Portable laboratory-field irrigation machine
SUBSTANCE: portable laboratory-field irrigation machine comprises a horizontal frame with panel, a water tank, a filter, supply and discharge water conducts with the valve, a sprinkler comprising the sequentially fixed nipple, a thick flexible tube with collars, a sleeve, and a bunch of thin flexible tubes fixed in it. The water tank is mounted above the frame on the vertical racks with a hanger bracket. Between the discharge water conduct and the nipple a float mechanism is mounted comprising a housing with the rubber bulb mounted on it on the side on the drainage tube with a drain opening and the sequentially mounted in it the needle slot, the needle and the float with the guide. The drip forming ends of the thin flexible sprinkler tubes are fixed on a horizontal panel along the Archimedean spiral with the same pitch.
EFFECT: improving the uniformity and stability of distribution of rain on the area of irrigation and simplification of the unit design.
5 cl, 3 dwg
The invention relates to agriculture and can be used for reproduction of rain in laboratory and field conditions.
Known laboratory sprinkler, consisting of sections with vibroblades and pressure pipes with nozzles, with flexible tubes and adapters . The disadvantage of this device is the low uniformity of the distribution of rain on the area of irrigation. The water flowing through the nozzles for flexible tubes, uneven fills them. Those tubes that are filled first, start to suck water from the nozzles, creating in her depression, which does not allow to fill the rest of the tubes, which in turn leads to a great imbalance of the expiry of water between them.
Known laboratory-field sprinkler consisting of a tank, motor, pump, filter, valve, pressure conduit and sprinkler . The sprinkler is made of are fastened to the frame culverts with tees, valves, overflow device and sprinkler nodes. Sprinkler nodes consist of sequentially mounted on the tee washer with nozzle, a nipple, a vertical thick flexible tubing, clamps, sleeves and thin flexible tube with a calibrated sleeves.
Water is supplied through the nozzles in the sprinkler nodes to a thin flexible tube with a calibrated sleeve and and it is distributed over the entire area of sprinkling. The throttle cross section grooved bushing has a small value. Small air bubbles in the water, partially block them. This reason does not allow all thin flexible tube with a calibrated bushings consistently miss the same amount of water and, consequently, to maintain the same intensity over the entire area of sprinkling.
The purpose of the invention is improving the uniformity and stability of the distribution of rain in area with irrigation and simplify the design when working with small experimental sites.
To eliminate these drawbacks and to solve this problem is proposed portable laboratory and field sprinkler, comprising a horizontal frame, vertical racks with hanging bracket, the locking mechanism with a water tank and a lid, the supply and discharge conduits with filter and valve, the float system with rubber and sprinkler with a horizontal panel.
The water tank is made of transparent material with a tightly fitting lid that provides easy monitoring of the water level and timely refilling. It is fixed above the horizontal frame with the panel.
The float mechanism mounted on the penstock. It consists of a collapsible transparent housing with consistently defined therein, the slot of the needle, the needle is, float with the sender, which in the lower part of the body is inserted into the nipple. The float mechanism provides for any amount of water in the tank constant level in the body, hence, a constant intensity of rainfall.
The sprinkler includes sequentially attached to the nipple thick flexible tube with clamps, bushing, and a bundle of thin flexible tubes. In this case a thin flexible tube before mounting the selected bandwidth for water. Preliminary sampling ensures uniform water flow through each of the thin flexible tube that improves the stability of the entire sprinkler installation.
A thin flexible tube upper ends rigidly mounted in the sleeve, and the lower horizontal panel on the spiral of Archimedes so that the distance between adjacent fixing points on the spiral is the same for all sprinkler installation.
Figure 1 shows a portable laboratory and field sprinkler, figure 2 is an enlarged float mechanism, figure 3 - type sprinklers below.
