Receiver and method for processing radio signals using soft pilot symbols

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to digital radio communication systems. A method of estimating parameters of a radio signal in a radio receiver, received from a transmitter, which denotes defined symbols in the data sequence of said radio signal, using the given alternative modulation for said defined symbols, wherein the method includes the following steps: identifying a plurality of said defined symbols in the data sequence, which are transmitted with higher reliability than the rest of the symbols in the data sequence; demodulating said defined symbols transmitted with higher reliability first in order to generate soft pilot symbols, and using the soft pilot symbols as known symbols in order to estimate parameters of the received radio signal, wherein the soft pilot symbols have modulation of a lower order than modulation of a higher order, used for the rest of the symbols in the data sequence.

EFFECT: improved data throughput of the communication system.

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Cross-reference to related applications

This application claims priority based on provisional application for U.S. patent No. 61/073264, filed June 17, 2008, the disclosure of which in full is incorporated herein by reference.

The technical field to which the invention relates

The present invention relates to a digital radio system. More specifically, but not as a limitation, the present invention relates to a receiver and method for receiving and processing the sequence of transmitted symbols in a digital communication system using soft pilot symbols.

The level of technology

In digital communication systems, the receiver must estimate some parameters in order to correctly demodulate the transmitted data. The receiver may also be necessary to evaluate the quality indicator signal for feedback to the transmitter. Estimation of parameters/signal quality in General is divided into three categories:

(1) Blind estimation. Usually this approach depends on certain properties/characteristics of the signal or channel, which is known a priori or that learn the slow way (for example, statistics of the second order). The biggest problem of blind estimation is performance. Blind estimation usually has a significantly Bo is its low efficiency compared to other approaches. Also algorithms for blind estimation can be more complex.

(2) using the pilot symbols. This approach includes well-known (i.e. pilot) symbols in the transmitted signal. The pilot symbols can be embedded in a sequence of data (for example, the control sequence GSM), or they may be separate resource, such as a pilot code in WCDMA, provided that the pilot symbols have the same effective fading channel as data. The approach using pilot symbols usually provides the best performance. However, the pilot symbols are consuming resources that would otherwise be allocated for the transmission of useful data. Usually there is a compromise between having sufficient pilot symbols for good evaluation and maximization of data throughput.

(3) using data. This approach uses the demodulated data symbols as additional pilot symbols. This approach is usually used in conjunction either with blind assessment or approach using pilot symbols. There are two problems associated with the approach of using data. First, blind estimation or estimation using pilot symbols (or both) is usually required as the first stage of the receiver. Therefore, approaches using data require additional complexity of the receiver. Secondly, the approaches using the data could the t degrade the performance of the receiver due to the influence of errors in demodulation data. In approaches using data assume that the symbols of the demodulated data must be correct, and they are used as additional pilot symbols. However, if the data symbols are incorrect, the algorithms for the estimation of the parameter/signal quality can create incorrect results. The impact of a wrong decision (decisions) characters can persist for more than one time interval estimation, thus, the approaches using the data may require special arrangements in order to avoid the influence of error propagation.

The approach using data used in a number of existing communication systems. For example, in systems broadband multiple access code division (WCDMA) control channel in uplink communication demodulator/decode, and decisions of the characters use as an effective pilot symbols. It is also proposed for the control channel in WCDMA downlink. In the digital advanced mobile phone system (D-AMPS), the first channel estimate regarding the word synchronization, and then track relative to the data during alignment. In the equalizer early temporary unreliable solutions served in the device tracking, and detained the best solution fed into the decoder. Also in the D-AMPS and GSM multi-pass (turbo) demodulation/zakodirovana who uses the decoded/re-encoded symbols as an effective pilot symbols in the second pass.

Disclosure of invention

The present invention overcomes the disadvantages of the prior art by passing some characters with higher reliability than others. These so-called “soft pilot symbols first demodulator, and then used as known symbols for use in channel estimation and demodulation symbol modulation of higher order (reference pointer amplitude).

Thus, one alternative implementation of the present invention is addressed to a method in a radio receiver for estimating parameters of a received signal that includes a sequence of transmitted symbols. The method includes the steps of demodulating symbols transmitted first, with higher reliability, to form a soft pilot symbols, and the use of soft pilot symbols as known symbols to estimate the parameters of a received radio signal. These soft pilot symbols are more reliable than the surrounding characters, thus allowing reliable estimates of the parameter managed by the solution. In addition, the insert symbol modulation “constant envelope” among the modulation symbols of a higher order is particularly useful when establishing the reference pointer amplitude, essential for demodulation of zingalamaduni higher order.

In one embodiment, the soft pilot symbols modulate using a simpler modulation of a lower order (e.g., BPSK or QPSK) compared with the remainder of the sequence of characters, which is probably the modulation of higher order (for example, 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM or 64QAM). Using these soft pilot symbols can still move some of the data in contrast to the fixed pilot symbols, which do not allow any data throughput for the character. These specific locations pilot Sigalov (time/frequency/code) and the type (s) modulation are known to the receiver. The receiver can know the information a priori or through the alarm.

Soft pilot symbols provide an alternative to explicit pilot data characters for future versions of WCDMA. With soft pilot symbols explicit pilot symbols are optional. With knowledge of the modulation type and location of soft pilot symbols in time, frequency and code, the receiver can maximize productivity. It provides higher data transfer speeds than would otherwise be possible with an explicit pilot symbols.

