of truncated pyramid) on a partial geotextile layer, submerged into the layer of the water-saturated, water-retaining material. The device is realised by the method of earthwork erection on permafrost soils with base reinforcement in the areas of permafrost propagation.
EFFECT: higher resistance and strength of the earthwork base on permafrost.
8 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: earthwork structure on weak base comprises earthfills, shells intended for drainage of earthfill base and arranged on high side and lower side of earthfill, every of which is erected from draining soil, besides each shell in zone of weak soils in longitudinal direction is arranged as convex with transverse alternating section of trapezoidal shape. Shells are arranged with various weights, besides shell with smaller weight is arranged on high side of earthfill and with larger weight - on lower side of earthfill. In each shell a transverse trapezoidal section with maximum area is arranged in area of maximum setting, and trapezoidal section with minimum area - in zone of stable soils, and larger base of cross section is arranged on solids of near-foot zone of earthfill.
EFFECT: increased service life and bearing capacity of earthfill, provision of continuous moisture drain from zone with weak soils in longitudinal and transverse direction.
SUBSTANCE: earthfill for arrangement of technological road on weak foundation comprises layer of loose material, synthetic webs, enveloping slopes, retaining case with reinforcing layer, bandage tapes made of synthetic material with width of 0.1-1.0 m, which are arranged perpendicularly to earthfill axis and envelope retaining case and synthetic webs, which envelope slopes in a horseshoe manner, besides synthetic web used to envelope slopes in a horseshoe manner is represented by web of "Geofabric" type, loose material used is represented by earthfill of mineral cohesive soils, and reinforcing layer represents solid web arranged along width of earthfill foundation made of synthetic nets with width of 0.1-1.0 m with conventional module of deformation of at least 4·102kN/m, which are laid and joined as a carpet.
EFFECT: stable earthfill of technological road arranged on weak swampy foundation in process of construction mechanisms operation under conditions of limited working area.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for building railroad embankments in permafrost zones.
SUBSTANCE: groove includes ballast prism, support massif contacting with groove slopes by side massif walls and arranged under ballast prism, heat insulation layer laid on groove slopes and protective layer located above heat insulation one. Support body comprises upper part of hU height formed of fractional rock and lower part of hL height made of non-drainage ground. Protective layer is made of drainage ground. Support massif height h0, upper part height hU and lower part hL height are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: prevention of road bed deformation during embankment erection.
FIELD: building, particularly for building high filtering embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises drainage groove body built on natural ground surface and approach embankment parts adjoining to drainage groove from both sides. Approach embankment parts include systems for permafrost ground cooling arranged on surfaces thereof formed, for instance, as rock fills arranged on embankment slopes. Drainage groove body consists of filtering mass crossing embankment body at an angle to longitudinal axis thereof, upper part located directly above filtering mass, and two intermediate embankment parts of variable heights disposed between filtering mass together with upper part of drainage groove body and both approach embankment parts. Filtering mass has trapezoidal cross-section. Ends of filtering mass, upper part and intermediate ones are located in planes of approach embankment part slopes. Filtering mass body is formed of filtering ground. Upper drainage slot part and intermediate parts are made of embankment ground.
EFFECT: possibility of regular embankment operation in permafrost areas.
4 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting ground road embankment in permafrost territory.
SUBSTANCE: berm located on transversal ground grade and directly adjoining upper embankment slope is formed of fractional rock ground. Berm comprises side antifiltering lock located in embankment body on natural ground surface near berm, lower antifiltering lock arranged below natural ground surface at contact area with lower berm surface and side antifiltering lock. Upper berm surface is located above maximum level hn of surface longitudinal water flow in bottom area of upper embankment slope. Berm body may be partly deepened in natural ground surface.
EFFECT: prevention of embankment ground erosion, filtering through embankment body in transversal direction and thaw of embankment foundation.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for road building and embankment repair, for forming platforms for buildings and creating islands and dams in shallow water zones.
SUBSTANCE: embankment erected on soil includes embankment base, embankment body and outer side slopes. Embankment base is made of clay and shaped as lodgment having side breastworks located above flood water level.
EFFECT: increased embankment stability, prevention of impounding thereof with flood water.
4 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for erecting road embankments in areas with high-temperature permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: earth structure comprises road bed body and rock layer exposed to air in peripheral zones. Lateral parts of peripheral zones in are water-impermeable from below. Rock layers are connected one to another by underlying rock layer.
EFFECT: increased resistance and operational reliability of earth structure, particularly erected on permafrost ground in summer period.
3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body laid on natural ground surface, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies with heights of not less than 0.3 m and Bb widths located within the boundaries of the main embankment area, slopes thereof and on horizontal area of natural ground surface at embankment slope base from ballast section sides. Heat insulation layer with Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Bb is determined from specified condition.
EFFECT: increased stability and durability of embankment built on permafrost ground under heavy drift-snow transport conditions, simplified perennial technology of building thereof and extended range or local permafrost ground application.
3 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies having hb heights and Bb widths located from ballast section sides within the boundaries of the main embankment area on natural ground surface at embankment slope base. Embankment body includes three layers, namely lower layer having hl height, medium layer having hm height and upper one having hu height. Upper layer is made of drainage soil. Heat insulation layer having Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Heat insulation layer extends from its bottom to medium layer top surface and then over the top surface to vertical plane passing through the edge of main embankment area. Auxiliary ground body hb height is defined to increase convenience of mechanized embankment forming and is equal to 0.3 - 0.7 m in separate areas thereof. Main embankment dimensions are determined from predetermined conditions.
EFFECT: increased embankment stability and durability.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.
EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.
9 cl, 12 dwg
FIELD: building, particularly to construct road embankments on permafrost ground.
SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body composed of two stacked layers and ballast prism arranged on base platform. Each layer is formed as trapeze with larger base facing downwards. Lower base of upper layer trapeze has dimension c equal to that of upper base of lower layer trapeze. Lower base of upper layer trapeze mates upper base of lower layer trapeze. Upper layer has side slope less than that of lower layer. Main embankment parameters are determined from corresponding relations.
EFFECT: provision of embankment stability due to permafrost temperature reduction in embankment base.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: road building.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to strengthen weak base, increase strength and load-bearing capacity of roadbed. Proposed construction includes earth roadbed with shoulders and slopes, support longitudinal trench filled with material arranged in earth roadbed with geosynthetic material placed over top of trench. Longitudinal trench arranged along axis of earth roadbed or several longitudinal trenches are made with width of 0.6-10 at depth of 1.2-2.6 m filled with friction material, and geosynthetic material with minimum breaking strength of 15kN/m in longitudinal direction and of ≥ 20 kN/m in cross direction is placed over top of trench with back lapping into embankment providing formation of semiholders from two sides of earth roadbed.
EFFECT: improved service characteristics of road, increased time between repairs owing to elimination or reduction of sagging of earth roadbed base.
2 cl, 2 ex, 4 dwg