Portable laboratory and field sprinkler (figure 1) consists of a tank 1 with a cover 2, a suspension bracket 3, the vertical posts 4, the fixation mechanisms 5, filter 6, the feed conduit 7, valve 8, pressure conduit 9, the float mechanism 10, a blower 11, the nipple 12, tol is the flexible tube 13 by clamps 14, sleeve 15, a thin flexible tube 16, a frame 17 and the horizontal bar 18 (Fig 3).
The float mechanism 10 (figure 2) with rubber 11 is fixed on the pressure conduit 9. It consists of a collapsible transparent body 19 sequential in its socket needle 20, the needle 21, the float 22, 23 and a leader of the nipple 12. Rubber bulb 11 with a drainage hole 24 on the housing 19 of the float mechanism 10 is fixed to the side through the drain tube 25.
Figure 3 (bottom view) shows the scheme of fixing capreolata all thin flexible tubes 16 in the horizontal bar 18. Fixation is performed in a spiral of Archimedes. The distance between the fixing points of the neighboring thin flexible tubes 16 are equally along the entire length of the spiral.
Portable laboratory and field sprinkler operates as follows. For hanging the bracket 3 (Fig 1) installation posted on the object under study. Open the cover 2 and is filled with water tank 1. Water through the filter 6 is fed into the input conduit 7 to the valve 8. At the beginning of the operation, the valve 8 is opened and water under pressure to the conduit 9 is lowered into the float mechanism 10 (figure 2) to the socket of the needle 20 passes through the aperture and enters the body 19, gradually filling it displaces the air through the drainage tube 25 and the rubber bulb 11 in the drain opening 24. The water level rises, and in the and lifts up the float 22 with needle 21. The needle 21 overlaps the hole 20, and the supply of water is limited. From the housing 19 of the float mechanism 10 water through the cavity in the leader 23 is supplied to the nipple 12. Next, the thick flexible tube 13 (Fig 1) with clamps 14 it is lowered into the sleeve 15 with a thin flexible tube 16. On them under its own weight water comes to capreomycin ends, which are fixed in the horizontal panel 18 (Fig 3) on the frame 17 and the spiral of Archimedes with the same step.
Rapid commissioning of sprinklers operating mode is achieved by overlapping the drain holes 24 (2) finger with simultaneous compression of the rubber bulb 11. In the case 19 of the float mechanism 10 is created excessive pressure, which forcibly pushes through a thin flexible tube 16 water to remove air bubbles.
After the start sprinkling the installation manual attached to the rotational movement around the vertical axis. As it is damping the rotational movement of the sprinkler installation is renewed regularly.
Picking a thin flexible tubes 16 and bandwidth fixation capreolata ends in a spiral of Archimedes with the same step together with the rotational movement around the vertical axis, and the use of float mechanism 10 stabilization of the water level allow you to get high is equal to most distribution of water droplets on the square sprinkling.
The water tank 1 (Fig 1) and the housing 19 of the float mechanism 10 (2) made of a transparent material. This provides visual control over the process of sprinkling and timely refilling of water into the tank 1, while sprinkling.
The intensity of rain in a portable laboratory and field sprinkler. change by moving water tanks 1 (figure 1) on the vertical posts 4 by loosening the fixation mechanisms 5. When reducing the distance between the sleeve 15 and the horizontal panel 18 rain intensity decreases.
Stops the sprinkler overlap of gate 8 or after all the water from the tank 1 float mechanism 10 and the sprinkler.
The set of essential features of the proposed device provides the technical result is uniform and stable artificial sprinkling while simplifying the structure. Sprinkler made of simple elements and available materials, easy, and reliable in operation.