In a specific embodiment, the invention is implemented in a two-pass, universal multi-tap receiver (G-mn is rootogram the receiver). Performance G-tap receiver superior in essence to such an extent that almost match the ideal receiver. Thus, the invention provides the best performance with regard to approach linear alignment. Two-pass G-tap receiver includes means for calculating a set of approximate weights of Association in the first passage, means for identifying a set of soft pilot symbols in the sequence, and a soft pilot symbols modulate using a lower modulation order than other symbols in the sequence, and means for approximate weights of Association, to coherently combine the values with the removed expansion, corresponding to soft pilot symbols to create estimates of characters. The receiver also includes means for re-scaling estimates of characters, means for making a hard decision symbols without the involvement of the decoder in the evaluation of the re-scaled symbols based on the aggregate used for the transmission, and means for using hard decision symbols as pilot-symbol demodulation, to non-parametric way to estimate the covariance matrix of distortion. The receiver also includes means for vechicle the Oia set of adjusted weights of the Association in the second pass using the estimated covariance matrix of distortion, and means for combining all of the data traffic using the adjusted coefficients of Association.

In another embodiment, the present invention is addressed to a system containing a transmitter and receiver to perform the methods as described in the following detailed description.

Brief description of drawings

In the following section, the invention will be described with reference to illustrative embodiments of illustrated in the figures, in which:

figure 1 - block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating the steps of an illustrative version of the method of the present invention;

figure 2 depicts the mapping of data bits in the points together for 16QAM in one illustrative embodiment of the present invention;

figure 3 depicts the mapping of data bits in the points together for 16QAM in another illustrative embodiment of the present invention;

4 (prior art) illustrates the existing chain of channel coding for HS-DSCH;

figure 5 illustrates the chain of channel coding for HS-DSCH in the illustrative embodiment of the present invention;

6 is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating an overview of the process of the generation of soft pilot symbols in the illustrative embodiment, this is th invention;

7 is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating the process of generating the soft pilot symbols for HS-DSCH in the illustrative embodiment of the present invention;

Fig is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating the process of generating the soft pilot symbols for E-DCH in the illustrative embodiment of the present invention;

figure 9 is a functional block diagram of an exemplary variant of the implementation structure of the interleaver for E-DCH;

figure 10 illustrates a first illustrative variant implementation of the positioning of the soft pilot symbols;

11 illustrates a second illustrative variant implementation of the positioning of the soft pilot symbols;

Fig functional block diagram of an exemplary variant of the implementation of the two-pass G-tap receiver; and

Fig is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating an illustrative version of the method of processing using a two-pass G-tap receiver according to the present invention.

The implementation of the invention

For high speed data transmission using modulation of a higher order, such as 16QAM and 64QAM, to increase spectral efficiency. In accordance with the first embodiment of the present image is etenia transmitter means certain characters in the sequence data as the so-called “soft pilot symbols by using a specific alternative modulation for these characters. A specific modulation and location for these characters (from the point of view of time, code and/or frequency) are known to the receiver or signaled to the receiver. The receiver uses a soft pilot symbols to obtain an initial estimation of signal parameters, such as the branch channel and the correlation matrix. After the first selected demodulation symbols can be used as an effective pilot symbols in the second pass parameter estimation. By restricting selected soft pilot symbols to a lower modulation than the other characters in the sequence, their elections are robust enough to make them useful pilot symbols. Soft pilot symbols are different than the traditional fixed pilot symbols, that some bandwidth data transfer with these soft pilot symbols. Thus, replacement of traditional fixed pilot symbols soft pilot symbols improves data throughput.

Figure 1 - block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating the steps of an illustrative version of the method of the present invention. At stage 11, the signal is passed with some characters having higher reliability (e.g., by modulation of lower order), other than the transferred si the oxen. At step 12, the signal and take the characters higher reliability first demodulator to form a soft pilot symbols. On stage 13 of the soft pilot symbols are used as known symbols for channel estimation and demodulation of modulation symbols of a higher order. At step 14, the data extract as of soft pilot symbols and the modulation symbols of a higher order.

Illustrative variant of the present invention sets the modulation type and location (time/frequency/code) soft pilot symbols from the sequence data. In accordance with the embodiment of the invention points together soft pilot symbols take as a subset of the population modulation of higher order data, such as 16QAM or 64QAM. The transmitter may use a given lower modulation order for the pilot symbols, such as binary phase shift keying (BPSK) or quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK). For the remainder of the sequence of symbols, the transmitter can use the modulation of higher order (for example, 16QAM or 64QAM). These specified the location of the soft pilot symbols and the type (s) modulation are known to the receiver. The receiver can know the information a priori or through the alarm.

Thus, the present invention transmits the symbols is odulele lower order, inserted among the modulation symbols of a higher order, and the receiver performs the associated actions, to use the symbols of the modulation of lower order as an effective pilot symbols. The character can carry a range of the number of bits m: bit m=0 corresponds to pure pilot signal, bit m=1 corresponds to BPSK bits m=2 correspond to QPSK, etc. up to the maximum number M (=6 for 64QAM). If you assume for simplicity that all characters have the same energy, then the energy bits and the reliability of the bit decreases with m. Thus, characters can be used as pilot symbols of different levels of reliability, and the receiver can perform parameter estimation in multiple passes.

Figure 2 depicts the mapping of data bits in the points together for 16QAM in one illustrative embodiment of the present invention. The four corner points together 16QAM (depicted in the figure as a marked point) is taken as a set of soft pilot symbols. You can easily recognize two characteristics of this variant implementation. First, a set of soft pilot symbols is equivalent to the scaled aggregate QPSK. Thus, it offers the advantages of constant envelope and a higher average power. Secondly, the point of conjunction of soft pilot symbols can be easily ADR is concerned with the totality of a higher order by saving a subset of the fixed label bits. In the example shown in figure 2, point together soft pilot symbols are points from the last two fixed marks bits to “11”.

