Plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures, such as road embankments

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to construction, namely to elements for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures, such as road embankments. A plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, comprises a plate body, which has a lattice structure with main and transverse cables, stretched along two mutually perpendicular directions. The cables are biaxially oriented with a stretch ratio in two indicated mutually perpendicular directions, which is from 2.8 to 5.5. Main cables, i.e. in a direction of a workpiece extrusion, forming the plate body, have a quadrangular cross section and thickness in the direction, passing perpendicularly to the plane of the plate body location, which is equal to at least triple thickness of the transverse cables.

EFFECT: provision of the plate element fixing in soil, provision of reliable operation and safety when using.

10 cl, 11 dwg

 

The present invention relates to a plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments.

As you know, with the provision of roadways, paved or unpaved, weak or wet soil, it is necessary to prevent subsidence, which creates serious traffic problems.

In fact, the supporting layer consisting of compacted granular material, which, if desired, cemented, may be damaged and may deeply to settle in the subgrade, or may occur deformation or horizontal and vertical movement in the base, which can cause the formation of cavities and hollows.

In order to avoid these phenomena, it is established practice to place between the embankment and the ground base one or more layers biosynthetic reinforcing products, which are made with the possibility of load balancing and ensuring the safety factor required for the construction.

Reinforcement technology of the roadway traditional type or hanging type, as in the case of viaducts, bridges, inclined entrances or exits on highways and the like, by means of lattice elements, such as metal grill, netting, made of plastic or high-strength fabric, the sun is more and more accepted in both small and large civil infrastructure encouraging developers to revise the terms of new ideas stage of construction in order to increase the stability and strength of various structural layers.

Solutions used at present, are not always able to solve the problem of securing the mesh in the ground is not always effective, with the possibility that the loads resulting from traffic, including heavy traffic, can lead to destabilization of the location of the grid, with the possibility of exit from the base.

The objective of the invention is to solve the problems described above by providing a plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, which has a greater friction between the said plate element and the filler, thus contributing to the consolidation of the plate element in the soil and, therefore, allowing large loads without damage.

Within this problem, the object of the invention is the provision of a plate element, which tends to wedge into the filler so that the force required to release the plate element from its location, is increased relative to the effort required to exit the plate element solutions predshestvuyuschei is the level of technology.

Another objective of the present invention is the provision of a plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, which, thanks to its particular constructive characteristics, is capable of providing the highest guarantees of reliability and safety in use.

Another objective of the present invention is the provision of a plate element, which can be easily obtained on the basis of the public to purchase items and materials and is also competitive from a purely economic point of view.

This and other objectives which will become more apparent hereinafter, are achieved by plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, in accordance with the invention, containing plate body, which has a lattice structure with the main wires and transverse wires, stretched along two essentially mutually perpendicular directions, characterized in that the said main cables, i.e. in the direction of extrusion of the billet, which provides the specified plate case, have essentially rectangular cross-section and thickness in the direction which is perpendicular to the plane accommodation is specified plate body, which is equal to at least three times the thickness of these transverse ropes.

Additional characteristics and advantages of the present invention will become more apparent from the description of preferred but non-limiting variant implementation plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, shown as a non-limiting example with reference to the accompanying drawings, in which:

Figure 1 is a schematic cross-section of the road with plate element in accordance with the invention provided therein;

Figure 2 is a top view of the plate element;

Figure 3 is a section taken along the line III-III in figure 2;

Figure 4 is a section taken along the line IV-IV in figure 2;

Figure 5 is a section taken on the site, another variant implementation;

6 is a cross section of the element, taken along the line that is perpendicular to the main cables in the middle plane of the cell;

Fig.7 is a cross-section taken across nodes in a direction that runs perpendicular to the length of the main cables;

Fig is a perspective view of the plate body connected with the lower layer of geotextile material;

Fig.9 presents yet a perspective view of the plate body, connected to the lower layer of geotextile material and a top layer of geotextile material;

Figure 10 is a section taken along the line X-X on Fig;

11 is a cross section taken along the line XI-XI of figure 9.

With reference to the figures, the plate element for reinforcement, separation and drainage of large structures such as road embankments, contains plate-like body, generally designated by the reference number 1, which has a lattice structure with the main cables 2 and the transverse wires 3, which stretched along directions that are, essentially, are mutually perpendicular. More specifically, the main cables are arranged along the direction of extrusion of the billet, which provides the plate body 1, whereas the transverse cables, essentially, are perpendicular.

The cables 2 and 3 intersect at nodes 4 and, as usual, focused, i.e. stretched in two mutually perpendicular directions.

Essentially, the plate body is provided by two rows of intersecting cables, which are mutually connected to each other for the formation of a single extruded element, preferably but not necessarily made of polypropylene, which is a plastic material that can provide low weight and good gestco the ü, together with resistance to atmospheric conditions and temperature variations, with full processing in the case of disposal.

In particular, the main cables 2 have, in cross section, essentially rectangular in shape, while the transverse wires 3 are flatter and broader form, and therefore has a significant Flexural rigidity when the main cables are under tension, while the transverse wires are more easily bendable.

