Method of modelling horizontal thermoerosional washout of frozen soils

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to industrial or civil construction, in particular to determine the stability of frozen soils, and can be used in construction of oil and gas pipelines to determine the degree of soil stability to thermoerosional washout. A method of modelling the horizontal thermoerosional washout of frozen soils includes the preliminary positioning of the soil sample in the cuvette, saturation of the soil sample with water up to the specified moisture, application of a drainage line of the certain width on the surface of the sample and freezing of the soil sample in the cuvette with the closed lid in the cooling chamber to a determined temperature for minimum one day, the cuvette placing with the prepared soil sample with the open sector under the water supply facility at an angle, depending on the specified parameters of modelling, and erosion of the soil sample by water course. The width of the drainage line, water temperature and flow of the watercourse are adjustable, in this case the measurements of direct indexes are conducted - a depth of thawing and soil erosion, water temperature, width and depth of the water flow within the selected time interval, on the basis of which the indirect parameters of thermoerosional washout are determined: intensity of washout, erosion-preventive resistance of soil, water flow mechanical energy, water flow thermal energy, thermal flow expended for melting of frozen soil, thermal flow due to dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the water flow and frozen soil by the given dependences.

EFFECT: providing determination of a set of parameters, characterising the thermal erosion process of soils under the influence of the water flow.

3 tbl, 2 dwg

 

The invention relates to an industrial or civil engineering, in particular to determine the stability of frozen soils, and can be used in the construction of oil and gas pipelines to establish the degree of soil stability to thermal erosion.

From the physical point of view thermoerosion is a set of interrelated processes of hydrodynamics (the movement of water along the slope), thermal (heat transfer between the water flow and soil) and mechanics (change the strength properties of soils, erosion of soil particles and surface erosion). Therefore, modeling of thermal erosion of permafrost on the experimental stand assumes on the basis of direct and indirect measurements to define a set of parameters (indicators)describing the processes mentioned above: the depth and intensity of erosion, erosion resistance of the soil, mechanical and thermal energy of water flow, heat flow due to the dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between water flow and soil.

There is a method to determine the degree of frost heaving of the soil (RF patent 2281995, publ. 20.08.2006), characterized by the fact that the tested soil is placed in a device for determining the amount of frost heaving pressure, placed in the refrigerating chamber, where the freezing p is avodat at a given speed. There is a method allows to determine the degree of frost heaving depending on the pressure of the base on the ground not only at pressures up to 50 kPa, but at any pressure exceeding 50 kPa, which, as a rule, are more common in the design of foundations in industrial and civil construction. The disadvantage of this method is that the study of frozen ground does not allow to assess soil stability to thermal erosion.

A device for determining the amount of frost heaving (RF patent 25518, publ. 10.10.2002), including a water tray for mounting samples with the ground, cylindrical shape of the rings, stamps, Missouri with the legs on the tripod, the vessel with water, connected with the pallet, the insulation between the sample and the wall of the refrigerator, and to improve the accuracy of determination of frost heaving pressure in small cold rooms of the factory manufacturing the height of the samples was increased to 140 mm, the lower ring samples of installed thermocouples, provided prigruzki to pieces of metal samples stamps with pressure of 20 and 50 kPa and on one of the samples fixed with two bolts to the pallet dynamometer. The use of the device allows you to test samples under stress. The disadvantage of this device is the inability to simulate the conditions of amorosino erosion of soils.

Known stand-alone device for testing soil frost (application for invention 2006111331, publ. 20.10.2007), comprising a housing with an internal insulation with capacity with the working fluid and a lid in the form of plates of insulating material with a thermal conductivity, lower thermal conductivity of test specimens, and the holes in it to accommodate cups with a perforated bottom, a glass sample to visually determine the depth of freezing of the test material, the indicators for measuring the deformation of frost heaving, the cover additionally executed cavity having a cover with insulation, racks, fixing the position of the cover relative level of water in the tank, grille, attached to the lid.

When using the known device it is impossible to determine the parameters of thermal erosion and to model himself thermal erosion.

There is a method of determining the resistance of soils to water erosion (A.S. 352216, publ. 21.11.1972), including erosion of undisturbed soil sample on its axis to cross-cutting erosion and determination of the indicator of the sustainability of soil to water erosion. However, this method does not allow to simulate horizontal thermal erosion of soils of the permafrost zone and does not include modeling of the soil with the given parameters the AMI and the temperature is freezing, i.e. forecasting situations with frozen soils in permafrost conditions when using this method impossible.