As seen, the use of soft pilot symbols causes the transmitted symbols are 16QAM or 64QAM to have a higher average power. For example, if one of the ten characters for a single code of sewage is soft pilot symbol, the average power increases by 0.15 dB for 16QAM and 0.54 dB for 64QAM. Alternatively, if you have fifteen codes Sewerage and one of the ten characters for one of the fifteen codes sanitation, average power increase of only 0.02 dB for 16QAM and 0.04 dB for 64QAM. In practice, the transmitted power can be increased by these values when using the soft pilot symbols. However, it is clear that the resulting system performance improves with the use of soft pilot symbols.

Figure 3 depicts the mapping of data bits in the points together for 16QAM in accordance with another illustrative embodiment of the present invention. In this embodiment, the size of the population of soft pilot symbols is extended to allow higher bandwidth for data transfer. However, a set of soft pilot symbols provides a characteristic constant of the quadrature am is litude, which can be used to obtain the reference pointer amplitude. Point together soft pilot symbols address in the aggregate, a higher order with fixation marks the last bit to “1”. Specialists in the art will understand that can be set to an alternative set of soft pilot symbols using fixation marks the third bit “1”, providing a constant common-mode amplitude.

Generation of soft pilot symbols in HSPA

The introduction of soft pilot symbols reduces the number of encoded bits of the channel, which can be transferred by the signal transfer. Reduction of encoded bits of the channel can be implemented using two different approaches described below.

Figure 4 illustrates the existing chain of channel coding for high-speed shared channel downlink (HS-DSCH). In the first approach for the implementation of the reduction of the encoded bits of the channel behavior of the entire chain coding channel change is similar to the behavior for HS-DSCH. However, the consequence is not just a different number of encoded bits output by using the “functionality HARQ physical level, but rather a significant re-design and modify some of interrelated and complex procedures physical level is with “functionality HARQ physical layer”, “segmentation of the physical channel”, ”the alternation HS-DSCH” and ”reorder together”. This substantial re-design of critical chain coding channel will do a great part of the existing implementation deprecated and will be difficult to co-exist with new and traditional network devices.

Figure 5 illustrates the chain of channel coding for HS-DSCH in the illustrative embodiment of the present invention. Second, the preferred approach for implementation reduction of encoded bits of the channel, the soft pilot symbols are preferably generated using perforations low level of encoded bits of the channel to the stages of “mapping physical channel” chain coding channel. Thus, the preferred implementation makes the presence of soft pilot symbols are transparent to the stages of “functionality HARQ physical layer, physical channel segmentation”, ”interleave HS-DSCH” and ”reorder together”.

6 is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating an overview of the process of the generation of soft pilot symbols in an illustrative embodiment of the present invention. In HSDPA, the procedure of gathering the bits in the HARQ functionality of the physical channel and the alternation of channel HS-DSCH of construire is on with the ability to display systematic turbo encoded bits, if present, marks the first bits 16QAM or 64QAM as possible. The purpose of this design is to ensure that important systematic turbostation bits are passed through the channel with higher reliability. As shown in Fig.6, it is performed in the channel interleaver using pairwise multiplexing bit and independent rectangular premaritally. When the modulation data based on QPSK, only the chain of the first rectangular interleaver is active. When the modulation data based on 16QAM, active chains are the first and the second interleaver. All three chains are active when data is transferred using 64QAM. Connected to the labeling specified in 3GPP, “Technical Specification Group Radio Access Network; Spreading and Modulation (FDD)”, TS 25.213 v8, the bits in the first chain is passed through the channel with highest reliability. The bits in the third chain transfer with the lowest reliability. Therefore, in the initial transmission of the systematic bits is usually passed through the first chain as possible. For the initial transmission of the HARQ parameters are usually set so that effectively circumvent the “reordering together”. For specialists in the art it will be obvious that the soft pilot symbols can be inserted directly after premiani the channel. For retransmissions of the HARQ parameters can be used to give order reorder together to effectively retransmit the encoded bits of the channel with different reliability. Soft pilot symbols can be inserted in the signal after the procedure “reorder together”.

7 is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating the process of generating the soft pilot symbols for HS-DSCH in the illustrative embodiment of the present invention. Inputs encoded bits marked withand outputs are marked with. Usually put the bits are passed to the output without change:. If the scaled soft pilot symbol QPSK (such as a symbol, shown in figure 2) is inserted to replace the symbol data 16QAM, then,,and. If the scaled soft pilot symbol QPSK insert to replace the symbol data 64QAM, then,,,,and.

If the soft pilot symbol with a constant quadrature amplitude (such as shown in IG) insert, to replace a character data 16QAM, then,,and. If the soft pilot symbol with a constant quadrature amplitude insert to replace the symbol data 64QAM, then,,,,and. If the soft pilot symbol with a constant common-mode amplitude insert to replace the symbol data 16QAM, then,,and. If the soft pilot symbol with a constant common-mode amplitude insert to replace the symbol data 64QAM, then,,,,and.

Generation of soft pilot symbols for enhanced dedicated channel (E-DCH)

Fig is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating the process of generating the soft pilot symbols for E-DCH in the illustrative embodiment of the present invention. To perform reliable identification, similar identification in the HS-DSCH, the procedure of gathering the bits in the options the national capabilities of the physical layer HARQ and channel interleaving is designed with the ability to display systematic turbodecoding bit, if present, marks the first bit RAM as possible. In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the soft pilot symbols are generated after the interleave channel E-DCH.