Preferably, the degree of stretching in the main direction and in the transverse direction is from 2.8 to 5.5.

The main cables that are oriented in the direction of extrusion, are clearly defined in shape and have a feature consists in the presence, on their upper periphery, which is relative to the site 4 essentially sharp upper edges, denoted by the reference position 10, and there are also, essentially, a sharp lower edge 11, which is provided on the lower periphery.

The thickness of the main cable at the site at least three times greater than the transverse thickness of the cable 3, measured along a direction which is perpendicular to the plane of the placement plate element.

In areas that are removed from the site, the thickness should be at least twice more.

The cross-section of the main cable, which is referred to earlier, has a distinct edge on the end of the rope, has a size, comprising 8×6 mm to 8×8 mm.

The presence of sharp edges is a critical element in a concrete case for the product in the case of tangential shear of the soil, and this is the essential feature is also based on mechanical tests that were conducted.

The angle α formed by the node, as shown in figure 3 and 4, preferably less than 90°, although is also possible constructive variant, which is shown in figure 5 and in which the angle β formed between the sides of the site and transverse ropes, a little more than 90°.

In a practical embodiment, the grating element has openings, which are, essentially, correct shape, with the distance between the main cables, which ranges from 50 to 70 mm, and the distance between the cross wires of approximately 60 mm, while the hole of the cells may vary from 42 to 65 mm for the main cables and about 58 mm for control cables.

As shown in Fig-11, it is possible to apply by heating the bottom layer 20 of geotextile material in order to combine the draining ability of geocomposite with increased strength and reinforcement of the soil that is characteristic of the invention.

Moreover, the presence of Boko what's lateral walls of the main cables 2, which, essentially, are vertical and form a flattened portions of the upper region, makes it possible to use the invention as an element for separating different layers of the soil through the application of the top layer 21 of geotextile material, which actually surrounds the plate body with the layer 20.

Specific essentially rectangular cross-section of the main cables 2 allows you to have, on the upper side of the cable, the maximum possible contact surface between geotextiles, which are clearly separated from each other due to the same height of the cross section of the plate body 1.

Essential feature of the invention lies in the fact that the presence of sharp edges in the transverse cables allows you to better secure the bulk material, or consisting of sand or gravel, and therefore tests the extraction is observed that the projections with sharp edges provided on the cable, provide more friction even in an environment such as sand, for the same cell size with a smaller specific gravity than the traditional grid.

In particular, with reference to the vector diagram shown in figure 1, where the curvature of the surface of the road was exaggerated to highlight the idea, the weight P of the vehicle is divided into component Pn weight, which is what I normal to the road pavement, part of Pt which is emitted tangentially to the road pavement and there due to the presence of sharp edges provided in the grid.

From what has been described above, it is obvious that the invention achieves the intended goals and objectives and, in particular, emphasis on the circumstance, namely, that it is especially important that there is provided for the main cables, which have a rectangular cross-section with sharp edges, which allow the product to withstand the voltage in the preferred direction, with resultant savings in material, and, accordingly, the weight in a direction that does not correspond to the direction of the main stress.

The presence of reinforcement along the entire length of the main cables, without interrupting nodes, makes it possible to maintain the structure in a state of tension, which is allocated for the given design, with no areas of heterogeneity, which may cause local deformation.

The invention is designed to allow numerous modifications and changes, all of which are within the scope of the claims appended claims.

Additionally, all the items can be any according to requirements and technology.

1. Plate element for Amirova the Oia, separation and dewatering of large structures such as road embankments containing plate body (1), which has a lattice structure with the main wires (2) and transverse ropes (3), stretched along two essentially mutually perpendicular directions in which the cables (2, 3) duono oriented with a degree of stretch in these two essentially perpendicular directions, which is from 2.8 to 5.5, while the main cables (2), i.e. in the direction of extrusion billet, forming plate-like body, are essentially rectangular cross-section and thickness in the direction perpendicular to the plane of the placing plate of the housing (1), which is equal to at least three times the thickness of the transverse cables (3).

2. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cables are essentially sharp edges (10, 11), at least on the upper periphery.

3. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cables (2) contain, in essence, a sharp upper edge (10) and, in fact, a sharp lower edge (11).

4. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main wires (2) are in areas that are removed from nodes (4), the thickness of which is at least twice the thickness of the transverse cables (3).

5. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main wires (2) are in the direction which, essentially, is perpendicular to the specified direction of extrusion, sizes, comprising 8×6 mm to 8×8 mm.

6. The plate element according to claim 4, characterized in that the angle (α, β)formed by the sides of the main cables (2) on node (4) and the plane of the placing plate of the housing (1), in essence, is about 90°.

7. The plate element according to claim 6, characterized in that the angle (β)formed between the sides of the main cables (2) in the specified node and the plane of the placing plate of the housing (1) in node (4), less than 90°.

8. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that the main cables (2) have a distance between them of 60 to 70 mm, and the transverse cables (3) have a distance between them of approximately 60 mm

9. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a lower layer (20) of geotextile material, coupled with the lower surface of the plate body (1).