1. USSR author's certificate No. 1648288 CL A01G 25/00, 1991.
2. Patent for invention No. 2417578 CL A01G 25/00, 2011.
1. Portable laboratory and field sprinkler, comprising a horizontal frame with panel, water tank, filter, inlet and outlet conduits to the valve, the sprinkler comprising posledovatelnostyakh nipple, thick flexible tubing with clamps, bushings and fixed in her bundle of thin, flexible tubes, characterized in that the water tank is fixed above the frame on vertical racks with hanging bracket, between the pressure conduit and the nipple has a float mechanism, consisting of a body with a fixed side of the drainage tube with a rubber bulb with a drainage hole and sequentially installed in the slot of the needle, needle and float with the sender, and capreolata the ends of the thin flexible pipe sprinkler mounted on a horizontal panel on the spiral of Archimedes with the same step.
2. Portable laboratory and field sprinkler according to claim 1, characterized in that the water tank is fixed via the fixing on vertical racks can be moved in a vertical direction relative to the frame and rotatably around a vertical axis together with the sprinkler.
3. Portable laboratory and field sprinkler according to claim 1, characterized in that the water tank and the hull of a floating mechanism is made of a transparent material.
4. Portable laboratory and field sprinkler according to claim 1, characterized in that the water tank is supplied loose to her cap.
5. Portable laboratory and field sprinkler installation the spacecraft according to claim 1, characterized in that a thin flexible tube sprinkler pre-selected bandwidth for water.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of soil biology and agroecology, and can be used as criteria for evaluating the soil fertility and potential emission of carbon dioxide with soils in climate change. The method comprises determining the total content of organic carbon in the soil sample (C content), the amount of potentially mineralised organic carbon (C pm) upon incubation of the same sample, resulting in the calculation of the transformed organic carbon content (C trans). The amount of inert organic carbon (C inert) is calculated by the formula C inert = C content - C trans.
EFFECT: acceleration and simplification of determining is achieved.
1 ex, 2 tbl
SUBSTANCE: method comprises areal well-drilling of small diameter for shallow depth, sampling the subsurface gas, determination in samples the bulk concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons, as well as radon volumetric activity Rn222 and Rn220. According to reduction of the radon volumetric activity and increase in concentration of methane and total hydrocarbons relative to the natural background the conclusion is made on the presence of area of contamination.
EFFECT: increase in informational content and reliability of determination.
1 tbl, 1 dwg
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a housing, a porous measuring plate which pores are filled with water, a flexible screen with sensors which are electrically connected to the display device. The novelty is that the lateral inner surface of the housing is provided with microcells hydraulically interconnected and filled with polyacrylamide.
EFFECT: possibility of measuring the dynamic action on the soil of rain with the addition of polyacrylamide, due to the presence of microcells filled with polyacrylamide.
SUBSTANCE: method comprises phytoindication on age of woody vegetation. Determination of the upper limit of affection of a mountain valley with avalanche stream, at which avalanching no vegetation is left on the slopes of the valley, is carried out by measuring the difference in height between the bottom of the valley and the lower limit of the phytometer - autochthonous birch forests, which grow over the affected slope; assessment of date of affection is determined by measuring the amount of annual rings on wood cores drilled by the age-related borer, or on transverse saw cuts at the base of trunks at the level of root collar of the largest trees in the newly formed growing stocks, renewable in the affected area lower the autochthonous birch forests.
EFFECT: method enables to improve efficiency of detection of signs of hazardous natural phenomena.
1 dwg, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: soil sample is passed through a stream of water. On the surface of the soil sample a load is placed. Beginning of dipping of the load is fixed. The parameters of the sample and the water flow are measured. The coefficient of soil filtration is calculated from the measured parameters. The value of the concentration of fulvic acid in the water stream, passed through the soil sample, is recorded. In reducing the concentration value by 10% of the initial value the fulvic acid solution is added into the stream of water directed into the soil sample, restoring the value of the fulvic acid concentration in the stream of water passed through the soil sample, to the initial value.
EFFECT: use of the claimed method extends functional capabilities of determining the filtration coefficient of soil, enables to determine quickly and accurately the filtration coefficient of soil exposed to fulvic acids, in the zone of prevalence of podzolic soils.