Figure 9 is a functional block diagram illustrative of a variant of implementation of the structure of the interleaver for E-DCH. Interleaving channel easier with the help of two branches of a rectangular premaritally, when data is transferred using RAM. Inputs the encoded bits in the generation of soft pilot symbols are marked withand outputs are marked with. Usually put the bits are passed to the output without change:. If the scaled soft pilot symbol BPSK insert to replace the symbol data RAM, then,.

In accordance with a preferred embodiment of the soft pilot symbols are generated by puncturing the coded bits of the channel in fixed locations (from the point of view of time and code/frequency). On the receiver side of the soft values corresponding to the punctured bits are set to zero. With this use of soft pilot symbols do not make any changes in the operation, additional coordination of the engine speed, and in the implementation of the decoder of the channel.

T is the train should be noted, in accordance with this embodiment of the soft pilot symbols are generated by puncturing the coded bits of the channel, which display in the label of the least reliable bits. Because of the soft values corresponding to these bits of low reliability, are usually very small, setting them to zero contributes a negligible impact in the overall performance of the channel coding.

The location of the soft pilot symbols

Soft pilot symbols can be embedded in the same code in a separate code into different antennas in systems with multiple inputs and multiple outputs (MIMO), and the like. Accommodation can be coordinated in such a way that the soft pilot symbols either coincide or do not coincide in different codes and/or antennas.

Soft pilot symbols can be inserted in the signal several practical ways:

1. HSPA - one code assigned to the user HSPA, uses a soft pilot symbols, while other codes, assigned to the same user, using modulation of a higher order.

2. HSPA - specific data symbols in each code assigned to the user HSPA are soft pilot symbols, while the remaining characters in the codes are traditional symbols of data. For example, characters from 0 through N-1 in the code And, N 2N-1, in code, etc. can is to be soft pilot symbols.

3. HSPA - characters N 2N are soft pilot symbols of all codes assigned to the user HSPA, while the remaining characters in the codes assigned to the same user, are traditional symbols of data.

4. Long-term development (LTE) - replace pilot-symbol demodulation soft pilot symbols for some (or all) of the built-in pilot-symbol demodulation.

The following implementation options are designed with additional consideration (a) support for time-varying channels, (b) minimize the impact on the performance of the encoding, (C) reduce the impact on the ratio of maximum to average (PAR).

Figure 10 illustrates a first illustrative variant implementation of the location of the soft pilot symbols. Soft pilot symbols are expanded in time to provide a more reliable index for time-varying channels. The exact location of characters can be specified using the periodic patterns. To allow averaging to reduce noise assessment, the soft pilot symbols may be represented by more than one code in the same location extensions. In contrast, concentrations of pilot symbols in one code (or very little code), the template extension code minimizes the impact on the overall performance of the decoding channel is.

11 illustrates a second illustrative variant implementation of the location of the soft pilot symbols. An implementation option, previously illustrated in figure 10, is suitable only if the soft pilot symbols do not contribute to a significant increase in PAR. If the increase in PAR is of interest, there may be adopted an implementation option 11. Location soft pilot symbols between different codes are shifted to reduce the increase in the PAR.

The use of soft pilot symbols provides several advantages. Firstly, the soft pilot symbols are more reliable than the surrounding characters, thus providing a reliable estimation of the parameter managed by the solution. Secondly, the soft pilot symbols can still transfer some of the data in contrast to the fixed pilot-semalam, which do not allow any data throughput for the character. Thirdly, by making soft pilot symbols symbols modulation with constant envelope”, inserted among the modulation symbols of a higher order, the soft pilot symbols are particularly useful when establishing the reference pointer amplitude essential for demodulation of modulation symbols of a higher order.

The use of soft pilot symbols is applicable to any conductive who or wireless communication system. Soft pilot symbols provide a higher data throughput than the traditional scheme using pilot symbols, and not sacrifice performance, as do most schemes blind evaluation. The approach of soft pilot symbols requires that the receiver used the approach using data. However, in contrast to traditional approaches using the data present invention specifies the modulation and location (in time/code/frequency) soft pilot symbols so that the receiver has learned that there are certain characters of high quality, which can be used in the approach using data. The estimation algorithms of the receiver based on such characters are less prone to errors and provide substantially a good parameter estimation and/or signal quality.

The receiver HSPA, which may use such soft pilot symbols, are fully described below in the illustrative embodiment, consisting of a universal multi-tap receiver (G-tap receiver) using data. As a clarification, G-tap receiver receives and processes signals WCDMA interfered in distributed channels. These obstacles consist of its own interference (intersymbol interference), multiple access interference (interference due to interference nonzero mutual correlat the and) and interference from the other cell (downlink) or another user (uplink communication). This interference must be suppressed in order to achieve a good throughput of HSDPA. In addition, the requirements for more bandwidth set by 3GPP for receivers of type 2 (terminal with a single antenna) and type 3 (terminal with two antennas), cannot be satisfied without interference.

Linear methods for suppression usually fall into the category of level of signal elements or character level. Leveling characters normal architecture of the multi-tap receiver, which removed the expansion of the received data item-level signal with multiple delays, and then combine the set of mappings. The alignment of the item-level signal changes the sequence of these operations on the contrary, the received data elements of the first signal combined with the use of a linear filter, and then remove the extension from one delay. These methods usually are equivalent from the point of view of performance.