10. The plate element according to claim 1, characterized in that it contains a top layer (21) of geotextile material, coupled with the top surface of the plate body (1).



 

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction.

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7 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: construction.

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FIELD: construction.

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4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for building railroad embankments in permafrost zones.

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1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for building high filtering embankments on permafrost ground bases.

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4 cl, 3 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for erecting ground road embankment in permafrost territory.

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EFFECT: prevention of embankment ground erosion, filtering through embankment body in transversal direction and thaw of embankment foundation.

2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for road building and embankment repair, for forming platforms for buildings and creating islands and dams in shallow water zones.

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EFFECT: increased embankment stability, prevention of impounding thereof with flood water.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for erecting road embankments in areas with high-temperature permafrost ground.

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EFFECT: increased resistance and operational reliability of earth structure, particularly erected on permafrost ground in summer period.

3 cl, 1 dwg, 1 tbl

FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.

SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body laid on natural ground surface, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies with heights of not less than 0.3 m and Bb widths located within the boundaries of the main embankment area, slopes thereof and on horizontal area of natural ground surface at embankment slope base from ballast section sides. Heat insulation layer with Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Bb is determined from specified condition.

EFFECT: increased stability and durability of embankment built on permafrost ground under heavy drift-snow transport conditions, simplified perennial technology of building thereof and extended range or local permafrost ground application.

3 cl, 5 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly for constructing road embankments on permafrost ground bases.

SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body, ballast section formed on the main embankment area and heat insulation layer. Road embankment has side auxiliary ground bodies having hb heights and Bb widths located from ballast section sides within the boundaries of the main embankment area on natural ground surface at embankment slope base. Embankment body includes three layers, namely lower layer having hl height, medium layer having hm height and upper one having hu height. Upper layer is made of drainage soil. Heat insulation layer having Rh thermal resistance is located on leveling layer of dry frozen sand immediately under side auxiliary ground body. Heat insulation layer extends from its bottom to medium layer top surface and then over the top surface to vertical plane passing through the edge of main embankment area. Auxiliary ground body hb height is defined to increase convenience of mechanized embankment forming and is equal to 0.3 - 0.7 m in separate areas thereof. Main embankment dimensions are determined from predetermined conditions.

EFFECT: increased embankment stability and durability.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to erect road embankments.

SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment ground, retaining wall and support structure. Embankment ground is divided with flat geonet webs into several layers. The retaining wall is also divided into layers similar to ground layers and covered with single geonet webs. Each retaining wall layer has vertical through slots filled with macroporous draining material. Flat geonet webs are inserted between hollow layers of retaining wall. Vertical cavities of adjacent retaining wall layers in height direction are superposed in plan view. Length L of ground layers reinforced with flat geonet webs beginning from inner retaining wall surface is determined from a given equation. Road embankment erection method involves forming retaining wall base; laying road embankment ground layers alternated with flat geonet webs; erecting retaining wall comprising several layers and constructing support structure. Base is initially created and then lower erection wall layer is erected on the base, wherein the retaining wall is provided with vertical cavities having heights corresponding to ground layer heights. The vertical cavities are filled with coarse material for 2/3 of volume thereof and then embankment ground layer is poured and compacted. Embankment ground is leveled and coarse material is added in the cavities. The coarse material is leveled and geonet web is placed onto the coarse material within the bounds of retaining wall and embankment ground layer. Next layers are formed in similar manner. Reinforced concrete block for retaining wall forming comprises device, which cooperates with ambient ground. The device comprises one or several vertical through cavities to be filled with granular coarse material. Depression in concrete is formed in lower block surface in front of erection loop.

EFFECT: reduced material consumption and erection time, increased service life, stability and operational reliability.

9 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: building, particularly to construct road embankments on permafrost ground.

SUBSTANCE: road embankment comprises embankment body composed of two stacked layers and ballast prism arranged on base platform. Each layer is formed as trapeze with larger base facing downwards. Lower base of upper layer trapeze has dimension c equal to that of upper base of lower layer trapeze. Lower base of upper layer trapeze mates upper base of lower layer trapeze. Upper layer has side slope less than that of lower layer. Main embankment parameters are determined from corresponding relations.

EFFECT: provision of embankment stability due to permafrost temperature reduction in embankment base.

2 cl, 1 dwg

FIELD: road building.

SUBSTANCE: invention can be used to strengthen weak base, increase strength and load-bearing capacity of roadbed. Proposed construction includes earth roadbed with shoulders and slopes, support longitudinal trench filled with material arranged in earth roadbed with geosynthetic material placed over top of trench. Longitudinal trench arranged along axis of earth roadbed or several longitudinal trenches are made with width of 0.6-10 at depth of 1.2-2.6 m filled with friction material, and geosynthetic material with minimum breaking strength of 15kN/m in longitudinal direction and of ≥ 20 kN/m in cross direction is placed over top of trench with back lapping into embankment providing formation of semiholders from two sides of earth roadbed.

EFFECT: improved service characteristics of road, increased time between repairs owing to elimination or reduction of sagging of earth roadbed base.

2 cl, 2 ex, 4 dwg

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