The closest in technical essence is a method and device for the study of regularities and mechanism up soil (A.G. Ananenkov, Staskin G.P., Lobastov S.A., I. Habibullin Ecological basis for land use in the exploration and development of gas and gas-condensate fields of the far North. - M.: Nedra, 2000. - s-139). The method includes pre-saturation of the soil sample with water, freezing the sample placed in a metal cell, at a fixed temperature, applying to the sample source channel, placement cell at a certain angle under vodopadami device. Then from the water-feeding device in ditch water with a specified flow rate and measured scour depth for a certain period of time. Ultimately is determined by the intensity of erosion depending on the time.

When using the known methods it is possible to define only part of the parameters characterizing the condition of the soil at up. In addition, placement of the cuvette with the sample of soil though and provides a constant temperature environment at the time of testing, but at the same time when opening the refrigerator for conducting the possible manipulation of the environmental conditions change dramatically, that significantly affects the accuracy of the measurements. Freezer also distorts temperature characteristics supplied and displaced from ground water, which also affects the accuracy of the measurements. In General, the known device is cumbersome and unproductive, does not provide a large number of tests and does not allow to simulate the conditions of the external environment.

The technical result of the invention is to provide a method for modeling thermal erosion of permafrost in the process of thawing, providing the definition of a set of parameters characterizing the process up of soils under the influence of the water flow.

The technical result is achieved in that in the method of modeling a horizontal thermal erosion of permafrost, including a preliminary placement of the soil sample in the cuvette, the saturation of the soil sample with water to the desired humidity, coating the surface of the sample flow hollows of a certain width and the freezing of the soil sample in the cuvette with lid in the refrigerating chamber to a predetermined temperature not less than one day, to stabilize the soil temperature field, the installation of the cell with the prepared soil sample open sector under vodopadami the device at an angle, depending on the specified parameters modeling the erosion of soil sample watercourse, according to the invention the width of the hollow flow, water temperature and flow rate of the watercourse for the purpose of exercising the modeling of external conditions, are adjustable, while the measurements of direct indicators of the depth of thawing and soil erosion, water temperature, width and depth of the water flow for a selected time interval on the basis of which are determined by indirect parameters of thermal erosion: the intensity of erosion, erosion resistance of the soil, the mechanical energy of water flow, thermal energy of water flow, heat flow consumed by the melting of frozen soil, the heat flux due to the dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the flow of water and frozen ground.

Stand for the implementation of the proposed method contains a cell with removable cover, vodopadami device, thermostat, sump silt component of the ground, thus further comprises a receiver displaced soil sieve, vodopadami device further comprises a valve, the cuvette is made double-walled, containing heat insulating material in the walls, has a movable screen, located in one of the vertical walls of the cuvette, thermostat is made by the heating and cooling of the feedwater, the stand is placed in the transparent box, the front wall to the who fitted sleeves, when this box is equipped with an adjustable source the temperature of the external environment.

Figure 1 presents a diagram of the facility for the implementation of the proposed method. Cuvette 1 in order to limit thermal effects of the environment on frozen soil 2 is made double-walled, equipped with a movable screen 1A, located in one of the vertical walls of the cuvette. In the space between the walls is placed a heat insulating material 16. The temperature of the water supplied to erosion, is regulated by thermostat 3, thermostat is designed as heated, and cooling water. To control the mechanical energy flow vodopadami device 4 is arranged to control the angle of the water supply provided by the valve 5, which allows you to set the flow rate of the water and the initial velocity of the stream. The receiver 6 provides the accumulation of made ground and is further provided with a sieve 6A, the hole diameter of which does not exceed 0,25 mm Tank silt component of the soil 7 provides a collection made of water and silt component of the soil. To exclude the impact of the environment stand is placed in the transparent box 8, the front wall of which is provided with a sleeve capable of performing the necessary manipulations and measurements. Also the box is equipped with an adjustable source the temperature of the external environment (n is an example, air conditioning with heating and cooling temperature), allowing to simulate the temperature conditions of the external environment (temperature and insolation).

The inventive method is carried out in the following sequence (figure 2). Block soil preparation: soil sample is placed in the cuvette filled with water to the desired humidity in the sample is laid trough drain and promarijuana in the refrigerator for at least one day, to stabilize the soil temperature field. Pre-defined initial parameters of soil: density of dry soil (mineral soil particles), porosity and water saturation according to GOST 5180-84 "Soils. Methods for laboratory determination of physical characteristics". The source parameters are the initial temperature of the samples of frozen soil and ice content.

