Damless submersible modular universal coastal hydroelectric power station and energy complex consisting of several modular hydroelectric power stations united by common platform
SUBSTANCE: hydroelectric power station comprises a pipe-water passage 2 with a hydraulic turbine 6 mounted in it, connected to the generator 7. The pipe-water passage 2 is mounted in the water reservoir and laid on the bottom of the water reservoir to the platform 8 attached to the coast. The pipe-water passage 2 is additionally provided in the upper part, which rises above the water reservoir level, with the axial pump 9 with a controllable pitch propeller. The hydraulic turbine 6 is mounted in the lower part of the pipe-water passage. The pipe-water passage 2 is fixed at the bottom of the water reservoir and has the openings 4 for entry of water. The energy complex consists of several hydroelectric power stations united by the common platform and having the necessary capacity adjustable by turning on and off the pumps.
EFFECT: group of inventions enables to produce electrical energy in different climatic conditions, with the possibility of increasing the unit capacity by increasing the length of the waterfront of the hydroelectric power station.
8 cl, 5 dwg
The invention relates to hydropower, namely to generate electricity. The objective of the invention is the creation of a dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power and energy complex, consisting of several modular hydro power plants, United by a common platform and with the necessary power adjustable with power on-off pumps.
Hydraulic power plant (HPP) is used for the generation of electric energy force of falling water. There are three known types (HPP) [(1) p.16-17]; hydroelectric power plants (HPP), tidal hydroelectric power plant (TPP), pumped storage plant (PSP).
Technological scheme of production of electrical energy, hydroelectric power, comprising: artificially created a dam, a man-made reservoir (top water), penstock with hydro generator that produces electrical energy, the lower reach, where the piece flows water. The greater the height difference between the upper and lower pools, the more power generates the hydrogenerator [(1) p.16 RIS]. The above energy facilities operating in this technological scheme, have many drawbacks:
1. The construction of artificial dams and reservoirs requires a large share of investment is th.
2. Long terms of producing hydroelectric power station.
3. The loss of large land areas.
4. Damage to fisheries due to discharges and the rising level of the pool in the spawning period.
5. Applied environmental harm in the form of pollution.
6. The impossibility of stopping the process.
Designed dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power plant and energy complex (BEABLES and EK) are designed to address many of the above disadvantages.
The objective of the invention and the technical result achieved is to create a dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power and energy complex (JPMORGAN and EC), consisting of several modular hydro power plants, United by a common platform and having the necessary power, adjustable with on / off pumps that use an inexhaustible source of energy water (ocean, sea, lake, reservoir), capable of generating electrical energy, in different climatic conditions, at low specific investment cost of 1 kW of installed capacity, with the possibility of increasing the plant capacity by increasing the length of the pressure front HPS, and use raised from a depth of cold water in the system is Birmingham (OTEC-closed type), and the air-conditioning system to create comfortable conditions in homes in the warmer months.
The basis of the work developed (JPMORGAN and EC) based on a property of a homogeneous liquid-water (working fluid), placed in the communicating vessels, to occupy a position of stable equilibrium (Figure 1).
The pressure P1 and P2 depend on the fluid density, the acceleration of gravity and the height of the column [(2) article 53-54 section 1. Statics (1.55)]... "the pressure does not depend on the shape of the post and is determined by only the height"...
Assuming h1=h2 pressure at the lowest point connected to the vessel will be P1=P2 (1)
Reducing the height h in any branch of communicating vessels will disrupt the equality of pressures P1≠P2 and the motion of a homogeneous liquid-water (working fluid) to a state of stable equilibrium, in which h1=h2 and P1=P2. Installed at the lowest point of communicating vessels turbine with an electric generator converts the energy of motion of a homogeneous liquid - water (working fluid) into electrical energy. Known energosberegaushie pneumatic-hydraulic turbine (patent RF №2120058 F03B 17/02, 10.10.1998)containing axial propeller impeller, installed in a cylindrical enclosure with a closed bottom part, using turbines on land or with the lower open part, when using a turbine in the water, and Dasavali apparatus, through which is supplied compressed air, through which the water circulates and is extracted energy.
Known pneumatic-hydraulic turbine (patent RF №2170364 F03B 17/02, of 10.07.2001)containing a cylindrical housing connected to a source of compressed air. In the cylindrical housing has two conduit representing communicating vessels, on which the moving water, which is due to the conversion of the energy of compressed air is constantly circulating in the conduits. With the help of turbines energy of moving water is converted into electricity.