1 tbl, 1 ex
SUBSTANCE: method comprises the device of cuts, power measurement of layer of membranes of soil biological organisms in the beginning and end of the observation period and the calculation. At that the power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas is measured. The amount of change in the power of peat layer is calculated by the formula Hsrab=a·h, where Hsrab is reduction value of the peat layer power, cm; h is the power of packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, cm; a is a coefficient. The coefficient a is determined by the formula a=(H1-H2)/(h1-h2), where H2, H1 is the power of the peat layer and h2, h1 is power of the packed layer of membranes of testate amoebas, respectively at the end and the beginning of the observation period.
EFFECT: method enables to determine quickly and accurately the amount of change of power of the peat layer on reclaimed land.
SUBSTANCE: controlled area in the planting is chosen and prepared, the procedure for controlling of soil respiration is carried out in the chosen controlled area in the planting by measuring the amount of accumulation (loss) of gaseous respiratory substrate CO2 (O2) in a sealed chamber, with which the controlled area is covered. Preparation of controlled area additionally includes such sowing seeds when a part of the area is left unsown. For measurement two different sealed chambers are used separately and alternately, with one of which the part of controlled area of the planting just sown with plants is covered entirely, and with another one additionally to the above area the unsown part of the controlled area of the planting is covered partially or completely. At that the amount of soil respiration attributable to the square of the controlled area of planting is calculated by determining the difference between the measurement results obtained with the above sealed chambers, multiplied by the ratio of the square of the controlled area of planting to the difference of squares of bases of above two sealed chambers.
EFFECT: ability to study in the field, and at the same time the interaction integrity of the root and ground parts of plants is not violated.
SUBSTANCE: samples of uncontaminated background soil and contaminated with heavy metals or crude oil and oil products are taken, and for each pair of samples of soil the number of ammonifying bacteria, the number of microscopic fungi, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, the catalase activity, the invertase activity, the germination of radish is determined. IRS of the soil is calculated as follows: IRS =Σ( Pconti/Pfoni)×100%/n, where Pconti is the value of i-th index (number of ammonifying bacteria, million/g, the number of microscopic fungi, million/g, the abundance of bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, %, catalase activity, ml O2/min, the invertase activity, ml, glucose/24 h, the germination of radish, %, for contaminated soil; Pfoni is the value of i-th/min, the indicator for uncontaminated soil; n is the number of indicators (n=6). The environmental condition of the soil is determined according to reduction of the IRS. If the IRS value in the contaminated soil is over 95%, the normal ecological condition of the soil is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 90-95% the satisfactory condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS to 75-90% the poor condition is stated. In reduction of the IRS below 75% the catastrophic condition is stated.
EFFECT: method enables to assess quickly and accurately the environmental condition of the soil.
17 tbl, 2 ex
SUBSTANCE: method to determine frost heave of soil during freezing of a seasonally thawing layer includes drilling of a well before start of its thawing, sampling of soil, measurement of depth of seasonal thawing ξ, definition of dry soil density in samples ρd,th. In addition wells are drilled after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer, on the samples they additionally define density of dry soil after freezing of the seasonally thawing layer ρd,f, and the heave value is determined in accordance with the given dependence.
EFFECT: reduced labour intensiveness of works, increased accuracy of determination of heaving value, provision of material intensity reduction.
SUBSTANCE: method involves probing an underlying surface having test areas with a multichannel spectrometer mounted on a space vehicle to obtain images on each channel; calculating, through zonal ratios of signal amplitude values in channels, partial degradation indices, specifically percentage content of humus (H), salinity index (NSI) and moisture loss index (W); determining the integral degradation index D based on a multi-parameter regressive relationship of the type:
EFFECT: faster and more reliable determination of degree of degradation of soil cover.