Cuvette with prepared frozen ground is set to open a sector with an angle that mimics the slope, under vodopadami device, which provides a jet of water to soil erosion.

The control unit mechanical energy flow regulates the flow of water (and sets the initial value of the mechanical energy of the flow). The control unit of the heat content of the water regulates the temperature of the water and heat flow.

ENTRANCE. Water with a specified flow constant flow rate Q and a given temperature T enters cuvete - the camera for testing of frozen soils on thermal erosion. In the process of thawing and soil erosion, after a preset time interval is fixed (for example, a caliper, a special probe or other) depth of thawing and depth of soil erosion, as well as the width and the depth of the water flow. In the chamber of the testing of frozen soils on thermal erosion on the basis of direct measurements determined by indirect indicators of thermal erosion: the intensity of erosion, erosion resistance of the soil, the mechanical energy of water flow, thermal energy of water flow, heat flow consumed by the melting of frozen soil, the heat flux due to the dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the flow of water and frozen ground by the formulas:

1. The intensity of erosion:J=ΔlΔt(m/with a)where Δl depth of scour for the time interval Δt.

2. Erosion resistance of the soil (H):R=ρinQ32S2Jwhere ρInis the density of water (kg/m3), Q - supplies the d water (m 3/s), S is a cross section of water flow (m2), S=hb, where h is the depth of water flow (m), b is the width of the water flow (m).

3. The mechanical energy of water flow (j/m2s):Emex=12ρIn(QS)3.

4. thermal energy of the water flow EmenBCB(TB-TF)Q, where CB- the specific heat of water, TB- water temperature, defined as the average of the temperature at the inlet and outlet, Tf=273 K.

5. The heat flux required for melting frozen pound (W/m2):

q=GρLLdldt, where G is the ice content of the soil, ρlis the density of ice, L is the specific heat of melting of ice.

6. The heat flux due to the dissipation of mechanical energy (j/m2s):ED=ρB(QS)3(qc)2 , where q is the acceleration of free fall, with a coefficient of roughness is determined by the appearance of the bed of the watercourse from the hydraulic directories.

7. The coefficient of heat exchange between the flow of water and frozen ground (W/m2·To):α=JρLLGTB-TF.

OUTPUT. The output from the camera, the electronic thermometer is water temperature. In the receiver made ground is fixed mass of made ground. In the settling dust component of the soil is determined by an incremental mass of soil and volume of consumed water during the test. After testing the soil is dried and weighed.

The block definition of the integral parameters include end measure depth and width of the erosion, the volume of the displaced water, the mass of the displaced soil. These parameters allow us to estimate the integral characteristics of thermal erosion of permafrost: the volume and form gullies, the turbidity of the water flow.

The claimed method is implemented as follows.

For testing were selected fine silty Sands of the permafrost zone, widespread in the Northern fields, for example, is territorii Yamburg gas condensate field.

The table shows the properties of the disperse medium - fine silty sand of the permafrost zone. Granulometric composition of the sand was determined by mechanical analysis of soil sieve method.

The properties of the disperse medium - fine silty sand permafrost.

Granulometric compositionPorosityDensity, kg/m3
1-0 .5 mm0.4%
0.5 to 0.25 mm69.4%0,6161361
0,25-<mm33.6%

Electronic scales were weighed soil sample of 1000 g were placed in a cuvette, after which the sample was saturated with water for listorti G=10%. For uniform water saturation of the soil in the cuvette were mixed. Metal stamp has laid the initial trough of the flow of a certain width. Next, the sample was placed in the refrigerating chamber for freezing at a temperature -18,6°C and stayed there for at least a day, until the temperature field soil stabilized.

The cuvette was mounted outdoor sector under vodopadami the device at an angle of 15° to the horizontal surface, simulating the angle of the slope. Movable screen cuvette was placed in the upper position to provide water drainage and removal of soil in the receiver. From thermostat on vodopada device has entered the stream of water to soil erosion. In the process of soil erosion calipers were recorded depth of thawing and washing of the sample. The time of thawing and erosion was recorded by stopwatch. The output of the electronic thermometer recorded a temperature change of the water. Then the water with the soil received in the receiver and the sump.

Similarly simulated thermal erosion to listorti 15%, 20%.

Each experiment conducted with three replications. The relative error averaged ~2%, a maximum of 3.9%. The absolute error of measurement of the depth of erosion was 0.5 mm.