Known double-hulled pneumatic-hydraulic turbine (patent RF №2376494 F03B 17/02, from 20.12.2009.), containing cylindrical body placed in it impellers, which is filled with water and connected to a source of compressed air. Building on the lower and the upper level is connected peritonei pipelines. Obtained a closed system of communicating vessels, which moves water and converted into electricity.
The above devices convert energy of motion of water in a closed system of communicating vessels into electricity. However, this method has its drawbacks. The use of compressed air can be justified up to a certain limit. Using a large number of units for conversion, which reduces the efficiency.
The known is a special unit [Schapov NM "The turbine equipment of hydropower plants", M,-L, Gosenergoizdat, 1961, s-283, 16-24(4)], in which the casing of the generator is placed in the turbine chamber and is secured to the bottom shaft Assembly rests on the casing. It is based getcollationkey the leader of elpastorculion turbine. Water through a guide device on the impeller is fed from the bottom and is removed through the pipe is the conduit through the suction device, located above the impeller. In this unit efficiency is achieved through the best use of pressure. Described micro-hydro power is a "siphon unit with a rising water drainage". He starts pumping of the air pipe. The cap Assembly for small loads 70-74%.
The disadvantage is the creation of a deep pressure in the suction unit. For normal operation of the siphon is necessary that the minimum absolute pressure in the pipe of the siphon must be less than the pressure of vaporization. If you increase the height of the head, this can lead to the escape of air from the water to boiling of the liquid at low pressure". Installation is a prototype.
Also known vodotovka machine [(4) p.15], which uses fluid pressure, so if one of the branches of communicating vessels to change the liquid level, it will lead to a reduction in pressure in the limb and movement Jew the spine until while the levels and pressures are balanced.
To achieve a technical result in the development of dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power and energy complex redesigned suction apparatus (see figure 2). In the upper part of the pipe-conduit 2 additionally set the bend in the side of the pond, on which the pump 9.
Designed dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power plant and energy complex (JPMORGAN and EK) is a modified flow diagram, in which the hydraulic pressure on the turbine is generated when the movement of a homogeneous liquid - water (working fluid) to a position of stable equilibrium, from the bottom of the communicating vessels to the top point and return of water to the reservoir, where h1 becomes h2. One branch communicating vessels is water (ocean, sea, lake, reservoir) - an inexhaustible source of homogeneous liquid-water (working fluid) 1. The second branch communicating vessels is a pipe-conduit 2, is shown in (Figure 2)in which is mounted (JPMORGAN and EC), the installed capacity of hydropower will depend on the depth of immersion of the turbine, located in the lower part of the pipe-conduit 2. The lower part of the pipe-conduit 2 ends of the platform 3, which established aetsa on the bottom of the reservoir (ocean, sea, lake, reservoir). In the pipe-conduit 2, above pad 3 made of the inlet openings 4 for the passage of a homogeneous liquid-water (working fluid) 1 inside the pipe-conduit 2, closed enclosing the grid 5. Above the inlet 4 is installed turbine 6 is connected to a generator 7. Pipe-conduit 2 is installed in a body of water, laid on the bottom of the reservoir to the platform 8, fixed on the shore and is further provided with the upper rising above the level of the reservoir portion, an axial pump 9 with a controllable pitch propeller. Mounted axial pump 9, the blades of which are immersed in a homogeneous liquid-water (working fluid) 1 to a depth of 1-2 meters. The upper part of the pipe-conduit rises above the surface of a pond 1-3 m, with the height of the tide, and has a bend in the side of the pond. Set the pump 9, pumping the water from the pipe-conduit 2 [e.g., axial variable CPP and efficiency 0.8-0.86, lifting height of 6-8 m (3)], is driven by either an electric motor or a turbine (not shown). The power expended in lifting water from the upper part of the pipe-conduit 2 to a height of 1-3 meters, significantly less (2-10 kW)than power generated by the hydro generator. With the help of the pump 9 of the water-filled pipe-conduit 2 is pumped out water (working fluid) 1 in water and decreases the level of water (working fluid) 1 in the pipe conduit is 2. The pump 9 pumps out water from the pipe-conduit 2, with performance equal to or greater than the water flow turbines (l/s, m3/hour). The movement of water in the pipe-conduit 2 will cause rotation of the turbine and the power generator.