Fig - functional block diagram G-tap receiver 20, which may be modified to use the present invention. For example, the receiver may be implemented in a mobile terminal or other wireless communication device. The signals of the extended spectrum is passed through the air, and accept the one or more antennas of the receiver. CPU tuner (not illustrated) generates a sequence of samples 21 is converted into a digital form of the signal of the basic frequency band of the received signal and enters them into the G-tap receiver. In turn, G-tap receiver 20 demodulates received sample signal to generate estimates 22 soft values or bits. These estimates provide one or more additional processing circuit (not shown) for additional processing, such as decoding proactive error correction (FEC) and conversion to speech, text or graphics, and the like. Specialists in the art will understand that the specific type (s) of information, a portable with the help of a received signal, and the specific processing steps that are applied through the receiver 20 are a function of its implied use and type.

Full description of G-tap receiver, suitable for use with soft pilot symbols according to the present invention, provided is owned by the copyright holder of this application published patent application U.S. No. 2005/0201447, the disclosure of which in full is included in the present description by reference.

Turning first to the alignment of the symbol level, the weights of Association of the G-tap receiver perform coherent the th Association, as well as noise reduction. The weights of Association set using:

wherethe covariance distortion, andhthe vector of the resulting channel coefficients. It should be noted that the concept of “distortion” includes both interference and noise, while the notion of the resulting coefficient channel” refers to the ratio of the channel, which includes the results of the filter transmission and reception, as well as the sinking of the channel.

There are two basic ways to implement the G-tap receiver. These methods are commonly known as non-parametric and parametric. In the present application is a non-parametric method focuses on the approach taken to obtain the covariance matrix of distortion. Non-parametric way (ways) is blind and evaluatesdirectly from the observed data. Parametric method allows the underlying model and computesfrom the model parameters. Examples of both methods is provided below.

There are two ways to obtain a nonparametric estimate of the covariance matrix of distortion. The first approach uses the pilot channel to estimate values based on time interval:

Use the I these values, the covariance matrix of distortion can be obtained from:

Another approach for the generation of nonparametric estimation of the covariance matrix of distortion involves the use of Unallocated codes traffic, as described in belonging to the holder of this application and also a pending application for U.S. patent No. 12/135268, filed June 9, 2008. Values with a detached extension for these codes contain only a sample of the distortion. These sampling distortion can be used to directly estimateas follows:

In this equation- vector with a detached extension of the characters in the traffic for the q-th code for the k-th symbol interval,- the number of characters per code and- the number of codes.

A parametric approach for the generation of the covariance matrix of the distortion depends on the model for interference, as described in belonging to the right holder of the present application, the published patent application U.S. No. 2005/0201447. This model depends on the radio channel (radio channel) between the UE and J base stations interfering model for the covariance matrix of the distortion set using:

where

This ur is ranking - the total energy of the signal elements for base station j,the vector of coefficients of the channel (medium) for the channel between the UE and the j-th base station,represents convolution filters form pulse transmission and reception, estimated at,the vector L of the delays of the channel corresponding to the channel between the UE and the j-th base station,the time element signal- the delay of the k-th tap that is used by the UE.

The alignment of the signal elements is described in G. Kutz and other “Sparse Chip Equalizer for DS-CDMA Downlink Receivers”, IEEE Communication Letters, vol.9, no.1, p. 10-12, 2005. According to Kutz received signal level elements of the signal set using:

In this equation,rblock N+L-1 received signal elements,Hmatrix convolution of toplica sizewhich columns are shifted in time versions of the impulse response of the channelhextension delayL(version separated by intervals of signal elements or sub-elements of the signal resulting channel coefficients),vrepresents white Gaussian noise due to the noise of the neighboring base stations and terminals,withtransmitted sequence of signal elements. Filterfequal is user of signal elements, which suppresses interference in equation (7) is a solution to:

where

matrix scrambling and expansion of size,

p is the sequence of signal elements of pilot symbols.

It should be noted that assume that there are S pilot symbols in the data block, and that the columns of the matrixRare shifted in time versions of the received signalrlevel of signal elements.

Similarly, G-tap receiver there are several ways to generate the filter equalizer of signal elements. One method is to use a parametric approach, non-parametric approach and the direct approach of adaptation. Parametric and nonparametric forms are different (primarily) how to calculate the matrixA. Nonparametric form uses data of received signal elements directly to compute the matrixAusing:

In contrast to the parametric form works instead with the impulse response of the channel and the capacity of the serving base station and the white Gaussian noise. The components of the matrixAfor the parametric form can be written as:

where - the delay of the k-th branch of equalizer elements signalpower of the serving base station,- power white Gaussian noise. Approach direct adaptation considers the alignment problem as a problem of adaptive filtering. It uses the well-known pilot signal as a known reference to the chain branching filter using any of the well known algorithms of the adaptive filter (LMS, RLS, and so on).

Existing parametric and nonparametric approaches alignment have different strengths and weaknesses. The strengths and weaknesses of parametric/non-parametric approaches G-tap receiver described below. Assume that these strengths/weaknesses also have the power to align the elements of the signal.

The strength of the parametric approach is that the performance (BER, BLER or throughput) is relatively insensitive to the speed of the UE. The main weakness of the parametric approach is that it depends on information about the channel, detected using the device search route/device evaluation delay. If this information is incorrect, then actual color distortion is not modeled, resulting in a deterioration of the user is.

The strength of the non-parametric approach is that it is blind. There is no specific model for interference, thus, all interference is captured using a valuation approach. However, this blind approach also indirectly is the weakest. Blind approaches usually require a significant amount of “training” data to be performed. The pilot channel is only 10 characters per time interval, thus, an approach based on the pilot signal, and estimating the covariance requires considerable smoothing (filtering)to work well. Smoothing limits the effectiveness of the approach to low speed. The approach unused code is very effective if it can be identified a set of unused codes. However, the identification of unused codes in the downlink is quite problematic.