5 dwg, 3 tbl
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to the field of metallurgy, specifically, to control of resistance of pipe steels, designed for operation in aggressive (hydrogen-containing) media, which have corrosion impact at materials. The method to monitor resistance of pipe steels against corrosion cracking under stress consists in the fact that samples are made of steels, in which they determine the total content of hydrogen in the initial state, in the condition after artificial ageing for 10-40 hours under temperatures 50-300°C and after additional thermal treatment at 850-1000°C for 10-60 minutes in a furnace in air atmosphere with subsequent cooling in air, and prior to thermal treatment they provide for moisture of atmosphere in the working space of the furnace of at least 50%. At the same time they decide on resistance of steel against corrosion cracking by variation of hydrogen content in process of ageing and thermal treatment in comparison to its content in the initial state.
EFFECT: provision of information value with short duration of performance of control for resistance against corrosion cracking with account of chemical composition and microstructure, availability and distribution of non-metal inclusions, which are hydrogen traps.
FIELD: physics, optics.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to power laser optics and a method of determining density of defects on the surface of an optical component. The method involves irradiating portions of the surface of the optical component with a beam of pulsed laser radiation with Gaussian intensity distribution, detecting breakdown of the surface furthest from the point of maximum intensity of the laser beam, determining the beam intensity value εi corresponding to said breakdown, determining the relationship between the probability density f(ε) of surface breakdown of the optical component and radiation intensity and selecting the least beam intensity value εimin. Density of surface defects of the optical component D is determined using the formula:
EFFECT: high accuracy and easier measurement.
FIELD: physics, testing.
SUBSTANCE: invention relates to investigation of resistance of metals and alloys to aggressive media and can be used particularly to evaluate reliability and longevity of welded pipes for building oil and gas pipelines. The disclosed method involves collecting a sample from the article from the region of the weld joint, making section from the sample, the surface of which is prepared by etching, and measuring microhardness on longitudinal lines situated on the outer seam, the centre and the inner seam. The average values of microhardness of the parent metal and the metal in the heat affected zone are then determined on each line. Further, the difference between said values and the average value of the difference in microhardness of the parent metal and the metal in the heat affected zone is determined, from which resistance of the weld joint to stress-corrosion cracking is determined.
EFFECT: faster and easier operations for obtaining reliable express evaluation of resistance of welded articles to stress-corrosion cracking.
SUBSTANCE: samples are taken from items; specimens with polished surface are produced; surface of specimens is treated with solution of 3-10% ions of rhodanate during 3-5 hours at pH 8.0-9.0. Then, quantitative analysis of sections damaged and undamaged by corrosion is performed by means of computer functions of the programme for processing of pictures, and corrosion resistance of items is estimated as per fraction of damaged surface.
EFFECT: improving informativity and reliability of assessment.
2 cl, 2 tbl, 4 dwg
SUBSTANCE: control method includes the steps of: setting a target value for controlling a physical quantity; measurement of physical quantity in different positions in the closed space, and computing a moving average of the measured values of the physical quantity, measured in each of different positions. And the air conditioner is controlled so that the average value between the maximum value and the minimum value of the plurality of calculated moving averages is the target value.
EFFECT: ability of precise control of the specified temperature in a closed space.
7 cl, 10 dwg
FIELD: test engineering.
SUBSTANCE: device comprises a lower base, a stack of test annular specimens mounted on it with a common central opening, a support, a means for clamping, a means of monitoring the condition of the test samples. The device also comprises an upper base with a central threaded opening which is coaxial to the opening of the lower base, in which the loading screw is mounted, which clamps the stack of samples through the support. The upper base is connected to the lower by means of elastic elements with applied resistance strain gages connected to the input of strain-gauge means of monitoring the stress condition of the samples.
EFFECT: enhanced functionality, improvement of the effectiveness of the monitoring of process of degradation of protective coverings which are under conditions of aggressive environment.
2 cl, 1 dwg
FIELD: measurement equipment.