Designed dam submersible modular onshore hydroelectric power plant and energy complex are as follows. Mounted according to Figure 2, 3, and description. Pipe-conduit 2 is installed in a body of water, laid on the bottom of the reservoir to the platform 8, fixed on the shore, and is further provided with the upper rising above the level of the reservoir portion, an axial pump 9 with a controllable pitch propeller. Pipe-conduit 2 is filled with water. Run the pump 9 variable performance due to the controllable pitch propeller (CPP). The water begins to move and gradually the performance is brought to the calculated value, is excited generator and induces the production of electricity and served load. The pump is run from an independent source. When you stop is the reverse process. If the pump is immediately stopped, can occur hammer and the destruction of the pump. To increase the generated power is used and energy complex, consisting of several generators that are included in the parallel operation, the switched-off by means of pumps.
On IG diagram shows the connection of several pipes and conduits 2 in the energy complex is to increase generating capacity. Pipe-conduits 2 is installed in a body of water, laid on the bottom of the reservoir to the platform 8, fixed on the shore, and is further provided with the upper rising above the level of the reservoir part, axial pumps with controllable pitch propellers. With axial pumps 9 pumped water (working fluid) 1 from the pipe-conduit 2. Depending on the required power uses a different number of pipes and conduits 2, which are turned on or off by means of pumps 9. On this platform 8 can be additionally installed wind turbines (not shown).
(Figure 4) shows the use of cold water drawn from the depths of the ocean, in the system conversion ocean thermal energy and to obtain additional electric energy (OTEC - Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion) is intended for recovery of thermal energy from the ocean, using the effect of a difference of temperatures of the water at different depths, i.e. the temperature gradient of the ocean. [(6)].
The implementation of this technological scheme is carried out using a pipe-conduit 2, is installed on the bottom of the reservoir (ocean, sea, lake, reservoir) using the platform 3. Pipe-conduit 2 is installed in the pond and laid on the bottom of the reservoir to the platform 8, fixed on the shore and is further provided with the upper rising above the level of the reservoir part, axial pump with controllable pitch propeller. In the system (OTEC for ryogo type), the working fluid is a liquid with a low boiling point, circulating in a closed loop. Using the circulation pump 13 liquid with a low boiling point passes the heat exchanger 14, is heated by the ocean water enters the turbine 15, turns into steam and turns a turbine and coupled with the electric generator 16. Produced electrical energy goes into the electrical network 17. Work, the steam enters the condenser 12, is cooled with cold water, raised from the bottom of the reservoir, and further along the closed loop. The working body 1 is pumped from the pipe-conduit 2 by a pump 9, passes the bend and into the reservoir. In the path of movement of water has the capacitor 12 from the system OTEC - closed type (highlighted by the dotted line 11)(Figure 4).
Technological scheme of using chilled water drawn from a depth of, for air conditioning systems in homes in the warmer months is depicted in Figure 5.
Water (working fluid) 1 raised by the pump 9, leaving the pipe-conduit 2 enters the tank 18, which is below the level of the reservoir (ocean, sea, lake, reservoir). The circulation pump 19 water (working fluid) 1 is pumped to a water tower 20, which is above the houses, where gravity drains into the home 22 and passing through the heat exchanger 21, is returned to the reservoir.
The health of besplat is authorized submersible modular coastal hydropower and energy complex (JPMORGAN and EK) is confirmed by the following calculations (data conditional). The method of calculation is described in [(5) example 5]... 5. In the turbine, the efficiency of which ηT=75 comes QT=200 l of water per second from a height of h=2,04 m What power gives the generator with an efficiency of ηG=0,85 associated with the turbine through a gearbox with an efficiency of ηP=0,90. QT=200 l/s=720 m3/hour.