It should be noted that there is an additional weakness in the existing methods of alignment. Apparently, they have a non-reducible minimum error level (i.e., the lowest level of performance) for practical implementation of the receiver based on an existing standard. Such a phenomenon is not the place for a perfect receiver. In order to increase the maximum data rate proposed in practice, PR is chicosci receiver should more closely emulate the performance of an ideal receiver. Assume that version 9 WCDMA add more pilot symbols, so that the receivers nonparametric and/or direct the adaptation was done better. The present invention offers an alternative to this approach, which reduces the maximum throughput only slightly, but still is close to the performance of an ideal receiver.

In two-pass G-tap the receiver according to the present invention, the first pass computes the set of “approximate” or “gross” weight coefficients of Association. These weighting coefficients of Association are used to coherently combine the characters of one or more codes of the traffic. The combined values of the re-scale in some target power together and take the hard decision symbols (i.e. without a decoder). Hard decision symbols are then used as the pilot-symbol demodulation, and the covariance distortion re-calculate non-parametric way using these pilot-symbol demodulation. From the re-computed the covariance matrix of distortion compute the set of weights of Association of the second passage. These weighting coefficients of Association are used to coherently combine all the data traffic. When using the soft pilot symbols hiring the ICA is the same except that the weights of Association of the first passage only apply to the soft pilot symbols.

Fig is a block diagram of a sequence of steps illustrating an illustrative version of the method of processing using the two-pass receiver G-tap receiver of the present invention. At step 31 create the weights of Association of the first passage. On stage 32A values with a detached extension for one or more codes coherently combine using the weights of Association of the first passage. Alternatively, the process may proceed to step 32b, where the values taken with expansion, corresponding to soft pilot symbols coherently combine to create estimates of characters. At step 33 evaluation of the characters re-scale in some target power together. At step 34 take the hard decision symbols in relation to the re-scaled estimates of the symbols given a set used for transmission. At stage 35 hard decision symbols used for non-parametric way to estimate the covariance matrix of distortion. At step 36 calculates the weights of Association of the second pass using the estimated covariance matrix of distortion. At stage 37 combine all data traffic with the use of what Finance the weights of Association of the second passage.

This process can be implemented in different ways according to the script. For single-threaded scenarios SISO/SIMO/MIMO there are two options. Similarly for MIMO scenario there are at least two options. Each option is described in an alternative embodiment, below.

First will be described an implementation option symbol level single-threaded SISO/SIMO. For the first pass demodulation weight coefficients of Association is calculated using:

where

In the above equationrepresents a vector of values with a detached extension of the common pilot signals corresponding to the m-th interval of the pilot symbol for the n-th time intervalrepresents a vector of values with a detached extension of the traffic corresponding to the k-th symbol interval of the traffic during the n-th code for with-th code,the number of common pilot symbols in the time interval- the number of traffic codes used for evaluation- the number of characters of data per time interval.

Assume that one code traffic used to create estimates of characters (note: the following can be easily extended to many codes traffic). The weighting coefficients of the first paragraph is OHADA use code f traffic, to create estimates of characters using:

These estimates of characters is converted into a hard decision symbols, using the normalization of the energy evaluation of the characters in some of the target power of the population (for example, unit), and then choose the point total, the closest to each rating symbol. This procedure can be described mathematically as:

where k(j) is the j-th point total, taken from a set of points S population. Hard decisions are then used to make a more accurate estimate of the covariance matrix distortion using:

A more accurate estimate of the covariance matrix distortion then used to calculate the weights of Association of the second passage:

and the weights of Association of the second pass is used to coherently combine all the data traffic with the removed extension.

Another option is the embodiment of item-level signal/symbol level single-threaded SISO/SIMO. This option is identical to option implementation-level character, except that the matrix used to calculate the weights of Association of the first passage

calculate from the data of item-level signal. Nonparametric way to implement this is described above in section of the prior art. Specifically, take the way of equation (9), in which the columns of the matrixRare shifted in time versions of the received signalritem-level signal. Perform installationand then calculate the weights of Association of the first passage. The remainder of the option exercise takes place at the level of characters and is identical to option implementation level characters single-threaded SISO/SIMO.

Another option is the embodiment of character level dual-stream MIMO. This description assumes that the used transmission scheme MIMO D-TxAA, standardized in release 7 WCDMA, although the invention is sufficiently generalized to cover other schemes MIMO 2×2. For the first pass demodulation weight coefficients of Association is calculated using:

where

In the above equationrepresents a vector of values with a detached extension of the common pilot signals that meet the common m-th interval of the pilot symbol for the n-th time interval represents the vector of values of traffic with a detached extension corresponding to the k-th symbol interval of the traffic during the n-th code for with-th code,the number of common pilot symbols in the time interval- the number of traffic codes used for evaluation- the number of characters of data in the time interval- m-th pilot symbol transmitted from antenna 1,- m-th pilot symbol transmitted from antenna 2, andb1andb2- columns of the matrixBpre-coding is used to transmit streams 1 and 2 (i.e.B=[b1b2]).

The applicants admit that one code traffic used to create estimates of characters (note: the following can be easily extended to many codes traffic). The weights of Association of the first passanduse code f traffic, to create estimates of characters using:

These estimates of characters is converted into a hard decision symbols, using the normalization of the energy evaluation of characters in some target power together, and then choose the point total, the closest to each rating symbol. This procedure can be described material is eticheski as:

where k(j) is the j-th point total, taken from a set of points S population.