SUBSTANCE: parameters of an individual fatigue curve are determined on the basis of a single exponential equation, which describes dependence of the number of cycles before damage on maximum stress of the cycle, for conditions of testing on air and in corrosive medium, by difference of which the resistance of corrosion fatigue is estimated. To determine parameters of the individual fatigue curve, dependence is built between the fatigue crack length and number of loading cycles, a rectilinear section of dependence is identified, according to which the number of loading cycles is determined, which correspond to conditions of stable growth of the fatigue crack.
EFFECT: possibility to do comparative analysis of welded joints of different structural composition on the basis of small-sample tests.
SUBSTANCE: method includes creation of tight contact of a unit of electrochemical protection parameters monitoring with a pipe having a weighting concrete coating. The device for realisation of the method creates a tight contact with application of a capsule that expands when exposed. The electrochemical protection parameters monitoring unit within the device for contact realisation comprises a weighting agent, where two comparison electrodes are installed with potential sensors and two indicators of corrosion speed. In a particular case the electrochemical protection parameters monitoring unit may be arranged in a layer of the weighting coating and have a screen for display of electrochemical protection parameters.
EFFECT: improved accuracy of pipe steel corrosion characteristics detection, assessment of pipe protection against corrosion and efficiency of electrochemical protection at the same time.
6 cl, 9 dwg
SUBSTANCE: apparatus has a test chamber in which there is a detecting device and a sealed test container having samples of the test material and a control system, a device for creating given conditions and a computer, the control system being connected to the detecting device which is connected to the computer and has temperature and moisture sensors. The apparatus is fitted with a pressure sensor and the control system is fitted with an oxygen sensor and a hydrogen sensor.
EFFECT: providing dynamic control of the rate of corrosion of uranium metal in gaseous sealed media in different conditions.
2 cl, 5 dwg
SUBSTANCE: method of evaluating resistance of textile material to light and weather factors involves preparation of the required amount of samples of the material, testing their initial breaking load, fixing them on a stand with an exposing surface which is tilted at an angle of 45° to the horizontal and is directed to the south, exposing the test material to natural light and weather factors on open air for not less than one year and periodically, every one to two months, testing the breaking load of the part of the exposed samples of the material. Relative loss of the breaking load is determined by comparing properties of the exposed samples with non-exposed samples and the kinetic curve of loss of strength over exposure time is plotted. While exposing the samples, the total, direct and scattered energy of solar radiation in MJ/m entering the zone of the samples is measured, recorded and integrated, after which the kinetic curve of accumulation of radiation energy over exposure time is plotted. Using graphic construction, said curve is superimposed with the kinetic curve of loss of breaking load such that the origin and exposure time values coincide and reflect the link between the curve of loss of strength and the amount of accumulated solar radiation energy which is used as the quantitative characteristic of resistance of the textile material to light and weather factors in form of units of the insolation index. To this end, duration of exposure which leads to 35% loss of breaking load of the material is determined and the amount of energy effect of the total solar radiation in MJ/m2 which causes 35% loss of breaking load is determined and resistance of the textile material is calculated in form of units of the insolation index (1 unit=100 MJ/m2).
EFFECT: high reliability and objectivity of evaluation owing to a universal quantitative characteristic of resistance of textile material in form of units of the insolation index.
6 tbl, 3 dwg
FIELD: process engineering.
SUBSTANCE: invention can be used for improvement of indoor climate, preservation of comfortable indoor ion concentration in whatever premises. Proposed method comprises control over steam pressure and temperature in chamber 3. Temperature is selected subject to steam pressure in compliance with formula T=72-4p2+32p, where T is temperature in degrees Centigrade, p is chamber pressure in bars. Device for hydrated ion generation comprises processor 11 and temperature and pressure gages 9 and 10, respectively, arranged in chamber 3. Outputs of gages 9 and 10 are connected with inputs of processor 11, processor output being connected to steam humidity corrector 2.
EFFECT: steam dryness equal to unity ensures reliable and efficient generation of hydrated ions.
2 cl, 1 dwg