Supplied to the turbine power is calculated by the formula
PT1= the power delivered to the turbine
QT= mass of water passing through the turbine
h = height of water
The shaft power of the turbine (PT2)
Power on the secondary shaft of the gearbox (PP)
The power delivered by the generator (PT2)
The overall efficiency of the unit
Determine how to vary the capacity of hydropower from the pond depth
|PG=0,57·196 kW ≈111 kW|
|h2=300 m||PG=335 kW|
|h3=500 m||PG≈559 kW|
|h4=1000 m||PG=11628 kW|
|h5=2000 m||PG=11628 kW·2=23256 kW|
|h6=3000 m||PG=11628 kW·3=34884 kW|
|h7=4000 m||PPolicy number G27=11628 kW·4=46512 kW|
|h8=11000||PG=11628 kW·11=2790 kW|
Calculate the pump power required to provide the specified performance of the turbine QT=200 l/s=720 m3/hour. The method of calculating [(5) example 11]... 11. Centrifugal pump pumps 20 liters of water per second from a depth of 5 m at a height of 10 meters, How much power is consumed by electric motor with an efficiency of η∂=0,85 and the pump efficiency ηn=0,70.
The output power of the pump (PH2)
The shaft power of the pump (useful power of the engine) (P∂2)
Absorbed motor power (P∂1)
For developed JPMORGAN and EC produced a calculation of absorbed motor power, provided that the height of rise of water (working fluid) for pumping it out of the pipe conduit in the reservoir h=5 m (data conditional).
The shaft power of the pump (P∂2)
Absorbed motor power (P∂1)
Based on the above calculations, it can be a table, which will bring together results
P∂1- value, constant for a given pipe conduit.
When installing JPMORGAN and EK to a depth of h1=100 m can get useful power PG=111 kW 16,5 kW=94,5 kW
|Summary table of calculation of power and energy complex for different depths installation BEABLES in the reservoir and a different number of pipes and conduits|
|PGwhen 1 pipe conduit, kW||PG3 pipe conduits, kW||Installed capacity, Pmouth=PG·24 hours·365 d, MW·h per year|
The problem posed by the invention, is made. Designed dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power plant and energy complex (JPMORGAN and EK) correspond to the declared name, technical calculations and description of structures are illustrated by figures 1 to 5, and prove the efficiency of the device.
Designed dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power plant and energy complex has the following positive characteristics:
1. No artificial dams and artificial reservoirs.
2. Low specific investments
3. Extended area setting (ocean, sea, lake, drifting ice floes.)
4. The possibility of increasing generating capacity.
5. Do not use fossil fuel, solar, nuclear, tidal, and wind energy.
6. The vastness of hydroresources.
7. Environmental safety.
8. A simple diagram of a start, stop and regulate generation capacity.
9. Improving comfort and security the spine of the housing.
List of used sources
1. Sibichen UD, Sibichen M. non-traditional renewable energy sources. Educational publication. 2nd ed. use and supplementary): FE of Radiosoftware, 2009.
2. NI cat and MG Shirkevich "Handbook of elementary physics". Sixth edition, stereotyped. Publishing house "Nauka", Moscow, 1974
3. Cherepanov BE Marine auxiliary and commercial mechanisms, systems and their operation". - M.: Agropromizdat, 1986.
4. Shchapov NM "Turbine equipment of hydropower plants", M, -L, Gosenergoizdat, 1961, s-283, 16-24,
5. Melusin, Examples and tasks in electrical engineering: TRANS. Slovak edited by BJ Zhukhovitsky. - M.: Energy, 1979.
6. The Magazine "Popular Mechanics". August. 2011, P.54-59.
1. Dam submersible modular universal onshore hydroelectric power plant containing a pipe, conduit installed in her a turbine connected to a generator, characterized in that the pipe-conduit installed in a body of water, laid on the bottom of the reservoir to the platform fixed on the shore, and is further provided with the upper rising above the level of the reservoir part, axial pump with controllable pitch propeller, turbine is installed at the bottom of the pipe conduit, the latter being secured to the bottom of the reservoir and has openings for the entrance of water.
2. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the set is built hydroelectric power depends on the depth of the water in the pond.
3. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the upper part of the pipe-conduit rises above the level of the reservoir at 1-3 m, with the height of the tide, and has a bend in the side of the pond.
4. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that as the reservoir is used ocean, sea, lake.
5. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the movement of water in the pipe-conduit comes from the bottom of the entry point in a pipe conduit to the surface of a pond, in accordance with the property of communicating vessels, with the return to the reservoir.
6. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the raised from the depth of the water at a low temperature, can be used in the system conversion ocean thermal energy (OTEC - closed type).
7. The hydroelectric power plant according to claim 1, characterized in that the raised from the depth of the water at a low temperature, can be used for air conditioning systems of residential houses in the warmer months.