Then the hard decisions are used to make a more accurate estimate of the covariance matrix of distortion with

A more accurate estimate of the covariance matrix distortion then used to calculate the weights of Association of the second pass

and the weights of Association of the second pass is used to coherently combine all the data traffic with a detached extension for both threads.

Note: for the first iteration of the receivercan be obtained using the parametric representation G-tap receiver. This approach has a significant advantage when using QAM modulation.

Another option is the embodiment of item-level signal/symbol level dual-stream MIMO. This option is identical to option implementation-level character, except that the matrixused to calculate the weights of Association of the first passage

calculate from the data of item-level signal. Aparametric the ski way to implement this is described above. Specifically, take the way of equation (9), in which the columns of the matrixRare shifted in time versions of the received signalritem-level signal. Perform installationand then calculate the weights of Association of the first passage. The remainder of the option exercise takes place at the level of characters and is identical to option implementation level characters dual-stream MIMO.

As understood by experts in the field of technology, new concepts described in this application can be modified and changed relatively large variety of applications. Thus, the scope of patentable subject should not be limited to any specific illustrative of the approaches described above, but instead is defined by the following claims.

1. The method of estimating the parameters of the signal at the receiver (12), received from a transmitter, which refers to certain characters in the sequence data of the specified signal, through the use of a specified alternative modulation for the specified certain characters, the method includes the following steps:
identify many of these certain characters in the sequence data, which is transmitted with higher reliability than OST the global symbols in the sequence data;
demodulator (S12) first mentioned certain symbols are transmitted with higher reliability to form a soft pilot symbols, and
use (S13) soft pilot symbols as known symbols to estimate the parameters of a received radio signal, and
this soft pilot symbols have a lower modulation order than the higher modulation order used for the remaining symbols in the sequence data.

2. The method according to claim 1, in which step (S13), which use soft pilot symbols as known symbols, also includes a stage, where the use of soft pilot symbols as known pilot symbols to demodulate symbols from modulation of a higher order.

3. The method according to claim 2, in which pilot symbols are symbols of the modulation with constant envelope and phase, which use soft pilot symbols as known symbols, also includes a stage, where the use of soft pilot symbols to set a reference pointer to the amplitude demodulation of symbols from the modulation of a higher order.

4. The method according to claim 3, in which the soft pilot symbols modulate using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) or binary phase shift keying (BPSK), and the remaining symbols in the sequence data modulate t is using 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM or 64QAM.

5. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing a phase in which pre-stored in the receiver (12) information indicating a predetermined location in the sequence for the soft pilot symbols, and referred to the location determined from the point of view of time, frequency and code.

6. The method according to claim 5, additionally containing a phase in which pre-stored in the receiver (12) information indicating the type of modulation for soft pilot symbols.

7. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing phase, which take alarm from the transmitter indicating the location in the sequence for the soft pilot symbols, and referred to the location determined from the point of view of time, frequency and code.

8. The method according to claim 7, additionally containing phase, which take alarm from the transmitter indicating the type of modulation for soft pilot symbols.

9. The method according to claim 1, additionally containing phase, which extracts data from the soft pilot symbols and characters with modulation of a higher order.

10. Radio for estimating parameters of a received radio signal received from the transmitter, which refers to certain characters in the sequence of the data signal through the use of a specified alternative modulation for the specified ODA is divided characters, moreover, the above-mentioned radio contains:
means for identifying a set of symbols in the sequence, which passed with a higher reliability than other symbols in the sequence,
means for demodulating first identified the set of characters to form a soft pilot symbols, and
means for using the soft pilot symbols as known symbols to estimate the parameters of the received signal, in accordance with the soft pilot symbols provide data throughput, and
this soft pilot symbols have a lower modulation order than the higher modulation order used for the remaining symbols in the sequence data.

11. The radio receiver of claim 10, in which the soft pilot symbols modulate using quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) or binary phase shift keying (BPSK), and the remaining symbols in the sequence modulate, for example, using 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16QAM or 64QAM.

12. The radio receiver according to claim 11, in which pilot symbols are symbols of the modulation with constant envelope and means for using the soft pilot symbols as known symbols includes means for using the soft pilot symbols in order to establish the reference pointer amplit the water for demodulation of modulation symbols of a higher order.

13. The radio receiver of claim 10, further containing a storage medium for pre-storing information indicating the type of modulation for soft pilot symbols and predefined location in the sequence for the soft pilot symbols, and referred to the location determined from the point of view of time, frequency and code.

14. The radio receiver of claim 10, further containing means for receiving signaling from the transmitter indicating the location in the sequence for the soft pilot symbols, and referred to the location determined from the point of view of time, frequency and code.

15. The radio receiver of claim 10, further containing means for receiving signaling from the transmitter indicating the type of modulation for soft pilot symbols and predefined location in the sequence for the soft pilot symbols, and referred to the location determined from the point of view of time, frequency and code.

16. The radio receiver of claim 10, further containing a means for extracting data as of soft pilot symbols and characters with modulation of a higher order.



 

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FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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EFFECT: method does not require overall synchronisation of the plurality of radio facilities transmitting and receiving radio signals.

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to communication engineering and can be used to determine spatial coordinates of a fixed or mobile radio facility (RO) receiving radio signals. The technical result is high efficiency and simplification of corresponding radio systems. A driving RO transmits radio signals with given individual characteristics. The radio signals are received by serially numbered driven RO. The time of reception is recorded and radio signals identical to radio signals of the driving RO are emitted after a delay time given individually for each driven RO. A receiving RO receives radio signals of the driving and driven RO, generates a series from the plurality thereof and, based on the given coordinates of phase centres of antennae thereof and time of reception of radio signals taking into account overall delay time, coordinates of the phase centre of the antenna of the receiving RO are determined.