Simulation parameters up are shown in table 1, 2.

Thus, the proposed method of modeling horizontal thermal erosion of permafrost and stand for its implementation will allow to determine the stability of frozen ground to up in thermal destruction of frozen ground water flows. In addition, the inventive method and stand allow saving the political research process up, also the study of the relationship up and the temperature field of the frozen ground in a wide range of internal and external environmental factors, with adjustable are the mechanical energy flow in the soil, the impact of additional energy flow of thermal energy or heat content, which allows to determine the parametric characteristics of resistance to washout frozen dispersive soils of the permafrost zone.

Table 1
Modeling up with regard to the dissipation of mechanical energy
the number of seriesG ice content,
%
The temperature of the water,Dispersed soilConsumption Q. 10-6m3/sTime experience withConsumption Q.
Th.Of twig.ΔTM0dry. g, gΔm made of soil, 10-3kg10-6m3/s
1 20273273,9-0,9763600,97
274,0-1270,883600,94
273,5-0,5503601.08
220273273,7a-0.7323601.66
273,3-0,31000 263,133602,08
273,5-0,5403601,88
320273273,7a-0.71203604,53
273,4-0,41144,873604,5
273,4-0,41213604,08

Table 2
Modeling up with regard to the dissipation of mechanical energy
the number of seriesG ice content,
%
The temperature of the water,Dispersed soilConsumption Q. 10-6m3/sTime experience withConsumption Q.
Th.Of twig.ΔTm0dry. g, gΔm made of soil, 10-3kg10-6m3/s
120273273,9-0,9763600,97
274,0-127,88 3600,94
273,5-0,5503601,08
220273273,7a-0.7323601,66
273,3-0,31000263,133602,08
273,5-0,5403601,88
320 273273,7a-0.71203604,53
273,4-0,41144,873604,5
273,4-0,41213604,08

1. The method of modelling of horizontal thermal erosion of permafrost, including a preliminary placement of the soil sample in the cuvette, the saturation of the soil sample with water to the desired humidity, coating the surface of the sample flow hollows of a certain width and the freezing of the soil sample in the cuvette with lid in the refrigerating chamber to a predetermined temperature not less than one day, the installation of the cell with the prepared soil sample open sector under vodopadami the device at an angle, which depending on the specified parameters of the simulation, erosion and the soil sample watercourse, characterized in that the width of the hollow flow, water temperature and flow rate of the watercourse are adjustable, while the measurements of direct indicators of the depth of thawing and soil erosion, water temperature, width and depth of the water flow for a selected time interval on the basis of which are determined by indirect parameters of thermal erosion: the intensity of erosion, erosion resistance of the soil, the mechanical energy of water flow, thermal energy of water flow, heat flow consumed by the melting of frozen soil, the heat flux due to the dissipation of mechanical energy, heat transfer coefficient between the flow of water and frozen ground on formula:
the intensity of erosion:(m/s), where Δl depth of scour for the time interval Δt;
erosion resistance of the soil (N):where ρBis the density of water (kg/m3), Q is the water flow (m3/s), S is a cross section of water flow (m2), S=hb, where h is the depth of water flow (m), b is the width of the water flow (m);
the mechanical energy of water flow (j/m2c):
thermal energy of the water flow FtenBCB(TB-TF)Q, where CIn- the specific heat of water, TB- water temperature, defined as SREDNEE fetichista the temperature at the inlet and outlet, TF=273 K;
heat flow consumed for melting the frozen ground (W/m2):
where G is the ice content of the soil, ρlis the density of ice, L is the specific heat of ice melting;
the heat flux due to the dissipation of mechanical energy (j/m2c):
where g is the acceleration of free fall, with a coefficient of roughness is determined by the appearance of the bed of the watercourse from the hydraulic handbooks;
the coefficient of heat exchange between the flow of water and frozen ground (W/m2·K):



 

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FIELD: mining.

SUBSTANCE: device to measure speed and direction of soil motion relative to an underground pipeline comprises a metering telescopic two-link lever with a sensor of elongation, a hinged joint, a unit of movements count. A hinged joint and a metering telescopic two-link lever are placed into a protective flexible case, besides, the metering sliding two-link lever in the case is fixed with the help of spring centralisers, and also in the metering telescopic two-link lever there is a unit of unlocking of a cord of elongation of the metering telescopic two-link lever.