8. Energy complex, consisting of several hydropower plants according to claim 1, United by a common platform and with the necessary power adjustable with power on-off pumps.
FIELD: power industry.
SUBSTANCE: transferred medium, air inlet is made in the form of knee pipe, vertical part of which is rigidly attached in ice and faces air, while horizontal part with a diffuser is located under ice along water flow. Air intake with ventilator and generator plant inside is tightly attached to the loose end of vertical part of knee pipe.
EFFECT: simple hydro-electric plant applicable for electric power generation from hydraulic energy of river flow under ice.
2 cl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: submersible microhydro power plant for electric energy generation includes hydraulic turbine with vertical rotation axis connected to electric generator, also it includes water flow formers and device protecting against floating objects. Lower end of runner shaft 3 is connected directly to generator shaft 17 by means of splined joint. Thrust bearing of runner is rigidly fixed in upper cover of electric generator housing 15 so that it is simultaneously a pilot bearing for electric generator. Electric generator is end-type, water-filled and is located under hydraulic turbine. Hydraulic turbine housing 1 and electric generator housing 15 form single structure monoblock.
EFFECT: reducing dimensions and weight, generating cheaper electric energy due to absence of investments to plants building, simplifying structure and erection works method, reducing maintenance costs.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: power plant comprises one or several energy units, comprising a body with a diffuser, a wind wheel or an impeller with blades, a power generator, a gear from a wind wheel to a power generator, including two pairs of conical gears, the first and second shafts. Each energy unit comprises a master conical gear fixed on the outlet end of the first shaft, two slave conical gears, each connected with its overrunning clutch, slave links of which are fixed on the second shaft connected via a multiplier and an elastic coupling with a power generator. The multiplier may be made in the form of a planetary row, the carrier of which is connected with the second shaft, a solar gear is connected to the power generator via an elastic coupling. The plant may be equipped with a manual and automatic controller of power generator rotation speed, the mechanical part of which is made in the form of a planetary row, the solar gear of which is connected to the output shaft of the multiplier, an epicycle is connected with the worm gear wheel, the worm of which is connected to an actuating motor, and the carrier of the planetary row via a row of kinematic links is connected to a conical geared wheel that sits as movable on the shaft of the impeller and is engaged with gears that sit on axes and connected with blades.
EFFECT: plant is reliable to overloads under storm weather conditions.
22 cl, 5 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: turbine plant comprises a blading 11, which includes curved blades, an inner end of each one is closed in a cavity 14, open at one side; and a generator 20, arranged in the cavity 14 and connected with the blading 11. Each curved blade has a dynamic structure and is made as capable of increase in size under action of hydrostatic pressure and with the capability of compression under action of counterpressure.
EFFECT: simplified design and efficient operation.
2 cl, 7 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: flow-through power generator of horizontal type comprises a stator and a rotor placed on a single axis with a turbine driven by water flow forces. The rotor is made as hollow. The inner cavity of the rotor is formed as a Laval nozzle. Turbine blades are fixed inside the cavity and are directed towards the axis of rotation, being arranged along the inner surface of the rotor following helical lines. The submerged power plant on the stationary platform comprises a group of power generators installed towards the water flow on stationary supports. Supports for installation of power generators have location beds equipped with receiving cones and are arranged at the distance that is multiple to the length of the power generator section. Power generators are installed at the different depth from the water surface.
EFFECT: development of a simple and reliable power generator and a submerged power plant with easy maintenance.
8 cl, 3 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: power system comprises a wind power or a hydraulic power turbine 1, connected with a generator 2. The generator 2 has at least two windings 3 of the stator. Each winding 3 of the stator is connected accordingly to one rectifying element 4. Each winding 3 of the stator is connected to the side of AC voltage of the connected rectifying element 4. Each rectifying element 4 is connected accordingly to one circuit 5 of energy accumulation. Each rectifying element 4 at the side of DC voltage is connected in parallel with the connected circuit 5 of energy accumulation. Circuits 5 of energy accumulation are connected to each other in sequence.
EFFECT: simplified design and higher reliability of a power system.
24 cl, 4 dwg
FIELD: machine building.