EFFECT: method does not require overall synchronisation of the plurality of radio facilities transmitting and receiving radio signals.

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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12 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

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2 cl, 2 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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7 cl, 39 dwg, 4 tbl

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18 cl, 6 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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1 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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Relay device // 2510581

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: relay device transmits received data which include attribute information which is the Internet protocol (IP) address of the data source, the media access control (MAC) address of the data source, the IP address of the data recipient, the MAC address of the data recipient, information representing the type of data (e.g., voice data, video data or similar), information representing the communication priority or similar, to the device of the recipient of the transmission. The relay device includes a first section for storing rule information, a second section for storing rule information and a section for controlling transmission which, if the amount of information applied to the first rule information, stored in a first storage device, becomes too large, converts the first rule information to second rule information and stores it in a second storage device.

EFFECT: transmitting data without loss.

13 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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11 cl, 31 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: invention relates to high-speed transmission of information over a wire line. A double-channel line driver, having a first line driver, a second line driver, a charge pump, and a control logic circuit connected to the first line driver and the second line driver and configured to disable the charge pump when both a first control signal associated with the first line driver and a second control signal associated with the second line driver indicate a charge pump disable state. A network component comprising at least one processor configured to implement the method, comprising receiving a first control signal and a second control signal, disabling a charge pump when both the first control signal and the second control signal indicate a charge pump disable state, and operating the charge pump to boost a voltage when the first control signal, the second control signal, or both indicate a charge pump active state.

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20 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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EFFECT: further improvement of LTE technology.

56 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: transmitter transmits a set of soft pilot symbols with higher reliability than the remaining symbols in the sequence by modulating the soft pilot symbols with a lower order modulation such as scaled quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) or scaled binary phase shift keying (BPSK) while modulating the remaining symbols with a higher order modulation such as 16QAM or 64QAM. The transmitter shares the modulation type and location (time/frequency/code) of the soft pilot symbols with a receiver. Unlike traditional fixed pilots, the soft pilots still carry some data. Additionally, the soft pilots are particularly useful in establishing the amplitude reference essential in demodulating the higher order modulation symbols. In another version, soft pilot symbols are inserted by low-level puncturing of channel encoded bits and replacing the punctured bits with known bit patterns.

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43 cl, 13 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

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40 cl, 12 dwg

FIELD: radio engineering, communication.

SUBSTANCE: pilot signals are received from multiple basic stations or sectors in a time domain, received pilot signals from a time domain are converted into a frequency domain, multiple pilot signals are identified from converted pilot signals, the identified multiple pilot signals are converted from a frequency domain into a time domain. From the converted multiple pilot signals they identify a pilot signal from one of many basic stations or sectors by means of suppression of in-channel interference from many pilot signals from other basic stations or sectors from many basic stations or sectors, and a channel is assessed in a time domain with the help of the identified pilot signal.

EFFECT: higher accuracy of channel assessment.

19 cl, 11 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

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EFFECT: cutting time required for calculating filtration coefficients to reduce overloading of communication systems with data.

2 cl, 4 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: pilot signal of the first level for one level transmission is repeated in subbands in the first OFDM character, and the pilot signal of the first level is also repeated with shift from the first OFDM character in the second adjacent OFDM character. Also, additional transmission levels can be transmitted each one of which includes separate pilot signal formed and being repeated in the first character and being repeated with shift from separate pilot signal in the second adjacent character. Then, the first and the second OFDM characters are transmitted and received to characterise receiving channels.

EFFECT: higher efficiency of transmitting pilot signals.

35 cl, 9 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: in the method of supporting multihop relay in a wireless communication system, a relay station receives data and a first pilot signal from an upstream station, e.g. a base station or another relay station. The relay station derives a channel estimate based on the first pilot signal and detects data based on the channel estimate. The relay station resends the data and sends a second pilot signal to a downstream station, e.g. a subscriber station or another relay station. Each pilot signal may be sent in accordance with a pilot signal format selected for that pilot signal. The first and second pilot signals may be sent using the same or different pilot signal formats. The relay station may receive channel information from the second station and may send the channel information to the first station and/or select an estimate for data transmission to the second station based on the channel information.

EFFECT: high efficiency of relaying.

15 cl, 16 dwg

FIELD: information technology.

SUBSTANCE: communication device includes a receiving antenna; a receiver adapted to receive a signal from the receiving antenna; an initial channel estimation module adapted to select a channel among one or more channels in a communication system and for determining for the selected channel the initial channel estimation based on the received signal; a conversion module adapted to convert the initial channel estimation into the initial pulse response estimation containing a series of samples; a filtration module adapted to select a series of samples and generate a truncated initial pulse response estimation by setting into zero samples in the initial pulse response estimation, which are not in the selected series of samples; and a module for estimating channel with maximum likelihood, which is adapted to calculate a weighted pulse response estimation in the time domain using the truncated pulse response estimation in the time domain for the selected channel and for calculating the estimation of the channel with maximum likelihood for the selected channel through conversion into the frequency domain the weighted pulse response estimation in the time domain.

EFFECT: improvement and optimisation of estimating channel response in wireless communication system.

24 cl, 7 dwg

FIELD: information technologies.

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EFFECT: improved efficiency of using system resources by means of more efficient transfer of control signals.

34 cl, 10 dwg

FIELD: electrical engineering.

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EFFECT: cost effective space distribution.

7 cl, 3 dwg

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