EFFECT: provision of long-term fault-free operation of a device and convenience of its service without labour intensive earth works.

1 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.

EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.

FIELD: measurement equipment.

SUBSTANCE: device for soil deformation measurement comprises a deformation-sensitive sensor optical cable, a measurement block connected with a cable, anchors connected to a cable and soil and is equipped with a system of cable protection against damage, including a safety fuse within each anchor, which actuates in case, when the force acting at the side of the anchor at the sensor cable exceeds the specified value.

EFFECT: provision of the possibility to limit a force transferred with an anchor to a sensor cable, in process of anchors displacement relative to each other, caused by soil movements, regardless of soil properties, which may be known unaccurately or change with time.

6 cl, 9 dwg

Sampler // 2484207

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: sampler comprises a sampling bushing made with the possibility to increase its cross section in process of sample withdrawal, a facility for sampling bushing insertion into a tested material. The sampling bushing is made from two chutes, longitudinal edges of which are equipped with alternating rectangular ledges and grooves, at the same time location of ledge section in one chute corresponds to location of second chute grooves, besides, loops are formed from the ledges of the chute edges, longitudinal axes of holes of which are parallel to the longitudinal axis of the chute and coaxial to longitudinal axes of the second chute loops. Chutes are coupled with each other by means of longitudinal edges. Through holes of the loops at each longitudinal edge of the chute there is a rod pulled, one end of which is equipped with a head, the section of which is more than the section of the hole, and the second end of the rod is equipped with threading, is pulled through holes of the slab made as capable of fixation on the vibrator and is fixed with a nut, at the same time the free end of the sampling bushing is equipped with a circular pad from magnetic material.

EFFECT: provision of integrity of an initial structure of a material sample during its withdrawal from a tested massif of a placer mine, provision of the possibility for material sampling from depth that is more than 2-3 m.

4 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: construction.

SUBSTANCE: method is carried out by means of heading of containers, such as a cutting cylinder, onto a monolith. At the same time previously the soil is sampled. For this purpose a site is chosen, and in its centre a circular trench is dug with depth of not more than by 25 mm lower than the height of the cutting cylinder, belting the untouched soil, representing a truncated cone in shape, the diameter of the upper base of which is by 10…15 cm more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder, and the diameter of the lower base is more than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder by 15…25 cm. From the soil left untouched the monolith is cut with the diameter of at least by 6 mm smaller than the inner diameter of the cutting cylinder and the height that is at least by 25 mm smaller than the cylinder height. At the same time the cylinder is periodically put on the monolith, using it as a template to monitor the diameter of the cut monolith. After cutting of the monolith and putting of the cutting cylinder on it, the cylinder is pushed into soil, until its upper layer levels with the monolith surface. In the space between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder and the outer surface of the monolith four Z-shaped supporting monolith-supporting plates are inserted with height equal to 3/4 of the cutting cylinder height. Evenly they are distributed along the cylinder perimetre and put on its upper edge. The slot between the inner surface of the cutting cylinder, the soil monolith and its supporting plates is filled with a molten waterproof material, having lower temperature of melting, for instance, a mineral wax. Afterwards the monolith is cut at the bottom at the lower edge of the cylinder, it is installed on the solid surface, packed and delivered to the area of filtration tests performance.

EFFECT: increased accuracy of soil filtration coefficient detection and accuracy of establishment of land reclamation system parameters, efficiency of using reclaimed soils, expanded zone of application of monoliths for detection of filtration coefficient.

3 dwg

FIELD: engineering investigations in building, particularly devices for determining deformation and strength properties of ground in well.

SUBSTANCE: device comprises probe (working tip), control-rod, pipeline, communication line, loading jig and measuring station. Probe includes hollow cylindrical body with bottom and cap filled with working liquid, elastic shell sealed from body bottom and top. Formed in non-fixed elastic shell area are perforations. Piston with rod is installed in upper part of hollow body above working liquid. Rod passes through cap in sealed manner. Rod is connected with control rod so that piston may move in axial direction. Formed above piston is cavity connected to pipeline. Hollow body has bottom in which air-tight plug is installed. Measuring device is made as linear piston displacement transducer. Through orifices are formed in hollow body wall near body bottom. Arranged from body outside are vertical or inclined grooves aligned with through orifices by lower ends thereof. Air-tight plug is provided with adjustable rest for restricting piston stroke.

EFFECT: simplified structure of probe and measuring devices, increased operational reliability and improved validity of obtained data.

2 cl, 1 dwg

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