SUBSTANCE: unit comprises a vertical tower 1 with a jet-directing blade device 2 arranged in a side wall to form a swirled vortex-like motion of a moving medium flow inside the tower 1 as running over the tower 1. At the side of one of the tower 1 ends into the axial area of the latter to reinforce rotation there is an output section 3 of a channel 4 introduced in direction of the motion of the medium rotating inside the tower. In the channel 4 there is an orthogonal multilevel turbine. The channel 4 at the section from the inlet to the turbine is arranged as narrowing. Each level of the turbine is arranged with arrow-shaped blades, bent along helical lines and symmetrically inclined from the area of coupling of adjacent level blades in the form of an arrowhead in the direction opposite to the blades of the adjacent turbine level. Ends of blades of the adjacent turbine levels are fixed on a ring arranged between adjacent levels of the turbine. The section 3 of the channel 4 is arranged with the axis parallel to direction of the vortex motion inside the tower 1.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of a power generating unit due to increased coefficient of using kinetic energy of air or water approach flow.
7 cl, 7 dwg
SUBSTANCE: system of autonomous bridge lighting comprises a hydropower plant connected to a source of light and installed under water and comprising a reactive screw 1, a power generator 2, a planetary multiplier 4, arranged on a single shaft 3 between 1 and the power generator 2, and a garbage-protecting grid 6. The shaft 3 is arranged along a river watercourse. The screw 1, the multiplier 4 and the power generator 2 are installed in a single body 5 with expanded inlet and outlet holes. The grid 6 is installed in front of the screw 3 in the inlet hole of the body 5. The plant is fixed on a bridge support 7 on guides 9 as capable of vertical displacement and fixation. The system comprises a voltage frequency converter 13, connected with the power generator 2 and the light source, and a accumulator 14, connected with the converter 13, and is also equipped with a hoist 10, connected with the body 5. The converter 13, the accumulator 14 and the hoist 10 are installed on a mounting site 11, mounted into the upper part of the bridge support 7.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of a lighting system due to increased speed of river watercourse as it flows around a support and increased frequency of power generator shaft rotation.
3 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: in a power-generating device a hydraulic turbine and a synchronous power generator (3) make an assembly moving jointly with a rotor (7) of the generator. The generator rotor (7) comprises poles with permanent magnets (1). The hydraulic turbine is arranged of propeller type or Kaplan type. Hydraulic turbine blades (11) are either fixed as capable of adjustment in process of installation or are arranged as controllable by means of mechanisms of hydraulic or electric systems. The central shaft of the device is installed with the possibility to adjust its position in longitudinal and radial directions relative to the specified assembly. The generator rotor (7) is sealed and fully submerged into water, allowing for presence of water in a gap (10) between the rotor and stator of the power generator. The device additionally comprises external electronic, electromechanical or hydraulic equipment for control of electric voltage and frequency.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to simplify maintenance of a device and reduce its frequency.
22 cl, 19 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power plant is a floating facility fixed by cables 2 with supports 3 on the shore, comprising one row and more turbines 4, installed in parallel on hollow platforms 7, changing into sharp edges along the vertical line in a fore part. Shafts of turbines 4 are installed in bearing supports 6 as capable of vertical displacement and are kinematically connected to a power generator 8 and starting-regulating equipment 9. There are sprockets 14 installed on shafts of turbines 4 and connected by chains 15 to each other. Upstream the floating facility 1 there is a filter 19 in the form of a wedge for discharge of objects. Blades of turbines 4 are crescent-shaped and are fixed to bodies of shafts so that their edges form a sharp angle with a water mirror. Hollow platforms 7 have a trapezoidal shape in their cross section, changing into sharp edges along the vertical line in a rear part. Vertical stands 20 of the filter 19 installed fixedly at a distance from the floating facility 1 are equipped with rollers as capable of cranking. The power generator 8 and the starting-regulating equipment 9 are installed on the shore.
EFFECT: higher efficiency, safety of operation and maintenance of a power plant.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic power plant of conveyor type submerged into a fluid medium comprises a frame with at least two pairs of guides and shafts installed on it at the opposite sides as capable of rotation. One of the shafts is kinematically connected with a power generator. A flexible element that embraces the shafts is made in the form of a closed chain gear with fixed blades equipped with axes and rollers. The hydraulic power plant is placed in a channel equipped with gateways along the flow with partial submersion of the body into the fluid medium. The flexible element comprises joined links-carriages with combined blades, which consist of at least four V-shaped plates arranged in pairs opposite to each other. Plates in each pair are parallel to each other. Shafts are placed at different levels, and wheels are installed at their ends. Wheels of the shaft arranged below are made as geared and of smaller diameter compared to wheels of the other shaft. The shaft with wheels of the smaller diameter is arranged upstream compared to the shaft with wheels of larger diameter.
EFFECT: increased reliability and capacity of a hydraulic power plant.
4 cl, 6 dwg
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in construction of hydraulic power plants in any area. The method includes construction of a cascade of water reservoirs with small capacity that are built at side river affluents, in area folds or in ravines, aside from the main river bed. Water reservoirs and their dams are arranged at one or both sides of the river at such distance from each other so that water horizons of each subsequent water reservoir of the cascade, starting from the river head, are lower than the bottom of the previous one. All water reservoirs of the cascade are connected to each other by discharge water conduits, water intakes of which are arranged in the lowest points of the dam of the previous water reservoir, and the end, with a hydraulic turbines or hydraulic turbines, for instance, active, cone and generators, on the dam or shores of the subsequent water reservoir, with drainage of water in it from the turbines. The first water intake of the HPP cascade is made, for instance, as a side one from the main river bed.
EFFECT: invention provides for river protection as an HPP is constructed on it in its original form, reduced adverse effects from water reservoirs, preserved ecology of the area, where the HPP is being built, provides for the possibility to obtain high HPP capacities from the river without accumulation of high amount of water in water reservoirs, and elimination of domino effect in damage of one or several dams of the HPP cascade.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of power engineering and may be used in return systems of water supply to thermal power plants with a cooling pond. The method includes discharge of warm water into the cooling pond, its cooling and intake of cooled water. To reduce temperature of water taken, barriers are installed onto the bottom of the cooling pond between the discharge and water-intake channels in the amount from 1 to 3, one end of which rests against the shore of the cooling pond of the thermal power plant, and the other one stretches towards the centre of the water area of the cooling pond. Installed barriers forward the natural flow of the circulating water from the thermal power plant shore to the centre of the pond. The height of barriers exceeds the water level in the pond by 0.5 m.
EFFECT: higher efficiency of cooling of discharged circulating water of a thermal power plant.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to hydraulic engineering and may be used in construction of hydraulic power plants in restricted conditions. The proposed task is solved by the fact that the proposed design of the hydraulic power plant building may locate a large number of units arranged in the horizontal plane at one elevation. The hydraulic power plant includes a turbine hall 1 and hydraulic units 2 arranged in rows. Hydraulic units 2 are arranged in one horizontal plane so that hydraulic units of the next row are placed in the gaps between hydraulic units of the previous row. Arrangement of hydraulic units in two rows, spiral chambers of which are displaced relative to each other, makes it possible to approach axes of the units towards to each other, and thus to reduce length of the HPP turbine hall. Arrangement of the hydraulic power plant building may be across the river bed or at the angle to the river bed.
EFFECT: reduced length of an HPP building results in reduction of capital intensity of the entire hydraulic engineering facility.
3 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: method to control a hydraulic accumulating station (HAS), comprising at least two energy systems, one of which is energy excessive, the other one - energy deficit, and at least two units, on the shaft of each one there is a reversible electric machine and a reversible hydraulic machine, consists in the fact that stator windings of the electric machine of the first unit are connected to the first energy system in the motor mode with the hydraulic machine in the pump mode. Stator windings of the electric machine of the first unit are connected to the energy excessive system. Simultaneously stator windings of the electric machine of the second unit are connected to the energy deficit system in the generator mode with the hydraulic machine in the turbine mode.
EFFECT: higher usage of installed HAS equipment and reduced HAS payback period.
2 cl, 2 dwg
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a lower reach 1, an upper reach 2, a water conduit 3, a turbogenerator 4 and surfaces 5. Surfaces 5 are made as capable of receiving atmospheric moisture from the air flow and delivering it to the upper reach. Besides, surfaces 5 are raised to the height above the dew point for these atmospheric conditions. To support the surfaces 5, balloons or airships 6 are used.
EFFECT: expansion of functional capabilities and increased specific capacity of HPP by using maximum possible difference of heights between upper and lower reaches from height of actual condensation of atmospheric moisture in a cloud to ground level.
FIELD: power engineering.
SUBSTANCE: foundation under a common structure is assembled from steel or reinforced concrete blocks having sufficient buoyancy reserve, which are towed to the place of riverbed closure, where concrete stops are previously installed to ensure stop of the foundation at the specified point. One of the stops is connected with a coupling dam, under which sag pipes are laid for their connection with water conduits of float power units. Work is completed on build-up of walls on the foundation, using finished standard reinforced concrete boards, inserting them into reinforced concrete stands, and simultaneously the built-up walls at the side of the air lock outside is strengthened by inwash soil. Then both pairs of two-fold gates are installed, leaving them open before the sag pipes are laid, and a passage is closed, which is arranged between the wall of the lock chamber and the coupling dam of the opposite shore of the river. After float power units have been installed and connected to water conduits and power grid, and the site is closed by gates, the float hydraulic power plant with the matched lock chamber is commissioned.
EFFECT: possibility to simplify construction of a float hydraulic power plant combined with a lock chamber.
2 cl, 2 dwg
SUBSTANCE: estuary is protected against sea waters with a breakwater (dam) and gates that open to empty the estuary in case of ebb. A canal is laid along the river-sea line with installation of water conduits in its boards (walls) in the quantity equal to the design quantity of float power units. Upon completion of laying works at the side of the sea the water area is closed with gates locked at the pressure of the river flow during ebb and opened with another tide overcoming the river flow, which provides for passage of vessels, also tugboats with float power units to the place of their installation.
EFFECT: no-pause operation of float power units installed along both boards of a canal.
SUBSTANCE: hydraulic accumulating power plant comprises a pond located on the earth surface, a water intake facility, a vertical shaft of a discharge water conduit, a communication shaft, aeration shafts, a vertical shaft of power discharge, a turbine room with aggregate blocks, a bottom pond with the main chambers and an inclined transport tunnel. The bottom pond additionally comprises short tunnels, connecting galleries, a switching chamber, discharge connecting water conduits and a distribution chamber. The main chambers of the bottom pond are made in the form of spirally arranged tunnels of round cross section in plan and are connected to each other by means of connecting galleries. Aggregate blocks of the plant unit by means of suction pipes and short tunnels are connected with the distribution chamber, which in its turn is connected with the main chambers of the bottom pond with the help of discharge connecting water conduits. The method for tunnelling of the bottom pond includes tunnelling of the main inclined transport tunnel from the surface to the underground structures with the help of a tunnelling mechanised complex and erection of the main chambers of the bottom pond. When the bottom pond main chambers are tunnelled, the switching chamber is arranged to redistribute rock discharge during tunnelling and to reduce length of rock discharge along a conveyor.
EFFECT: possibility to arrange high-discharge hydraulic accumulating power plants on plane territories, at large depths from 300 m to 2000 m, optimisation of works performance and maximum mechanisation of tunnelling of underground mines, by means of wide usage of efficient tunnelling mechanised complexes.
2 cl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: mobile small hydro-electric station of sleeve type with a transverse jet turbine includes a water-retaining shell fixed in the upper part due to back stays and guy lines of fitting to coastal anchor supports, and in the lower part by means of a unit of fixation to an apron fixed by bed anchors to the bottom of the watercourse. The water-retaining shell has cuts at the side of coastal abutments symmetrically relative to a flexible sleeve for provision of its protection against direct exposure of the flow as it overflows via a crest into a lower reach. A hydraulic unit is installed on a water-filled shell jointly with the flexible sleeve and has a flow rate controller and a servodrive, which provide for its most optimal operation.
EFFECT: invention makes it possible to create a temporary hydroeconomic unit that solves local power supply, irrigation, water supply, fish farming, and also provides for confinement of forest fire spread, provides for the possibility of multiple usage of the proposed structure under emergency situations.
FIELD: hydraulic and hydropower engineering, particularly for building water-retaining structures to provide power supply to small settlements and farms.
SUBSTANCE: method involves assembling flexible apron assembly consisted of flexible floor apron and flexible downstream apron in watercourse; securing thereof to watercourse bottom by anchors. Water outlet assembly including hydroelectric generator arranged inside it is secured to floor apron and downstream apron by rigid ties. Connected to water outlet assembly by ties are water retaining shell and rope system secured to anchor poles located on watercourse bank.
EFFECT: reduced time of structure assembling and costs for electric power generation.